The Kurnai have no class or subclass names andtherefore no social organisation as I use that termbut they have unmistakable indications that they[had totems and therefore - crossed out] must have had all atsome former time.
Each individual had a thūndung or elderbrother, [not only in their sex totem Yürung or, - crossed out][Djütgun but also in some - crossed out] being some marsupial animal, or bird, reptile or fish. It is the [They however have no influence upon marriage - crossed out][which is regulated by kinship and local exogamy- crossed out][and survive as the merely as the elder brother and - crossed out][and also as in so far the -crossed out] protector that in[some cases such as Kangaroos + birds- crossed out] it gave[notice of - crossed out] danger, and [also -crossed out] has also invokedsongs in cases of [??]
They [thundung - crossed out] are also spoken of as jiakor flesh as in other tribes.
The [jiak - crossed out] totem was told by a man to his son whenabout eight or nine years of age and by a womanto her daughters. [For instance a man might - crossed out]point out his totem to his son and say["see there that is your thundung; yu must - crossed out][not kill it!" - crossed out]
As these names are perpetuated from fathersto sons, the daughter having also the same, descentis clearly in the male line, and they would benecessarily prepetuated in the locality to whicha man belonged. A good instance is thatof the Bunjil-baul who lived in RaymondIsland in Lake King and whose jiak was [the Gluin - crossed out] a bird the Gluin, whence their nameof Gluin-Kong, the Glui's beak.
[The Australia - crossed out][These Thundung- crossed out][The totem and its human brother are - crossed out][These toems and their human "younger brother"- crossed out][which are younger - crossed out][brother - which are sill in the relative of- crossed out][protected + protector - they the form here the - crossed out][two classes with which we now I feel certain they- crossed out][have at one time I feel [??] [??] at where- crossed out][they preceeded - crossed out]
(1) I am much indebted to the Revd John Bulmerfurther investigating the Kurnai Thundungconfirming my own endeavours, by obtaining a[which - crossed out] of [the - crossed out] old people which abundantly exhibitedof male descent.
[written in left side margin]If I am correct in believing that these "thundung"were at one time[consistent with the two primary - crossed out][?? class divisions - crossed out]part of a two class system thenwe have here an instanceof the peculiar[??] of these coast tribes.The totem which [??]to my view preceeded the class agnate[??]exist, whileit has beenreplaced by rhelocal [?agnate?]
Name, Native Place, Division of Tribe, Wife's division of tribe
William McDougall, Raymond Island, Tatoonkolong, BrabolongTuleba, Bruthen, Brabolong, BrabolongWilliam Thorpe, Bairnsdale, Brabrolong, *Ngrangit the entrancal Blacks.Neddy O'Rourke, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, Braberry worcutTommy Johnson, Snowy River, Kroathun, Yacktoon worcutDick Cooper, Tatoonkolong, Tatoonkolong, Lowajerak Buffalo womanLarry Johnson, Snowy River, Kroatunkoolong, NrangitTimothy, Snowy River, Kroathun, TatoonkolongBilly the Bull, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, Yacktoon worcutJacky Jacky, Lake Tyres, Warrnangatty, Yacktoon worcutBilly Jumbuck, Lake Tyres, Warnangatty, KroatoonYelmi, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, BraberryDan, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, KroatoonKerlip Tom Snowy River, Kroatun, NgrangitBig Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Yucktoon worcutLamby, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Brabeerry Brathu (turee)*Charley Rivers, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, BraberryBobby Brown, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Ngrangit Ngrangit (both wives)Charley Muir, Bruthen, Braberry, KroathunKing Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Lowajerak BrabolongBen Jennings, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Warrangatty Charley Alexander, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, LowajerakSinging Johnny, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowajerakMunday, Maneroo, Brajerak, BidwellJohnny the plater, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, KroatunMurray Jack, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowerjerakLawson, Scrub black, Bidwell, Bidwell. Jack Hay, Maneroo, Brajerak, Brabrolong taken by theftJimmy Thompson, Maneroo, Brajerak, Braberry Paddy, Sale, Brajerak, Kroatun worcut has girls - to himdid not marryHanner, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon worcutKing Tom, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon
hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages
Ki yukka [??] - din dāka Bunjil BowlKhee an goong. Fath gave name.Pallung - nakun - gave it - it belonged to him- Sent name
Jackey - Father youngest north - of [??] - his name wasZoby - will not use for a long time. If he had no othername would give him a new one - some oldman a [??] [??] if none narkun.
[Bowl - crossed out] Raymond Island wife from Turtgwunungnot Krotun - because Kūkun BruthenDrelinnot Tatun go by because same like Yowunga Bunjil [??] Kurranot [??] [?much?] - difficult to go Wy yungin [?Dargo?] [?the?] [??] Munju
Mother [??] Lake Tyers [?cast?] for them, [??] [??] LakeTyers - it is my country. Bowl belongs to me + my father.I could have visited at Lake Tyers but my country to livein would have been Bowl (Raymond Island)I am half Tatūngulung + half [?Kurtau?] -could not get wife from Eagle Point [??] [??][??] from West side [?milikea?] in [??]But could from this side.
[written at bottom of page]woornin-gingin an ga ganwrokut?
[written sideways at bottom of page]give [?wives?] to Dargo who alwayscame doe to Lakesnot old mentoo far
no lake men did not go farfrom lakes -did not go in thebush far away.
near KurnungKurni - [??]men
hw0436 Notes by Howitt on Omeo 'tribe' and letter from Bulmer
Tŭndūn made with tea tree wood [?Brt?] and stringngūrū.
Omeo [plains - crossed out] tribe - on plainsMetoko Head medicine manCockey Head Doctor Gibber = Joëa There were not more than 100 people in the tribeMŭk-than = thin speechMūk-Krauetan-thannūlet - Ralbutnūlet - Braiakamūk-than - Tatūng and Dairgonotes on the Omeo tribe - by Jenny Cooperbefore Dec 21 in book commencing Nov. 1881
Tharang-Kawai- Snowy Rivernūlet - Braiaka-Bratauamŭkthang - Brabra-Tatung-Raymond IslandBack water - Kau-ŭngEastwood Tūt-wŭrkMerriman's Sea song - note bookMay 17-1883East- Bo- móin- also naua-or Kraui - North = Woorunina - west=GūyaSouth = meringámTall boy name is Būnyūan = a Lagoon at Bega - totem Tiska = small owl20/5/83 Charley Brūpin - ngarrigan = BatMerriman - Ūmbara = black duckHarry Cook - Jarūat = an owl; name is ngangal
10/6/83In Wiradjuri - exchange of wives - whose sisteris called gŭn-gŭn-mur Bidga-bidga= old manJīr=ghost
[written in left side margin]Ngal-al-balDaramulun's wife