-fore at the mercy of the landowner, the white man.
"It is ironic that agriculture, the basic purpose of the
importation of black men and women into the colonies as slaves,
now declares that black farm laborer and tenant to be "surplus"
labor and the black farm owner "inefficient." The statistical
evidence of this is frightening. In 1964 the number of Negro
farm operators (includes both owners and renters) had dwindled
to 180,000. There are no figures for 1968, but it is reason-
able to assume a further decrease. Only 1.3 per cent of ALL
black farmers made $2500 or over in 1960. Black farmers'
average age is over 50 years old; have an average number of
years of schooling around 5.7; and only 7 per cent of adult
Negro farm residents have completed high school."
"What all the figures, facts, memos, papers, and statistics
point to is the economic future of the black man in rural America
is bleak without a major land reform effort, and per-
haps a revolution in how we think about efficiency. At present
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