Howitt and Fison Papers


XM692 Chapter V Tribal Governments



12(see p,-)

[crossed out - the Head men at the time of][the foundation of Melbourne][crossed out - Woeworrung][crossed out - of the tribes as my example]

The Wūrŭnjeri clan [crossed out - division] of the Woeworung is a good example of the [crossed out - Head man], lesser tribal divisions and of their Head men. [crossed out - and their measure of authority].

[Left margin note]under theNgurungaetaBŭnjerim

[This clan was divided into three parts - one which was said to be- crossed out][the "real urūnjeri"; was called Boi-berick-ilŭm-willam - in the- crossed out][country on the East side of the S. W. River + Mt Macedon, the second called * ?- crossed out][occupied the country from the Darebin ck to the source of the Plenty River- crossed out][under the Ngurungaeta- crossed out]

This clan was divided into three parts, one which was called [Boiberik-ilūm-willam- crossed out] Kŭrnaje Berringwas subdivided into the _ _ who occupied the country from Darebin Ck to the Sources of the Plenty River, - and the __ [crossed out - who] under the Ngurungaeta Bebejern [crossed out - camp] on the East side of the Saltwater River to Mt Macedon under their Ngurungaeta Bilibileri. The second was the the __ under Jakke-Jakke [crossed out - from] about the Yarra flat - Also the northern slope of the Dandenong Mountains, The third were the "real Wūrŭnjeri who lived on the western side of the Saltwater River, under their Ngurungaeta Bŭngerim as far as Mt Macedon.

[crossed out - in spe] In further explanation of the organization of the [crossed out - Woewur] Kulin tribes under these Headmen it maybe noted that

the greatest of all these Headmen appears to have been a man named Ningūlabŭl, or " stone tomahawk" from the fact to be referred to again that he was one of those in whom, I may say, the custody and care of the great quarry[crossed out - found] was vested, from which a supply of stone was obtained for tomahawks.

Ningulabul was also a renowned maker of songs as his father and grandfather had been before him. I have spoken of him and have given one of his songs in speaking of songmakers (p -) and it was his great power as a song maker which was a principal cause of his power. His [crossed out - was] is also an instance of the tendency to hereditary descent of [crossed out - an office] a Headmanship.

Ningūlabŭl [crossed out - lived] was the Ngurungaeta of the Kūrnŭng- wilam tribe whose country extended from the western end of Mt Macedon to Bullarook and Daylesford to the south where the coast tribe the Boon(w)oorong stretched in a narrow strip along the edge of the Pt. Phillip Bay from the Werribee River [crossed out word] to [crossed out - the head] Point Nepean, there was the Headman Benbow of the local group called the Yalūkit-wilum.

[Left margin note for above paragraph]on the north side of Mt Macedon and aboutKyneton were the Gal-Gal Balluk, part of the Jajau tribe where the man King Bobby was the "Partner" of [crossed out - King Bobby] Ningūlabŭl. If the latter wished to bring people up from further north it was through K B [crossed out - whom] to whom he sent [crossed out - he] "word" for them.

The Head man was of the Kri-balluk who lived about Mt Blackwood to the west of Mt Macedon wasthe noted medicine man Malcolm mentioned at p -[End of left margin note]

Most of these Head men were related to each other and thus when the Headship descended as in Ningulabul's family through several generations it tends to establish an hereditary authority which might in time give rise to a privileged family and is recognised a chieftan ship.

In [crossed out - stu] tracing out these connections between the Head Men its has also become clear that they exercised influence in making a man a Ngurungaeta, thus it was through the influences of Ningulabul that Bebejern and Bilibileri became Ngurungaeta, Bilibileri and other old men made Bungerim as Ngurungaeta and Berak the [crossed out - Bro] son of Bebejern [crossed out - he was] who did influence I have observed the [??] blacks never dispute or disregard.

There is also a passage in account of the settlement attemptedby Colonel Collins in Port Phillip, near where Sorrento now stands, which isspeaking of an attack upon a surveying party [??] [??] of the Boonwurrungtribe, says that they carried their Head man to the attack.

[Left margin note with arrow between these two above paragraphs]Here from next page 12App 13 & 14here. here p 12A [arrow to pp 13 & 14]

Last edit 26 days ago by ALourie

XM746 Messages, Old Bob and Dick Richards



Dick Richards

[Pooi-pooit - crossed out] Boi-Boit-yan -little hill and railway tunnell [sic]Bullock-creek; thence to Kyneton (at a littlewater hole - called neaṝ- a little watefall;thence to Kilmore. Dick Richards home;From side Campaspe; down to Goornong -Kilmore to the other side Dabyminga ck - then down to junction - Talarook is his country;then McIvor - thence to Campaspe and down it to Goornong - then acrossto Inglewood - then a little from Lodonto west side to Dunolly - then to Castlemaine

[crossed out -All called Logal-lik]These are all Nier-ballŭknier = cave

Watershed of Campaspee River from source

Last edit 30 days ago by ALourie

hw0391 Notes by Howitt on Kulin from Barak



54JajowrongOn the N west side of Mt Macedon and about Kyneton were the Gal-gal-Ballŭk – Their [the - crossed out] Ngŭnŭngeit partner of Capt. Turnbull, wasKing Bobby. If Capt Turnbull wanted to bring some people up from further north he would tell King Bobby who would send the word to them. All these people were Kūlin.

Another Jajowrong tribe was the Learga bŭllŭk who lived on the sources of the Campaspe.The Kalk Kalk goondeich [at the - crossed out] near the Gal Gal Bulluk; the Wŭrŭng-hŭra-gerŭng-bŭlluk lived also near the Gal gal bulluk. The Gal Gal būllŭk lived west of Mt Macedon about Kyneton. The Tonembur-lang-gūndeith lived in the upper Loddon River[and the - crossed out] These all spoke the Jajowrong language Williams language is Weyworŭng.

Boundaries of the Urŭndjeri

Up the Salt water river to near Sunbury then to the centre of Mt Macedon, thnce round the sources of the Salt water river, [striking off - crossed out] then along the[Northwards a little beyond Kilmore; then across - crossed out] Dividing Range to [by - crossed out] the source of the Plenty River – round the watershed of the Yarra River; the northern slopes of the Dandenong Mountain, by [??] creek [across between Gardners Creek - crossed out] to the north of Nunawadingto Gardners Creek; then down the Yarra to [Hobsons - crossed out] the Saltwater River.Emerald Hill and Sandridge belonged to the Coast blacks who extended round from Geelong.

Last edit 19 days ago by ALourie


269William Berak says furtherBeyond Mt Macedon were the Jajaurong about Kyneton near the Gal-gal-Balluk. Another Jajaurongtribe were the Learga balluk on the sources of the Campaspe.The Kalk-Kalk-goundich were near the Gal gal ballukThe Wŭrŭng – hŭra – gerŭng- balluk lived near the gal-gal-balluk, who lived near Kyneton.The Tonem-burr-laug-gourndich lived on the Upper Loddon River.

These all spoke the Ja-jau-rong (worŭng?) language – William Berak's language being Woi-worŭng.

Billibileri’s sister was Waa and was married to a man of the Kūrnŭng illum who was Bunjil. This man’s son was the “nephew” who helped Billibileri to take care of the Tomahawk quarry. The Kūrnŭngillum extended up to near Daylesford and also had the west half of Mt Macedon – the East half belonged to the Urŭnjeri (Berak's tribe) ——___________________________________________

The Yaúangillum lived in the country between Mt Macedon, Heathcote and Kilmore, they were Waa and spoke Thagūn-worung.

The Yirauillum also lived on the Goulburn Riverbelow Seymour and were Bunjil – these people got their wives from the NeribalukThe Benbendora-baluk lived near Mooroopna(near Shepparton on the Goulburn) were all Bunjil.

The Gal-gal balluk belonged to the Jajaurong people

The Būrong balluk (Būrong = string) lived on the Avoca about Nattyallock and were all BunjilThe Leaura-gūra-balluk lived round themountain where Parker's station was and were all Bunjil

[written in left side margin]

Probably the outside Bunjil people towards the Murray.

Last edit 26 days ago by ALourie


5 72It would seem that Berak's list of theKulin tribes must be increased by those ofthe Jajaurong - since he include [sic] at least one of them - namely that at Mt Macedon.Headquarters language5Galgal Baluk - Kyneton jajauworung3Kalk-Kalk-gourndich jajauworung1Learga Baluk Sources of Campaspe jajauworung4 Wurung-hura-gerung baluk jajauworung6 Tonem-bur-lang-baluk - Upper Loddon jajauworungKurnŭngilum baluk - Between Mt Macedon + Daylesford jajauworungBunjilYauangilum baluk thagunworung waaYiranilum-baluk Goulburn below Seymour BunjilBenbendora baluk Mooroopna BunjilBūrong baluk Nattyallock Avoca River jajauworung BunjilLeaura-gūra balluk [Daylesford - crossed out] Smeaton jajauworung Bunjil

Note I have numbered the above tribes of WilliamBerak's list as numbered by Parker. This confirmsBerak's accuracy in other respects.

[written sideways in right side margin]either Bunjil or Waa

Last edit 26 days ago by ALourie
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