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infantry, there is nothing to say. It was dressed almost the
same way as the cavalry, but was weak and lazy. The first
[the cavalry] was not free from the latter vice, common to
all Spaniards, who spent all their free time from their tasks
in dolce far niente [sweet doing of nothing]. There were no
other inhabitants in California, except those mentioned
above. The entire colony was inhabited by military men and
monks. There was not a single genuine colonist of European
descent, and for this reason, I presume, the province was completely
neglected, producing no income whatsoever, but on the
contrary, coating the Spanish government dearly. California
never had direct communication with Europe except through
Mexico. The governors were appointed by the viceroy, and
the monks, the heart of California administration, were sent
from the same place. They were chosen mainly from among the
Mexican creoles [Indian-Spanish parentage]. For this reason,
their ignorance was incredible. Many of them did not even
know how to write, not to mention their ignorance of learning.
Of the Latin language, so indispensable to the Catholic clergy,
they only learned the liturgy by heart. To such people was
entrusted the enlightenment of savage peoples! Their only
merit was that they could give a superficial idea of the religion,
but even here their instruction, filled with various
superstitious dogmas, distorted Christianity to such a degree
that it was impossible to recognize. However, their merit
was in that they taught the settled Indians various skills

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