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The prose life of Alexander



The brave Persian; luho alone dares against Alexander.


swerde on heghte, & lete flye at hyni) wit alt f>e myglite ]?at he hade, and hitt hym on J^e heued? so fercely, f)at he perched ^ his bacenett, and drewe J^e blode of hym. When) Alexander knyghtis 4 saw that : J?ay tuke hym anone, & broghte hjm bifore Alexander, and Alexander, supposyng Ipat he hadde bene a macedoyne, saide vn-till liym. ' Wirchipfuft man/ quo]) he, ' & doghety & strange what ayled pe at me, for to giffe suylke a strake, knewe Ipou. 8 no5te wele |?at it was I, Alexander 'yyur helpere & ^owr allere S(?ruande.' And [the] Percyene ansuerd", & said', ' "Wiete )?ou wele wirchi[)futt emp^roi^r,' c^uo]) he, ' I ne ame na macedoyne, bot I am a mafD of Perse ; and this dede I didd". For kyng

12 Darit^.s made me a promysse of his doghetir to wife, if I myghte brynge hym thi heid".' Than kyng Alexander called bi-for hym all his knyghtis and askede J)am) what J)am) thoghte was for to do wit this man). Sum) ansuerde & saide J^am) thoghte it beste

i6 to gerre smyte of his held", Sam for to putt hym to pe fire for to brynne, Sum to gare drawe & hang hym. And when Alexander had herde f)aire conceit, he ansuerd" & said : ' Sirs,' (]uo]) he, * what wrange or what defawte can) ^e fynde in ]:>is man), Sen) he

2o base besied' hym tilt obey tilt his lordes commandement, and at his power fulfilled" it. "Whilke of 50W, so deme^ hym worthy to be dedde, es worthy in tyme commynge to hafe ]^e same dome. For if I commande ane of 50W for to ga & sla Darii^s, J^e same

24 payne, that ^e deme J»is man) for to suffre, ware 50 worthy for to suffre 5o«^rselfe of Darii<5, if 50 my^te be getyn).' ^ And * ]?an he commanded" J)at he schulde wende hame to his felawes wit-owtten) any harme. When Darii^s herde J^at his lordes ware slayne in

28 grete nowmer, he gadered? a grete multitude of knyghtis and of fotemen), and went vp on a hitt J^at es called" Taurisius, and thare he made his mustre of his men), supposynge j^at he schuld ouer- come Alexander thurgh multitude of folke. Bot alson) als ]:'ay

32 mett wit ]:>aire bathere oste5, and bigan) for to fighte, T)2^v\us men) fledd" and hymselfe also. And Alexander p^rsuede hym vn-to )?e citee of Bactrian), and f^are he luged hym, and oflTerde Sacrafice titt his godde3. And on J)e morne he garte assaile \)e

King's daughter.

Alexander asks bim why he did this. He answers.

Alexander asks coun- sel of his knights, what shall he do with this man ? Alexander speaks to them, and shows this man forth to them as an ex- ample. And then he u.tters his will.

* Leaf 16 bk.

Darius gathers his men again to the fight, but yet again is he overcome.

Alexander pursues him. He con- quers Bac-

* The scribe wrote first ' perceed,^ altered afterwards, in a very rough way, to * perched.^

■^ MS. reads * and he commanded ' at

bottom of first side of leaf 16 and * JTan be commanded ' on the top of second side of the same leaf.

Last edit about 5 years ago by Ben Brumfield



Darius again defeated; treachery and trouble.

trian, taking great trea- sure to- gether with Darius' mother and •wife.

A Persian prince offers to betray Darius to Alexander if he will grant him ten thou- sand knights. Alex- ander's answer.

Letter of one of Darius' princes to Darius be- seeching help.

*Leaf 17.

Darius to Alexander, reproach- ing his vain ambitions, thanking

citee, and wanne it on werre. And in f)e clieffe place J?ar«-of he sett bis trone. And aft Ipir oper cite^ )?at were abowte it, be wanii) j^am) werre, & putt Jjarn) vnder bis s?*bieccion). In pis ilke citee of Bactrian), be fande tresowr wtt-owtten) nowmer, and 4 also bis moder, and bis wyfe.

^ And in pe mene tyme, wbils AlexamZer lay at Batran : pare come a prynce of Davius oste vn-titt Alexaiider, & said vn-tiK byin), * Wircbipfult emi^erour,' quop be, * I bafe a lang tyme bene 8 a knygbt of Darius, and done bym grete seruyce ; and 5itt to tbis day I bad neuer na reward^ of bym. And pare-fore if it like vn-to ^owre maieste ; take me tefD tbowsande of ^our men) of armes ; and I bete 50W, for to brynge to ^our bande kyng 13 Darius, & pe maste parte of bis oste.' And wben) Alexander bad berde J^is, be said vn-titt byw. ' Frende,' quop be, ' I tbanke J^e mekitt of tbi faire promys. Neuer pe lesse, I late pe wite my men) witt no^te beleue j^at pou. witt fegbte agaynes tbyn) owenn) 16 peple.' In pe mene tyme a Prynce of Darius oste sent vn-till bym a letter, of wbilk J>is was pe tenowr.

^ 'To Darius, grete kyng of kynges, bis lordes wbilke be * base ordeyned cbeftaynes vnder hjm Sende^ meke seruyce. Oftymes 20 be-fore tbis bafe we wreten) to ^our maieste, and now agayne we writte vn-to 30W, & late5 50W wite J?at J^e macedoynes & kyng Alexander, as wode lyouns ere enterde* oure lande^, and alt oure strentbes, as a wilde rauescbande beste be base destruyed : 24 & oure knygbtes slayne. And oppressed we are wit so grete tribulacionns, J'at we [may] na lengare suffre bis mawgree, ne his malece here. Wbare-fore, mekly we be-seke jottr benyngne maiestee, }?at je witt drawe to 5oure mynde oure meke seruyce, 28 and swilke socoure vouch saflfe to send" vs, J^at we put off and agaynestande pe violence & J^e malice of oure fore-said enemys.' WhefD Darius bad redde pis lettre, on ane be gert writte a lettir to kyng Alexander, sayand on j^is wyse. ^2

* ' Daryus kyng of Perse and kyng of kynge^, vn-to my seruande Alexander, I say. Now late pare es commef^ tilt oure eres tytbynge^ : Jjat pou wene5 to euefD tbi littilbede tilt oure begbe magnificence. Bot Sen) it es inpossible tilt a beuy asse, wzt 36

^ Three lines with miniature A and knight's head within.

2 Three lines space with miniature T.

3 MS. repeats * he ' twice. * Three lines space with miniature D and a man's head within, much faded.

Last edit about 5 years ago by Ben Brumfield


Letters of Darius and Alexander. 43

owtten) weiiges, or 6\>eT instrumeiite5 of flying, for to be lifte vp him for his to fe sterues, late 1103 te thyiD liert be raysede to bye in pride ^ig J^f^^ for be victories bat bou base ffetefi). We bafe wele herd tett bat ^^^ ^^i^-

' . . clren, and

4 ]?ou base done gentilly, and scbewed" grete bumanytee titt oure enjoining moder, oure wyfe, & oure cbildre, and '\>ar eioro, I late {)e wele ti^^e^his^" wite J?at, als laiig als ^po\^ dose wele to J^ain), J^ou salt fynde me courtesy to nane enemy to tbe. And if J?ou do itt to Iriafri) ^o\x salt bafe J:e 8 enemytee of me, and }?are-fore spare J^afri) nogbte, bot do to f)am) as J?e liste. For somtyme |:»ou salt see & fele \)Q sentence of oure ire ligbte apon) tbi begbe pride.' Wben) Alexander badd'redde f)is \ettve be wrate byw Aiiofer agayne wbare-off J^e tenowr

12 was tbis,

^ ' Alexander \)Q son) of Pbilippe & qwene Olympias to Darii^s Alexander kyng of Perse we write. Pride & vayne glorie base oure godde^ reproach- att way bated"; and take^ vengeance of dedly men) \>ai takes ing him

16 apon) ]?am) J^e name of immortalitee. Bot J?ou, als I wele see, assuming cesseej uo^te 5itt bider-to for to blasfeme in att ]?at ]?ou may. ^^^ ^.^^_ Bot of that ]?at \)(m. blarney me for )?e benygnytes tbat I scbewed racter of j^i moder, J?i wyfe, & Jji cbildre; J^ou ert moued" on a lewed" spurning

20 fantasye. For I late J^e wele wyte, I did it no^te * for to be * Leaf 17 tbanked" of tbe, ne for to bafe tbi Beneuolence J^c^re-fore. Bot

• his

it come of a gentilnes of oure aweniD bert, fownded in vertu. Of proffered

tbee victories also wbilke J)e forluke of godd? base sent vs, ere thanks,

24 we na-tbyng enpriddede. For we knawe wele ]?at oure goddis leaving the

alwaye belpes vs, whilke ]>o\x ilk a daye dispyse5 & sette^ at the matter

nojte. And tbis satt be \>e laste letter J^at I sail writte vn-to *^ *^® s^^^- J?e. Beware if f>ou witt, For I say tbe sekerly, I come to \>q

28 onane.' pis lettre gaffe Alexander to \e messan^ers of Darii^s and many grete gifte^ '\>are W2t. Seyme,^ be sent anoj?^/* lettre, titt bis pryncej & bis lorde^, of J?is tenottr.

'^'' Alexander, ]?e son) of Philippe & of J^e queue Olympias vn- Alexander

32 to J)e prynce^ & Jje lordej vnder our s^^bieccion) in Capadoce, ^g^^ords

In laodice, or ells whare duelland', gretyng, & gude grace, ordering

We charge 30U & commanded 50W straytly fat ilkan) of 50W sariat

ordayne vs in att fe baste })at ^e may ]'^ nete-hydes barked", & J^^te^^^s.

36 send J?am) tilt Alexander, J^at we and oure knygbtis may gere

^ Three lines space, miniature A, with ' Four lines space, red capital A, much

king's head (much faded). smudged ; a small a written beside it in the

2 MS. clearly reads seyme, it may be margin, for * seyine ' ( = seine).

Last edit about 5 years ago by Ben Brumfield



Letter of Alexander, Another defeat. Poms' letter.

One of his barons writes to Darius, telling of his own defeat and the

treachery of others.

Darius writes to him, order- ing him to gather a great force, and to Porus, King of India, ask- * Leaf 1 8.

ing help. Porus re- plies that ' he is at that time grievously sick, but that he will come as soon as possible with ten legions of knights.

Darius' mother writes to him, coun-

make vs of J^am) clethyng, & schoees ; And wit cameles ]?at 36 haue at Alexsander gerre cary J^am) to J^e wat^r of Eufrates.' In ]?is mene tyme a prynce of Dariws, Nostande by name, wrate to Darms on J?is wise. 4

* 'To Darms ]:?e wirchipfull grete godd'his seruande Nostand' law seruyce. Me aughte no3te to sende swylk tytliynge to '^our ryalle maiestee, bot grete nede gers me do it. pare-fore be it knawen) vn-to ^our hie lordchipe, ]:at twa grete pryncej of 3owrs,& 8 I, base foghtefi) wit kyng Alexander, And hym)es fallen) j^evictorie, & slayne be base tbir twa wortby prynce^, & mekilt o]?er folke, and I fleed' greuously wondedl And many wortbi knygbtis of 3owrs base for-saken '^our lordcbipe & ioyned f)am) titt Alexander 12 oste, J)e wbilk be base wircbipfully, and base giffen grete lord- cbipes of joi^rs.' And wben) Dariws bad redd" j^is Z^^^re, be sent in baste till Nostand, and commanded' bym for tilt ordeyne a grete Oste ; and manfully agaynestande ]?e folke of Macedoyne. 16 He sent also a lettve to Porus kyng of Ynde, prayng bym to belpe bym agayn'es Alexander, and Vovus wrate agayne in J^is manere.

"^^ Vovus, kyng of Ynde, vn-to Dariits, kyng of Perse, grety»ig. 20 For J)ou base prayed vs to come to tbe \n belpynge *of ^tbe agaynes tbyn enemys, we late tbe wete, "^ai we are redy & alwaye base bene, for to com) to belpe 50W. Bot as at J>is tyme we are lettede to com) to 50W, be-cause of grete seknesse ])at we 24 ere stadd? in, Neu(?r j^e less^, sekerly, it es ri^te beuy vn-titt vs, & greuous, vn-titt [vs to] bere of ]?e grete injury ]:>at es done vn*tiR 50W. And \)areiovQ we late 50W wite, J^at wit-in scborte tym), we salt come for to belpe 30W wit ten) legyouns of knygbtis/ 28 Bot wben) Eodogorius, Dari^<.5 moder, berd" telte ])ai Dari^^s bir son) ordayned" bym for to fegbte agayne wit kyng Alexander scbo was ri3te sory and wrote a le^^re vn-tilt bym J?at contened? tbis sentence. 32

' To ^ kyng Dariws, bir moste biloued' son, Eodogoriii^, his modir sende3 gretyng & ioy. I bafe vnderstandefi) J>at 3e bafe assemblede 50Mr men), & mekitt o\er folke also, for to fegbte

^ Four lines with red capital T, much smudged ; a small t written beside it in margin.

* Two lines with smudged capital P ; a small p written in margin.

^ On leaf 17 of/^e, on leaf 18 of the.

* Bodorins scratched out. Four lines with large capital T in red; small t in mar- gin beside.

Last edit about 5 years ago by Ben Brumfield


Darius mother. Alexander s vision. 45

■ eftsones wit AXe^iander. Bot I late J^e wite it wilt availe ]>q selling him natliynge. For J^oghe ^e IiadcT gadirde to gedir alle )?e mefi) in h^ims^S" J?e weiide duelly^g, 3it 56 ware viiable to agayne-stande hym. somewhat

4 For J>e foreluke of godd" mayntene3 liy7/i, & vphalde3 hym. And to Alex- Jjarefore dere soiD, it es my conseK, 50^?' lieghenesse of herte greatness 56 lefe, & fait suwivvhate fra ^our glory, and bese fauorable to ]>q rather gretnes of Alexawc^^r. For better it es to forga )?at at ^e may lose all.

8 no^te balde, and haffe in pesse ]5an j^at at 56 may halde, J^an for

too couett all: and be excluded? & for-ga att.' When) Darii^s

redde f)is le^^re, he was gretly troubbled? and weped? bitterly,

command? vn- tilt his mynde, his moder, his wyf, & his childer.

42 1 In the mene tyme kyngr AlexancZer remowed? his oste, and Alexander J 'J o ^ - -^, comes to

drew neie j^e cite of Susis, in J^e whilke Darms was lengand" Susa, driv-

the same tyme, so J?at he my^te see att J?e heghe hille5 J^at ware JJj^ ^ ^^^

abownn) be citee. pan Alexander commanded"" aH his men), bat crowd of

beasts. He 16 ilkaii) of J^am) suld cutte dowiDe a brawnche of a tree, and here decides to

))am) furth wit j^am) & dryfe bi-fore j^am) atte manere of beste^ ])ai ge^ger uT^"

]:>ay my^te fynde in J)e way. And when the Percyenes saw J>aifi) Darius.

fra J^e heghe hille^ ]:>ay wondred? J^am gretly. And KXexander come

20 wzt his oste to ]:e citee of Susis and luged hym nere besyde J^e

citee. And than) he called? his pryn9^ce5 & his o])er lorde; and

said vn-to ]3am), ' Late vs,' (\uo]) he, ' send a messangere to kyng

Dari2*s & bidd? hym) ^ owJ?er & com) feghte w^t vs or etts * s^tbmyt * J^eaf 18

24 hym vii-titt vs.' The nexte nyghte aft^r, Godd" AmoiD apperede

. ^^ . The Vision

vn-tin Alexa?2aer m his slepe bryngancT hym pe ngwrre of Mercuri of God

& a mantitt, and ano]:»er manere of garment of Macedoyne, and the^ig^t

saide vn-titt hym. ' AlexancZer, sofD,' audb hee, 'euer mare when) who tells

28 ]?ou base nede, satt I helpe the. And ^areioiQ luke ])0\x sende to go noghte to Dariits J>at messangere ])ai '^ou spake off. For I will p^J^ ^\^ \)ai ]:ou thi selfe clethe thee wit my figure & wende thedir J^i his figi^re. selfe ; if atte it be perilous for to do, Died J)e na thynge, for

32 I salt be thi helpe, so ]:at ]?ou satt hafe na maner of disesse.

On J?e morne when) hltxander rase fra slepe, he was gretly comforthed? of his dreme & called titt hym his prynce3 and talde ))am) alle his dreme, and f'ay assentede atle, J>at he schulde

36 wende to Dariws in his propir person. And onane he called? vn- titt hym ane of Jje prnice3, j^e whilke highte Emulus. This

^ Four lines with large red capital I ; ^ hym inserted afterwards in left-hand

small i written in margin. margin.

Last edit about 5 years ago by Ben Brumfield



Alexander goes to Darius,

Alexander rides with a single knight to the River Grancus which was frozen over.

He will not allow his knight to fare further with him.

The river ever freezes in the night and thaws in the morn- ing.

The Per- sians are amazed at him. Alex- ander comes to Darius and summons him to give tribute or fight.

* Leaf 19.

prynce wns a wyghte mafD, & an hardy & wonder trewe titt Alexander. And Jr'an) Alex«7if/er bad hym lepe one a horse, and brynge \\ii hym a noJ?«r horse & folow hym. And he didd" so. And wheii) })ay come to gedir to J^e water of Graunte, fat in \>q hmgage of Perse es called' Struma, J?ay fande it froseiD ower, and Mtyiander onane chauwged he * wede, & lefte ]?e foresaid" prynce wtt twa horse at ]?e water-syde and hym selfe, wtt f)e horse J?at he satt apon), went ouer \>e water apoiD fie Ysj, towarde )?e citee of Susis. And his prynce besoghte hym Jjat he walde sufifre hywi wende wit hj^w, ne perauentwre any disesse fette hym by }>e waye. And AlexancZer ansuerd" & sayde, ' Habyde me here,' c\uo\> he, ' For he satt be my helpere, wham) in dreme3 I sawe appere vn-to me.' This ilke water I spake of bi-fore, alt ]:e wynter seson ilke a nyghte was frosen) att ouer ; bot tymely in J^e mornynge als sone als )?e warme son) smate apon) it, ]:'an) it dissoluede agayne, <fe ran) wonder swiftely ; J:e brede of J)at water es \>e space of a furlange. When Ki^xander come to Jje 5ate of J?e citee the Perciens, when ]?ay saw hym, hadd" grete wonder of his figure, and wend" he hadd" bene a godd", and onane J'ay asked* hym what he was 1 And he ansuerd', and said" he was a messangere sent fra kyng Alexawc/er to ]?aii e lorde Dariws, and be-lyfe J^ay broghte hym til hym. Dariws, when Alexawc?er come bi fore hym, said vn-til hym. ' Whethyn) ert \o\x^' c\uo\) he ? 'I ame,' qwo)> Alexander, ' sent vn-to J>e fra kyng Alexander to wiete where to )?ou taries to come titt hym to gyffe hym batette. Owthir come & feghte manfully wzt thyne enemy s or etts submitte f>e titt hym) & * pay ^ hym tribute.'

And Darius heard him and said, * Art thou then the Alexander who with such madness shaped thy speech, for I see thou boldest thyself not from words as a messenger doth, but art bold as a king. Yet know that by thy words I am not frightened at all. Come dine with me this day.' And with these words, he reached out his hand to him and took him by his right, and led him into the palace. And Alexander, musing, began to say : ' A right good token hath this barbarian wi'ought me when he clasped my right hand and drew me into








^ MS. reads * Ae*. We ought perhaps to substitute ' his'.

2 Pay him tribute is written at the

bottom of leaf t8; between that leaf and what is now leaf 19 a whole leaf is missing.

Last edit about 5 years ago by Ben Brumfield


{From the Latin) Alexander ami Darius. 47

the palace, because, as the gods say sooth, ere long the palace

shall be mine.' And going in, Darius and Alexander lay by a

table, and the daintiest feast was laid out. And Darius' The Feast

4 marshall gazed hard at Alexander face to face. And the table a^d its

was wreathed in cleanest sold. But the Persians, seeing Alex- "lagmfi-

° . . . cence.

ander s shape, yet knew nothing of what wisdom, doughtiness,

and strength lurked in this small bod}^. The dishes and tables

8 and seats were wrought of the finest gold. The cup-bearers

bore cups in golden vessels and rarest jewels. And when a cup

was handed to Alexander, he hid it in his breast. And another

cup was brought to him and he did the same, and thus too with Alexander

1 2 a third. And those who bore the cups, seeing this, gave the ^^i^gn ^^ news to the Emperor Darius. And he, hearing of it, rose up, cups in his saying : ' Friend, what is this that thou doest, hiding the cups Darius in thy breast 1 ' And Alexander : ' In our king's feasts the Allxln^eT'

i6 guests are wont, whenever they will, to take their drinking- answers by


vessels. But, as this seemeth to you unworthy, I will give them to

them back forthwith.' And with these words he save them *^® ^^^"

=> bearers.

back to the cup-bearers. But the Persians who sate at the 2o feast said each to each, ' a good custom, indeed, and one to be praised.' And some lords, too, praised this way and exalted it. But one of the Princes of Darius, called Anapolus, sitting at the Alexander feast, ffazed hard at Alexander and his face. For he had seen i^/^cog-

' ^ nized by

24 him when, at Darius' bidding, he went into Macedonia to take one who tribute of Philip. He, knowing his voice and looking on his in Mace- face, began to think to himself and say : ' Is this not Alex- ^^^' ^® ander ? ' And rising at once he drew near to Darius, saying : Darius.

28 ' This messenger whom thou beholdest is Alexander, the son of Philip of Macedon.' And Alexander, seeing them with each other in talk, knew they were speaking of him and he was Alexander known. And at this he rose up from his place and leapt away ^nd^is^^r-

32 from the board. And taking a blazing torch from a Persian's sued by the hand, himself mounted his palfrey, which he found ready out- p, side Darius's palace, and fled in the swiftest flight. And the in the Persians seeing this, taking weapons, mounted their steeds with

36 a mighty stir, and quickly followed after Alexander. And in the darkness of the nightfall, they began to stray, some scratched their faces by the tree-boughs, some falling into ditches. But Alexander, bearing his bio zing torch in hand, fared straight


Last edit about 5 years ago by Ben Brumfield



Darius on liis throne sees the golden image of Xerxes break, which fore- tokens the end of the Persian Empire.

Alexander swims the river, but his horse is lost.

Alexander gathers his army.

Alexander s Flight — His harangue to his men.

forward. Now, Darius sate on his throne and thought of Alex- ander and how great his daring was. He saw a statue of gold of Xerxes the Persian king, who sate below the high-seat in the hall. And at once the statue broke and was all scattered asunder. And Darius seeing this was smitten with heaviness of heart and began to weep sorely and long. And he said : ' This foretokeneth the wasting of my life, and the utter down- fall of the Persian kingdom.' Alexander, however, coming to the river Grancus, found it swollen, and leapt athwart it. But ere he was over the stream burst its banks, and swept his horse away ; with great hardship Alexander escaped and met Eumulus, his lord. And thus he went back to his army and told them of Darius, how he had dealt with him, and the torch with which he had fled away.



How Alexa-nder put Heart into his Host anew.

And on the following day, he gathered his army, which told two hundred and twenty thousand of weaponed men. And i6 he went up

*on a hye place & comforthed his men) and said' vn-to J^am) : * pe mitltitude of )?e p^rcienes,' (\ud\> he, ' may no^te be euend to f>e m^^ltitude of J^e greckes. For sewrly we are ma )?an ]^ay. And 20 if Jjay were ane hundreth sythes maa thefD wee, late no^te '^our hertis faile 50W \)areioie. For I tette 50W a grete m^tltitude of flyes may do na harme tilt a fewee waspes.' And when) ):>e Oste had herde thire wordes ]5ay commendide hym halelely wit a 24 voyce.

^ Than) J^e emp^rowr Dariws remowed" his oste, and come to J^e reuere of Graunt on ]}e nyghte, and went ouer on J^e ys3, and ]:)ar he luged? hym. The Oste of Dari^^^s was wonder grete and 28 strange. For J^ay hadd* in j^aire oste ^J^ cartes ordaynd? For ]?e werre, and grete m^^ltitude of Olyfantej, W2t towres of tree on) J»am), stuffed? vfit feghtyng men). And sone after appon) a day thir twa kynges wet ]:>aire ostej mett samefi) 32 on a faire felde, Dariws wet his mefD, and Alexa/ic/er wit his men. ^ Four lines with large cursive ornamental T of new type and decorative style.

* Leaf 19.

Alex- ander's harangue to his men, telling them to have trust in their own bravery.


crosses the river Grancus with a mighty army and meets Alex- ander in battle.


Last edit about 5 years ago by Ben Brumfield


The great battle behveen Darius and Alexander. 49

Than Alexander lept apofD his horse, Ipat highte Buctiphalas, Alexander

and rade furthe bi-fore alt his oste, and houed in )?e rayddes Bucephalus

waye bi-twene Ipe twa ostes. And when) Ipe P^rcyenes saw hyw, ^^ ^^^®^

4 })ay had grete wonder of hjm, and ware ri^te ferde for hym, by the two

cause he was so vggly. Neuere-f'e-lesse Jjay tromped" vp & went Tixe Per-

to-warde Alexander. And sone ])e batett ioyned', & faghte ^^^^f^^®

to-gedir fersely, and many men) dyed" on ayther party; Ipare was so his ugli-

8 thikke schott of arowes, Ipat Ipe ayer was couerde, as it had bene Th?battle

wit a clowde. Some faghte wzt swerdej, sum w^t speres, sum begins and

wit axes, & sum) w^t arowes. pe felde lay futt of folke, sum) day. The

dede, sum) halfe-dede, & sum) greuously wondedl Thay began) lose^^ore

12 for to feghte at f»e son)-rysynge, and faghte to Ipe soiD-settyng. than the

Bot ])are dyed" many ma of ]>e percyenes )?an Ipare dide of


And when) Darius sawe his men) fatte so thikke in ])e felde, he Darius flees

i6 lefte Ipe felde, and fledd", and 'pe percyenes seyng that, pay fledd' flight

also. Bot bafD baire cartes of werre rane amange be p^rcyens & causes the i y & r 1 •/ confusion

slewe of f)am) folke w^t-owte nowmer & namely of fote-mefD. For of his army.

by )?at tyme it was myrke nyghte, and bay ne my5te nojte see *Leaf 19

20 for till eschewe ]:>am). When) Dariws come * to the foresaid' -g-J crosses

watere he fande it frosefD, and ouer he went. And when) he was ^^^ ice, but

1 1 1 1 r» ^is Lords

ouer, pe oper lordes 01 p^rse went appon) pe ys^, so grete a are drown-

multitude }?at f>ay couerde J?e ys; fra f)e taa banke to \e toper, ^^^^^

24 & J?at a grete brede, & fan) onane pe ys5 brake als sone als Dariws was paste ouer, & all pat ware on pe ys^ ware perischte, ilk a moder son), & drownede in pe water, pe remanawnt, when) pay come to the water, f>ay my^te nojte wyn) ouer. And J)an) pe

28 Macedoynes come, & dange J?am) downe. In this batelle pare was slaen of pe percyenes ccc™ w^t-owten) thase ]:>at were drownned.

Kyng Dax'ius fledd" to pe citee of Susis, & went in titt his fo^t^'e^lty

32 palace, & feKe downe to pe grounde, & sigheand &. wepande of Susa. wit a sare hert, he said' theis wordes : ' Alias, full wa es me, his lot, for vnhappye wriche, pat euer I was borne, for pe ire & pe from his ^^ indignacion) of heuen) es fallen) one mee. For I Dariws )?at lifte greatness.

36 my seluefi) vp to pe sternes, Now am I broghte lawe to pe izes on the erthe. Now es Dariws, pat conquerede alt pe Este nacyons, & f^t^reiive'^ made J»am) subiecte & tributaries vn-titt hym, fayne for to flee and quotes


fra his enemys and submytte hym vn-to J^ain). And it ware passages.


Last edit about 5 years ago by Ben Brumfield



The letter of Darhis to Alexander.

He writes to Alex- ander.

He praises the great wisdom of Alexander, who even knows what is to come.

Neverthe- less he re- minds him of his earthly birth, and warns him against pride. For often the end of a man ill accords with the beginning. He reminds him of the fate of Xerxes.

Darius de- mands his mother, wife, and children, offering therefor his trea- sure and the king- ship over the Medes and Per- sians.

knawefD vn-to J)e wreched maii), what schulde falle tift hym after-wardej, he schulde hafe littitt thoghte of f)e tyme presentt, bot one J?e tyme to come solde his tho^te be. In a poynte of a daye it falles, Jjat ]>q meke es raysede vp to J^e clowdde3, and Jjc 4 prowde es putt to no3te.' And whefD he hade saide thir wordes, he rase vp, & satt & wrate a k^re vn-till Alexander, sayande on this wyese.

^ ' Tilt his lorde Alexander, kyng of Macedoyne, Dariws, kyng 8 of Perse, gretyng & Joy. We hafe wele vndirstanden by )?at that we hafe herde of ^owe and sene, J^at ^e hafe in ^ow grete wysedom) & a hye witt : so ]>at no5te allanly 5e knawe thynges ])at are present or passede, bot also thynge3 ]?at ere 12 for to come, and f)are-fore alt thynge^, J>at je doo : ^e do it wtt -owtefD any lakke or repreue. Neuer-J)e-lesse hafe^ in mynde })at ri^te as wee ware, so ware 56 geten) & borne of a fleschly womafD. And ^are fore rayse no^te "^our herte to hye 16 bi-cause of 50wr prowesche & ^our doghty dedis, so fat 5e forgete '^our laste ende. For ofte tymes we see \>9.i fe lattere end of a man) discordes wet J)e firste. It suffice5 titt a wer- ryonre for to gete J>e victorye of his enemys, |5ofe att he 20 schewe nojte atte fe malice f)at he may. Kemembre 30W of J^e wirchipfutt kyng ^erses oure progenytowr, f>at many victoryes gatt & schane in alte prosperiteez. Be-fore he raysed' his hert in pride passande mesure. Alte \>q wirchippe J?at he hadd 24 wonn) be-fore, he loste in Ellada, Ipare-fore remembre 50W, fat alt J>e wirchipes & pe victoryes fat je hafe geten) by fe forluke of '^godd'

ye got this victory. To us then who beseech grant your 28 mercy. Yield us our mother, our sons, and wife, and we will render unto you the treasures we have in Aydem and Susa and Batram, the which our fathers hoarded and hid in earthen cellars. And we will give you the kingship of the Medes and 32 Persians, that thus ye may have and keep what victory Jove the all-mighty hath granted you.'


^ Four lines space with decorated minia- ture T.

2 ' by j)e forluke of godcT ' is written at the bottom of leaf 18 bk. Between this leaf and what is now numbered leaf 20

a whole leaf is missing ; and we are plunged into the middle of quite a different letter of Darius on leaf 20, which is addressed to Porus.

Last edit about 5 years ago by Ben Brumfield
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