serving before the Voting Rights Act still retain their positions. Discourteous and hostile registrars often contribute to the frustration of blacks attempting to register to vote. Throughout the South, race continues to be a primary factor in the consideration of appointments to registration positions and boards.

In many areas of the rural South, including the non-covered states of Tennessee, Florida, Arkansas and Texas, there is still an element of fear on the part of blacks and a threat of economic reprisal against those who might register to vote for the first time. Among the fears known to VEP are loss of jobs and income, eviction, refusal of credit, loan foreclosures, and denial of social security, welfare payments, and food stamps.

Many mechanisms plague the minority electorate and have the intent and effect of diluting the black vote in the South. The use of at-large elections almost uniformly deters black representation in public offices, especially at the city and county level of government throughout the southern states.

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