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the courts and in the streets, but in the 1960s the protests swelled into a collective force. When the United States Supreme Court struck a blow against segregation's legality, a vast army of nonviolent protesters rose up to challenge its morality as well.

Students like yourselves began accepting jail without bail when they sat down at lunch counters to stand up for their human rights.

They attacked segregated travel on busses with their bodies and segregated ballot boxes across the South as well.

From the first, it was a people's movement.

A voteless people had voted with their bodies and their feet and had paved the way for other social protest. The anti-war movement of the 1960s drew its earliest soldiers from the southern freedom army. The reborn movement for women's rights took many of its cues and much of its momentum from the southern movement for civil rights.

Your own Mary King - my colleague in the movement - was an architect of both those struggles; the battle against segregation in the Southern United States and the battle for women's liberation which took inspiration from the black freedom struggle. While that movement sought an end to American apartheid, it did not ignore the world beyond the borders of the United States. As Martin Luther King wrote at the time, "Equality with whites will not solve the problems of either whites of Negroes if it


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