Howitt and Fison Papers

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K + K here p 208 customs Regulating camp. Kurnai4In the camp [the- crossed out] custom regulates the position of the individual. The husband and wife wouldsleep [sic] on the leftside of the fire, the latter behind it, amd close behind her the children; nearest to her the little boy if any, next to him the little girl. In the event of the man's father and mother being with themfor a night, the grandfather would occupy the right hand-side, the grandmother behind him further back in the hutand the son's wife and children would move to a correspondng positionnear their own “house father”.

It would be a rule that the wife’s sister, although called‘wife’ by her brother in law, and also calling him “husband” would not sleep in his hut but somewhere near at hand. Other rules would apply to other members. A “brogan” visiting him that is a man who had been initiated at the same time as the abovementioned “husband” and who therfore addressed the wife as “spouse” and was so addressed by her would not stay at [the - crossed out] this camp but would go and stop in the young men’s camp.

Such rules also obtained among the Maneroo tribe.

Camping Rules 3Kurnaiquote fromK + K p208 Not only did custom regulate the distribution of cooked food among the members of the group in which it was common, but italso [strictly -crossed out] defined in the old times the positions which might be occupied by the various members [of the - crossed out] in the camp.

From the statement of the Kurnai [and - crossed out] from diagrams made by them on the ground + from observation of the position of the camps respectively in encapments - [I have - crossed out] I can say that the position of the respective members are wellunderstood and observed.

The following are the positions fixed by Kurnai when I had an imaginary encampment marked out tocomprise the several individuals mentioned below. Thestarting point is the camp of the son of the princicpal man of of [sic] the group, the Gweraeil Kurnai or Headman and his wife. The directions are given approximately by compassbearings and the distance by paces. The nature of the ground required that the encampment should extend in a particular direction and the situation was chosen with due respect to change and shelter.

Son and son's wife 5 paces northFather and mother 20 paces n. 30ᵒ E.

Last edit 5 days ago by J Gibson

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in marriage, of separating men from their wives when they could not agreeand of making fresh matrimonial arangements.

He periodically visited the various hordes of the Dieri, fromwhich he also periodically received presents. Tribes even at a distanceof a hundred miles sent him presents, which were passed on from tribe totribe for him.

He was one of their great Kunkis or medicine men, but wouldonly practice his art on persons of note, such as heads of totems, orhis personal friends.

He was the son of a previous Headman who was living duringMr Gason's residence in the Dieri country and who, although too infirmto join in the ceremonies, gave advice to the old men. He boasted thathe had hte command of the tribe, before his son acquired it. He wasbelieved to proof to magic such as "striking with the bone".

Jalina Piramurana had succeded to and indeed eclipsed hisfather. he was the head of the Kunaura Murudu, and boasted of being the"tree of life", the "family" of life", for this seed forms at times theprincipal source of vegetable food of these tribes. He was spokenof as the Illangura-Murdu (I), that is of the plant itself.

I observed that there were such Pinarus in the tribes tothe north and north east of the Dieri, such as the Yaurorka, and Yantruwurta (?)

When in the Yaurorra country,south of Sturts Stony DesertI camped for a night

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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in mariage, of separating men from their wives when theycould not agreeamd making fresh matrimonial arrangements.

He periodically visited the varioushordes of the Dieri, fromwhich he also periodically received presents. Tribes even ata distanceof a hundred miles sent him presents, which werre passed on from tribe totribe for him.

He was one of their great Kunkis or medicine men, but wouldonly practice his art on persons of note, such as heads of totems, orhis personal friends.

He was the son of a previous Headman who was living duringMr Gasons residence in the Dieri country and who, although too infirm to join in the ceremonies, gave advice to the old men. He boasted thathe had the command of the tribe, before his son acquired it. He wasbelieved to proof to magic such as "striking withthe bone".

Jalina Piramurana had succeded to and indeed eclipsed hisfather. He was the head of the Kunaura Murdu, and boasted of being the"tree of life"' the "family" of life", for this seed forms at times theprincipal source of vegetable food of these tribes. He was also spokenof as the Illanyura-Murdu (I), that is of the plant itself.

I observed that there were such Pinarus in the tribes tothe north and north east of the Dieri, such as the Yaurorka, and Yantruwunta.

When in the Yaurorka country, south of Sturts Stony DesertI camped for a night near one of the small groups of that tribe. A partyof the old men, the pinarus of theplace came to see me, and asked meto go with them tosee the "Pina-pinaru", the Great - great one, whocould not come to see me. I went with them andfound sittingin one of thehuts, the oldest blackfellow I ever saw. the other Pinarus were mostlygreay haired and bald, but he was so old as to bealmost childish", and was covered with a grizly (?) of hair from head to foot. The respect withhe was treated by theother old men was as marked in them as was therespect withthey were treated by the younger men.Such Headmen as these appear to be foundin all the tribesof the Lake Eyre Basin, amd probably also in all the tribes whichhave the two Dieri class names.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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Taking the Tongeranka tribe as the example of those of theItchumundi nation (p ). the office of Headmanwas in one sensehereditary, to judge from the instance of the Headman who died in theyear 1884. He succeded his brother, whode son was passed over in hisfavor, for what reason I have not been able to ascertain, and it wasunderstood in the tribe that he would be succeded by his son, who hadalready some authority. This shows the succession to the headmanran in a cetain family butreally depended on the acquiescence ofthe old men, since it was distinctly stated that merit as a fightingman, orator or medicine man, had great weight in securing his power.

In the (?) tribe, a headman must have age, personal prowess,ability as a leader, andeloqence. The authority in the tribe waspractically in the hands ofthe old men.

The Theddora who lived on the sourcesof the Tambo, Ovens andMitta-mitta rivers were practically extinct by the year1860 and all thatI can say is that they had {{Headmen]] who were called turki, and whose author-ity was of much the same degree as that of the Gweraeil-kurnai of theKurnai tribe. I heard much from the few survivors of one Metoko who com-bined the office of Headman and medicine man and this was the analogueof the Gommera of the Coast Murring.

Some interesting particulars are given by Mr. Richard Helmsas to this tribe (I), which I quote in this connection.

"The oldest man of the tribe was recognised as a kind of chiefbut whenever an attack was planned on some enemy, the ablest warrior wasas a rule chosen to lead andhis advice then received the endorsement ofthe old men."

Some of these old men were known to meby repute, not onlyfrom the survivors of the tribe, but alsofrom the Kurnai, Wolgal and Ngarigo, with whom I had been acquainted and whohad known them

(I) Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales Vol. 10, p 3871895.

The principal one seems to have been the Metoko, before mentioned in the (?) who in his character of medicine man could blow a thread "like a spiders web" up to the sky andby it ascend. The principal fighting man was"Cobbon Johnny" that is Big Johnny, whose actual name I never heard. Other Headmen will be mentioned in speaking of the great bloodfeudof the Kurnai later on (p ).

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(?) (?) this I have not been able to learn anything, even from my correspondentwho had exceptonally favorable opportunities of becoming acquaintedwith his "faithful Daliburas"

(I0(3)(4)(5)

(b) The Headman of the Bigambul tribe was he who was the bestfighting man with the strongest following, but a cettain degree of respectwas shown to the old men, amongwhom were the medicine men. (2)

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie
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