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related to farming, indispensable for a settled life.

However, even here their labors were not very great.
The blessed climate and the virgin nature of this land, al-
most without effort of the farmer, produces everything neces-
sary for life. The only species of planted grain, wheat and
maize, yield a hundred kernels and more to one, and at that,
from fields poorly tilled and, in general, carelessly handled.
Gathering an abundant harvest, they abandon the fields for
a few years, first, indulging in their laziness, and second,
having the opportunity to sell their surplus only to our
[Russian-]American Company, they would not know what to do
with it if they gathered the harvest regularly every year.
Of vegetables, potatoes and cabbages grow there almost wild.
There are no cucumbers, but excellent watermelons and melons
grow without any supervision or care. They have no idea here
of what it means to fertilize the land. They do not bother
about improving species of fruits through grafting. Local
apples are small and sour, as are the cherries. Grapes grow
along the slopes of hills, creeping on the ground, but at
that, they produce excellent wine, which, after standing for
a few years, has a great similarity to port wine.

In general, much more could have been done with California
by settling industrious people there. The climate is capable
of producing all the produce of southern countries. The culti-
vation of silkworms, sugar cane, and even coffee would bring a
substantial income, and oranges, lemons, and other fruit would

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