Howitt and Fison Papers






It might however be correct to consider the [hanelbura?] as a sub tribe of a much larger tribe, [?] spread over a wide extent of country lying in the head waters of the Belyando River, the Thompson River and of some [confluents?[ of the Mackenzie River Rivers. The [component?] tribes or/are subtribes or of Hordes which compare the larger aggregate adjoining the Wakelbura and speak dialects of the same language, intermarry with it and have generally friendly relations with it and with each other. The group maybe [crossed out - this given] [?], in addition to the Wakelbura tribes:

1 Kŭmbŭkabura [underlined] from Kŭmbŭka the broad leaved Ironbark tree. From the Belyando River westward across the sources of the Thompson River.

2 [Wian bura?] [underlined] from [Owan?] = a young Emu, - on the Upper Belyando River

3 Dora-bura [underlined] from Doro = the roots of a tree. About the junction of the Belyando and Sutter River Rivers.

4. Mūtherabura [underlined] from Wūthera = a grub formed in the Brigalow tree (1)

[Left hand margin note](1) Acacia harpophylla[Fn m.][underline]A. [?] [?] A. aneuraall [?] except T.& W.G.A. glaucescens [Will?]mountain Brigalow.V. or [w?] Q


In the years 1883-1886 this tribe changed its name to Waralabura from waral = boat. The change was made because the owners of the Run put a ferrie boat on a large lagoon near the Homestead and they called itself after this boat. It sems therefore that any unusual circumstance may cause a change in the tribal name.

5 Mŭngki bura [underlined] from mungki the word used by them for "sheep" .[2 words crossed out] Natal Downs and about the Cape River

Adjoining these there are other tribes related to them. The Mūtobura adjoining the Kumbukabura on the [crossed out - best] sources of the Thompson River to the west. The Tilbabura, who became extinct about ten years [crossed out - ago] or more ago adjoined the [?Waubura?] to the South west, and between the Tilbabura and the [Mūtabura?] were the [Terrabura]] who is now also extinct.

6 The Bithel bura once adjoined the the Wakelbura and [Owaubura?] to the East but have long been extinct, and the [Owaubura?] have taken up their country. Beyond the [Mungkebura?] are the [Braubura?] who are again adjoining the [Bringabura?] at the junction of the Belyando and Burdekin River Rivers.

Last edit 6 months ago by Christine


6A[Table][Title]The Kurnai Tribe

Column 1 - Clans, row 1(i) Krauat-ŭn-galŭngfrom Kanat = east; galŭng= a possessive [postfix?] = of or belonging to the sea coast from near Cape Everard to the Snowy River, all that river with its tributaries up to about [Willis?]; the sea coast from the Snowy River to the Entrance to the Gippsland Lakes with all streams flowing into Ewings Marsh and [Ru?yers?] -

[Column 1, row 2](2) [Brabralung?] - from Bra-bra manly and (ga)lung = if or belonging to all the [crossed out - country waters of the] drainage areas of the Tambo, Mitchell, and Nicholson Rivers with the [?] tributaries to their extreme sources, also to the weir on the Mitchell River to Providence Ponds, with a corresponding frontage to the Gippsland Lakes.

[Column 1, row 3](3) Bra-yak-(g)alŭng = him Bra = man, yak = west - all the country west of Providence Ponds watered by the Avon, [crossed out - River]] Macalister [crossed out - and] Thompson and Latrobe Rivers down to the junction of these into [?] & thence [?] valley the eastern bank of the Latrobe to Lake Wellington thence - eastward by the [?] to [somewhere?] near [?], thence northward to Providence Ponds.

Column 2 Title - Lesser [?]Row 1 - a) Ben – Sydenham Inletb) Dūra – 12 miles up the Snowy River from the seac) Wūrnŭng-gattung – Lake Tyersd) Brt-bitta (= a hollow in the ground)– Jimmy’s Point – entrance to Gippsland Lakes

Row 2 - (e) Bruthen, in the Tambo River(f) Waiŭng = widgeon - near Bairnsdale in the Mitchell River(g) Wŭk-wŭk = Lindeman Flat. Mitchell River(h) Mŭnji = on the north shore of Lake Victoria= There! or "the place of" e.g. -?(i) Dairgo - on the Dargo River

Row 3(k) Kŭtbūn-baura from Kŭtbūn = to have or carry and baura = fire. The name also of a hill or the upper Avon River.(l) Bŭnjil Nŭlŭng - the country between the Avon River and the Eastern boundary of the clan, south of Stratford - Bŭnjil = personal appelates of the older men-Nŭlŭng = mud. Named after the Head man of the division at the time when Gippsland was settled by the whites -(m) Bunjil-clan - the country between the Avon and the Macalister Rivers. Dan = emu - the name of a Head man -(n) Bunjil-Kraura from Kraura = west wind [Northern?] country of the clan west of [north?] to them almost impenetrable forested scrub in west Gippsland from the name of the Headman.

Column 3 title Wives fromRow 1 a) wives from b c d and Mallagoota Inlet and Twofold Bayb) wives from c a t and [p. 13] Bina-jera (the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland lakes and the sea as far as the Entrance to the Lakesc) Brüthen – on the Tambo River – Waiūng Widgeon – near Bairnsdale Mitchell River and Kŭbbūn laura – Upper Avon Riverd) b and Bina-jera (see b) or is it I = Būnjil Nŭlŭng – between Avon River and eastern boundary of clan south of the Stratford

wives toa) b c d k Twofold Bay Mallagoota Inletb) c e g t Bina-jerac) Bruthen Waiūng Widgeon Kŭbbūn laura and Bina-jerad) b or I and Bina-jera

Last edit 6 months ago by Christine

hw0406 Notes on Eucalypt names from Gippsland Aboriginal people



Names of the Eucalypts given to them by the Gippsland Aborigines---------------------------------------------------------------------------Kurnai names for the Eucalyptsin the Mŭk thāng Dialect (2) ------------------------------------------------------------E. Amygdalina - [tick] ChūnchŭkaAmygdalina - (b) Katalalak or Yertchukamygdalina - (c)-------------------------------- wang-ngara (2)Botryoides - [tick] BinakCapitellata - [tick] [crossed out Dūmŭng Gūyŭn-gūyŭn] [dūmŭng?]Eugenioides - [tick] [crossed out Dūmŭng] yangūraGlobulus - [tick] [crossed out Binak] (Balūk) - wang njara (2)([Brataua?])Goniocalyx - [tick] BálūkGunii - [tick] Gūra binak Hemiphloia - [tick] Dēn or Dérn [word crossed out]Leucoxylon - [tick] Yirik or BwŭrawiMacrorhyncha - [tick] [Káta katak?] or [(Yūróka)] (3) [Thang quai?]Melliodora - [tick] DárganObliqua - [tick] Káta katakOdorata - [tick] DarganPauciflora - [tick] Bŭndagra3 -Piperita - [tick] YángūraPolyanthema - [tick] Den (or Dern)10-Pulverulenta - Bindŭrk [(word crossed out)]

[On LHS Bindŭrk (Mukthang)

Sieberiana - YauŭtStellulata - YīmbitStuartiana - Bŭt BŭtTereticornis - Yūro5- Viminalis - Binak

11- [four lines bracketed crossed out] wang-ngara

[Line crosssed out]

Tristania laurina - Gūyŭr

[circle with dot] Mŭkthang (i.e. Excellent speech) was spoken by the [Brabolenj? or Brabolung Kurnai whoinhabited the country [upon?] Mitchell, Nicholson Tambo River; [near? or the?] Kruatun Kurnai camp[?] [try?] [Dr?]. camp & spoke the [word crossed out] Thang-quai or " broad speech"; the[Brayakalung?] Kurnai inhabited the south of the Avon, Macalister, Thompson [fl?] River & spoke the Muk Thang or variations of it with Bratàua [two words crossed out]--------2------and Tatung Kurnai who inhabited the country between lakesand the sea in South gippslandsea [Nulit?] spoke the Nūlit

[writing on LHS]

(2) E amygdalina is [Erica?] [rest of line crossed out]The bark of the tree is extremely tough and can be stripped up the bole in long stripes. That of E globulus

is not so tough but hangs at times when falling off from the limbs & [trunk?] in long strings from which [perhaps?] the South Gippsland black called it Wang ngara. [rest of line crossed out]

But wanj = bark and ngara = string or tough [as?] [?] [ngarang]] = sinew the application of such a term is much [more?] [appropriate?] E amygladina [(4)?] than to E globulus.

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie
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