Howitt and Fison Papers


XM690_ICDMS_lowres The organization of Australian tribes




their occurrence in other more backward standing tribesover a vast extent of Central Australia, but also from the numerous references to certain animals as the "sons of Bunjil" which play a great part in the myths of this tribe (1).

[Left margin note - (1) quote old tales from new lands &c-]

The Woeworung was on of a large related group, or "nation" tribes which occupied the greater part of Central Victoria - from the Sea [crossed out - to] nearly to the banks of the River Murray. [Crossed out - The Woeworung tribe was divided into certain] [crossed out - clans as follows: - the people] The Woeworung language was spoken over the Yarra River watershed, and as far South inland as [crossed out - Dandenong] Cranbourne - western Werribee River and northwards to Mt Macedon: But these people did not form all one tribe being divided locally as follows:- giving the names of the Headman [crossed out - who] at the time of settlement of Victoria.


[Title] Wŭrunjeri (Wŭrun = white gum tree)[Column 1](3) The Real Wurunjeri [underlined] The Upper Yarra [crossed out - from]including Yarra Flats - Northern slope of Dandenong Mtns.Southern [Mackay?]

[Column 2](a) [Kurnage-belung?] [underlined]Yarra R from Yarra Flat down - the Plenty R (b) Bebejan [underlined] Saltwater River up to Mt Macedon [Billibilleri?] [underlined]

[Column 3]Boiberit [underlined]west of Sunbury and Werribee.Bŭng-erim

All the Wurunijeri spoke the Woeworung language excepting the Berberits who spoke a dialect called [thŭri-wurung?] - But all were of the Waang class (crow).

The clan law which which required them as waang crows to obtain wives from people who were Bunjil (Eaglehawk), the segregation of the two class names severally into localities [crossed out - also] [?] about a law which was local in its application.

Thus [crossed out - taking] the men of that subdivision of the [crossed out - tribes] Wurunjeri [crossed out - also] [crossed out - of the Woeworung for speaking people] who lived in the Yarra about where Kew and the eastern the suburbs now are, [crossed out - the] were being crow [underlined] obliged to take wives from the Ngarūk Willŭm living about Dandenong who although also speaking Woeworūng were Eaglehawk [underlined], from the Gūnŭng [crossed out - willum] Ballŭk who were Eaglehawk lived near Mt Macedon but spoke Būnwurung language, from the Būthera balluk who were Eaglehawk lived near Seymour on the Goulburn River [crossed out - and spoke ?] from the Waring (cave) illŭm ballŭk who were Eaglehawk and lived on the Yea River, from the BalŭungKara Muttŭng who were

Last edit about 1 month ago by Christine

XM759_ICDMS_lowres Field notebook



husband nangūrūng husbands broth. nangūrūng husband sist husband bangan or dedjetBrothers wife birmbangF. brother wife ūmŭrkwife - birmbang or ūmŭrk xwife sister birmbangwife sister husband Kairep (friend)F Sist husband nangūrūng F Brothers wife Yumŭrk [or birmbang - crossed out] xM wifes brother [brother's wife -crossed out] goreitch M sister's Husband [ūmŭrk, birmbang - crossed out] x

M wae- M wee F wee_______ __________F Bunjil F Bunjil M Bunjil


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Notes on the aborigines of Yarra tribe

Kūlin - Westernport Kūlin down toTarwin - both sideBū nū rūng.go to Geelong - Bacchus Marsh - Mt MacedonKilmore, Benalla, WangarattaBuffalo River __________________William's tribe BunyipAll [?Westernport?] - Mount MacedonKilmore, Heidelberg.Plenty River, Kangaroo Ground.1 about Kew - Ūrŭndjeri willŭm2 [Westernport - crossed out] Cranbourne - Būlūk-willŭm3 Dandenong - Ngairāk-willŭm[Cannot read word]4. Mordiallok - Būnwūrŭng

Last edit 21 days ago by ALourie

hw0391 Notes by Howitt on Kulin from Barak



The Kūlin TribeInformant Bēr-ŭk (white grub in gum tree)otherwise King William of the Yarra tribe.

Mr Cameron learns fromKing David thatKubitche = WaaKroki = Bunjil

[Margin Note:] Avoka – or Boka Dick

The men of this tribe are all called Kūlin in distinction from those of alien tribes who are regarded as wild men and named as follows: -Gippsland blacks beyond Tarwin River = Bér-bira or Méy-metBeyond Geelong = B Warrije = Far off - Bek = countryat Echuca = Méy-metThe bounds of the country occupied by the Kulin were these: from the Tarwin River in Westernport round the spurs of the Australian alps to beyond the Broken River; and extending westward to beyond Geelong – to Mt Macedon, Kilmore Murchison and probably Wangaratta. ——[Margin note:]1 – W2 – W3 – B5 – W6 - BEach tribe has its particular locality which they consider a sort of inheritance - Buckley p. ?7]The Jajowurong tribe adjoining the Kūlin on the North west was regarded as friendly; The Mey met […] Ber-bira were not so regarded.The Kulin tribe was divided into Hordes of which the following […] the principal; of […][Marginal text:ballŭk = a number of peopleūrŭn = white gumjerrirŭk = mourning birdngarŭk = stonesKūrūng jang = red ground[?]Neera = a deep gullyalso the Nir-ballŭkfrom Nir = cavespoke Thagun wūrŭng fromThagun = No - lived on watershed of Campaspe down to [...] ]Hordes Class Wives to Wives from1. Wūrŭndjeri ballŭk Kew waa wöe Būlūk willŭmCranbourne waa wöe woey wūrŭng language3. Ngárŭk willŭmDandenong būnjil wöe woey wūrŭng language4. Būnwūrŭng Mordiallok būnjil boon-wūrŭng5. Kūrūng jang ballŭkWerribee waa wöe woey wūrŭng6. gūnŭng willŭm ballŭk

Mt Macedon būnjil wöe woey wūrŭng7. Nira ballŭkKilmore Waa thagūng wūrŭng8. Būthera ballŭk Seymour būnjil thagūng wurung9. Yowŭng illŭm ballŭkAlexandra waa thagūng wurung10. Waaring illŭm ballŭkMuddy Ck būnjil thagūng wurung11. Yeerŭn illŭm ballŭkBenalla būnjil thagūng wurung12. Būn mūrŭng ballŭk

Cape Schank Waa boon-wūrŭng12 13. Ballŭng Kara-mittŭng-būlaWangaratta būnjil (does not know) 13 14. Wŭdthowrŭng ballŭkGeelong bunjil Wadtha-wurung14 15. Ngūralŭng būlaMurchison Same Būnjil Ngur-ai- illŭm Ngūrai ilŭm wrūrung

Last edit 1 day ago by ALourie


26ageBlood feud 2

The Echuca men had sent word to the Yarra men that they were coming down so that [they - crossed out] all had plenty of time in the winter to meet. The meeting was [between - crossed out] near the Merri creek on the Melbourne side. The Yarra men used to stop about Melbourne till they were tired of it and then go up the Yarra, and when they were tired of the Yarra go back to Melbourne. The people present at the meeting were [the E - crossed out] from Echuca who however had no head man with them – he having remained behind; the Western Port men with their headman; the Mt Macedon and Geelong men under their Headman Capt. Turnbull, the Werribee people under their head man Benbow, and ourselves with our Headman(Ngŭrŭng-eit) Billibellary who was my “Mameik”. We were all there to look on. Each lot camped at the side [from which - crossed out] of the meeting ground and not far off - in the direction from what it had come. All the camps as usual with us looked towards the morning sun.

The Echuca men were on the ground nearest to their country - the Westernport men facing them nearest to theirs. The Yarra people were on the Kew side and facing them the Geelong lot and Benbow and his men,were at the corner between them and the Westernport men. Benbow was the ngurungeit of Sandridge people but he came with the Werribee lot. [The Westernport man - crossed out] The women were left at the camps not far off. The Westernport man stood out in front of his [people - crossed out] friends armed with a shield.

[written in left side margin]The message was sent by the Echuca people to the [??] blacks who told the Melbourne blacks who sent word to the Westernport blacks.

Last edit 1 day ago by ALourie


frightened at seeing the two boys. Bunjil "said get me a possum I am very hungry. All right"there is a possum in that stump - I cannot get him – I want to [?eat?] myself. Kokum went up – went to the hole - went in he was frightened- but went down - Bunjil got a big stone and shut him up and said you shall be Kokum– a bird – no more a blackfellow.________________Tádjeri – Kūlin brother [?bajerak?] brother

Little finger = tadjeri - hair like young possum – in holes of trees – less than native finger - lŭrnŭng – like a mouse in holes of treesmiddle next finger – yū-kope – parakeet – green … musk? forefinger – dan-tŭn – goes in mobs – blue fan – red breast – green body thumb – djŭrt-djurt – buff hawk – migrates, another hawk that hovers over the gamethumb of right hand – thara – little Hawk

He - sends jurt-jurt to see all people aredoingBunjil sent them in couplesTadgeri get mūngBunjil lets tadgery + tūrniug - and sends them to [?finish?]the ngarang - all [?them 6?] are Bunjil's boyshe sends them to all the country - to keep ngarang from thepeople -thara + jŭrt jŭrt belong to Bunjil side

Kurnai Kurnainarrin - nge - ganne ganne are [at - crossed out] the peopleto whom you belong - William narrin nge KunKun are his Ngourmajeri - about Kew[a n - crossed out] waang stole the fire and is on ngarrangsside

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie
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