Howitt and Fison Papers


hw0313 Flierl to Howitt 5/9/1888



Terms of Relationship

In the language of the Dieri TribeAscertained by the Rev J. Flierl native word for "my"

The object of this inquiry is to ascertain the specific terms of relationship in the native language by which each person would address the others. To effect this a good plan is to arrange before the native informant sticks or any other con-venient objects in the order marked in the diagram explaining that these objects represent certain persons. It will be found advantageous to construct the diagram by this means little by little, ascertaining the first terms before proceeding to the others. As each term is ascertained it can be marked down in its place on the following list.

Example. Having placed two sticks side by side thus _1 _ 4 explain to the native that Nos. 1 and 4 represent two brothers of whom No. 1 is the elder. Then ask him "what does No. 1 call No. 4"? (i.e. by what term of relationship does he address him.) Supposing the native to be of Gippsland the answer will be Bramung. Insert 1. Bramung opposite to No. 1 calls 4. and ask "what does No. 4 call 1"? The answer will be Tundung. Insert Tundung opposite to No. 4 calls 1. If all the numbers are not procurable insert those which have been ascertained. They cannot fail to be of value. Due honour will be given to all who help in the inquiry when the results are published. Please return when filled up to.

A.W. Howitt Sale

[Diagram]1m 2F 3F 4M5F 6M 7M 8F9M 10F 19M 20F 21M 22F 17M 18F11F 12M 23F 24M 13M 14F 15M 16F 25M 26M

Explanation of Diagram - M signifies males, F signifies female,the persons indicated in the diagram are arranged in order of Seniority and descent. Thus No.1 is the elder brother of 2, 3 and 4. No. 3 is the younger sister of 4. 1 the elder sister of 4. No. 9 is the elder brother of 10. No. 1 is the husband of 5 their children are 9 + 10.No. 10 is the wife of 12 their children are 15 + 16.

[Table]No. 1 calls 2 - ngattata; 4 - ngattata; 5 - noa; 6 - [(tinara tidnara - crossed out] kadi; 8 - [ngatamura- crossed out] jimari; 9 - ngatamura; 10 - ngatamura11 - tidnara; 12 - tidnara; 13 - janko; 14 -janko; 15 - janko; 17 - ngatamura; 19 - tidnara; 25 - kami--------------------------No. 2 calls1 - neji; 3 - ngattata; 5 - kamari; 7 - jimari; 9 - ngatamura; 13 - kami; 25 - kanini; 26 - kanini-------------------------------No. 3 calls2 - kaku; 4 - ngattata; 19 - tidnara; 13 - janka; 15 - janko; 25 - kami; 26 - kami--------------------------------No. 4 calls1 - neji; 3 - [kanku- crossed out] kaku; 13 - janko; 5 - jimari---------------------------------No. 5 calls1 - noa; 2 - kamari; - ? 4 - jimari; 6 - neji; 8 - jimari; 9 - [ngatani - crossed out] ngattani; 11 - kalari; 12 - baiara----------------------------------No. 6 calls1 - kadi; 3 - jimari; 5 - ngattata; 7 - jimari------------------------------------No. 9 calls1 - [apiri - crossed out] aperi; 2 -[apiri waka- crossed out] papa; 3- papa; 4 - aperi waka or mama; 5 - andri; 6 - kaka; 8 - andri waka or jibi-------------------------------------No. 11 calls1 - taru; 5 - kalari--------------------------------------No. 12 calls1 - taru; 5 - baiara--------------------------------------No. 13 calls1 - janko; 2 - janko; 4 - janko; 5 - kami---------------------------------------------No. 15 calls1 - ngadada; 2 - ngadada; 4 - ngadada-----------------------------------------------No. 17 calls1 - aperi pirna; 9 - [negi - crossed out] neji; 10 - [karju- crossed out] kaku; 19 - kami; 20 - kami--------------------------------------------------No. 18 calls9 - neji; 10 - kaku; 11- kamari; 12 - jimari; 19 - jimari; 20 - kamari; 23 - kalari; 24 - neji-----------------------------------------------No. 19 calls1 - kaka; 3 - andri waka or jibi; 5 - papa; 7 -aperi waka; 9 - [neji - crossed out] kami; 10 - kami; 13 - tidnara-------------------------------------------------No. 20 calls9 - kami; 10 - kami; 13 - tidnara--------------------------------------------------No. 21 calls2 - andri (pirna); 9 [neji -crossed out] kami; 19 - [karku-crossed out] neji; 20 - kaku---------------------------------------------No. 22 calls19 - neji; 20 - kaku; 23 - kamari; 9- [negi- crossed out] kami-----------------------------------------------------No. 25 calls1 - kami; 3 - kami-------------------------------------------------No. 26 calls1 - neji; 2 - kanini; 3 - kanini waka

Last edit 16 days ago by ALourie

hw0317 Vocabulary, kinship notes



Fraternal group--------------------------22. Elder brother = neji23. Elder sister = Kaku24. Younger Brother = ngattata25. Younger sister = ngattata26. M. Father's Brother's son = neji or ngattata27. M. Father's Brother's daughter = Kaku or ngattata28. M. [Father - crossed out] Mother's sisters son = neji or ngattata29. M. Mother's sister's daughter = Kaku or ngattata30. M. Father's sisters son = Kami31. M. Fathers sister's daughter = Kami32. M. Mother's brother's son = Kami33. M. Mother's brother's daughter = Kami

N.B. If the person speaking were Female the terms would remain the same. for instance

34. M. Father's pirauru's son = neji or ngatata35. M. Mother's pirauru's son = neji or ngattata

Last edit about 1 year ago by ALourie

hw0318 Information from Gason, Volgelsang, Meyer and Flierl



[Table with 4 columns on page] CFraternal Group------------------------

22 Elder brother neji23 Elder sister Kaku The terms given by you seem to be absolutely correct 24 Younger Brother ngatata I have added those in red pencil which I think you25 Younger sister ngatata will find to be also correct -26 M Father's brother's son neji or ngattata [ngattata in red] [Different hand writing in German] In diesen Fãllen kammt es ganz 27 M Father's brother's daughter Kaku or ngattata [ngattata in red] darauf an, welcher von den Vatern der 28 M Mother's sister's son neji or ngattata [ngattata in red] âltere ist darnach richtet sich die 29 M Mother's sister's daughter Kaku or ngattata [ngattata in red] Benennung. [z -crossed out] E. Missionar Flierl, 30 M Father's sister's son Kami welcher gegenwartig in New Gurnea 31 M Father's sister's daughter Kami ist, nannten die hiesigen Eingebarnen 32 M Mother's brother's son Kami immer meinen "neji" âlteren Bruder, 33 M Mother's brother's daughter Kami wiewohl er 5 Jahre jünger ist als ich, 34 M Father's pirauru's son neji or ngattata [both in red] weil sein Vater älter ist als der meinige.35 M Mother's pirauru's son neji or ngattata [both in red]Note. If the person speakingin 26 to 35 were female the terms would be the same.

Column 4

Last edit about 1 year ago by ALourie


[Five column table]

Marital Group A

[Column 1] [Column 2] [Column 3 ] [Column 4] [Column 5]Gason Vogelsang Meyer FlierlHusband Noa noa Noa noaHusband's brother Noa wauka ------ [Kadi - crossed out] Jimari F Sister's husband Noa wauka ------ Yimari JimariAccessory husband Pirauru --------- Nginjaru Pirauru ? or NginjaruWife Noa noa noa noaWife's sister Noa noa ngattata Kamari Jimari or noa wakaM Brother's wife Noa noa yimari Yimari JimariAccessory wife Pirauru ------------- pirauguru noa?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Filial Group [B C - crossed out] B

M Son Athamoora ngata mura ngata mura ngata muraM Brother's Son Athamoora ngata mura ngata mura ngata muraM Wife's Sister's son ---------? ngata mura ngata mura ---------?M Pirauru's son Athamoora ------------------------------------------- ---------?F Son Athanie ngatani ngatani ngattaniF Sister's son Athanie wauka --------------- ngatani ----------?F Husband's Brother's son --------? --------------------- ngatani - ngattaniF Pirauru's son athanie wauka? --------------------------------------- ----------?-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Parental Group C

Father Apirie Appiri aperi aperiFather's brother apirie wauka appiri mama aperi waka ormamaMother's Sister's Husband apirie wauka appiri apiri waka aperi wakaMother's pirauru apirie wauka --------------- ngin aperi waka ?Mother andrie ngandri andri andriMother's Sister andrie wauka ngandri ----------------- andri wakaFather's brother's wife andrie wauka ngandri andri waka andri waka or jibiFather's pirauru andrie wauka ----------------- --------------- andri waka--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Fraternal Group D

Elder Brother Niehie negi negi mejiElder Sister Kakoo Kauku Kaku KakuYounger Brother Athata ngatata ngattata ngattataYounger Sister Athata ngattata ngattata ngattataM Fath. Bro. son niehie negi negi neji ----? (1) or athata or ngattata or ngattataor ngattata[ditto] [ditto] daughter Kakoo Kauku Kaku Kaku --?or athata or ngattata or ngattataMoth. Sist. son niehie negi negi neji ---? or athata or ngattata or ngattata[ditto] [ditto] daughter Kakoo Kauku Kaku or athata or ngattata or ngattata Kaku ---?Father Sister's son cumimie Kami Kami Kami [ditto] [ditto] daughter cummie Kami Kami Kami Mother's brother's son cumimie Kamie Kami Kami [ditto] [ditto] daughter cumimie Kamie Kami Kami

(1) give his note

(1)The age of the respective parents of [?] (cousins!!!) determines their ages as to the children.i. In the circular filled in by Mr Flierl these referred to the numbers representing [Fall. [?] Brother & 7 [?] B. daughter -crossed out][respectively - crossed out] generally [Fath par - crossed out] the [son of - crossed out] child of the clan brother or sister of the parent of the person speaking [this is all - crossed out]Thus Fath. Eld Broth. is = Apiri pirna (Flierl) + Moth. Younger sister's husband = apiri waka (Flierl)

Last edit 23 days ago by ALourie

hw0367 Dieri Parental and Filial Groups



[Table of 3 columns - column 2 for Gason has no entries - column 3 Meyer word]

Fraternal group [underlined]

45 Elder brother; negi46 Elder sister; Ka Kū47 Younger brother; ngatata48 Younger sister; ngatata49 Fathers Pirauru's son; negi or ngatata50 Fathers Pirauru's daughter; Kaku or ngatata51 Mothers Pirauru's son; neji or ngatata52 Mothers Pirauru's daughter; Kaku or ngatata/njatata53 Husbands sisters husband; neji or ngatata/njatata54 Wifes brothers wife; Kaku or ngatata/njatata55 Fathers brothers son; neji or ngatata/njatata56 Fathers brothers daughter; Kaku or ngatata/njatata57 Mothers sisters son; neji or ngatata/njatata58 Mothers sisters daughter; Kaku or ngatata

59 Fathers sisters son; Kami60 Fathers sisters daughter; Kami61 Mothers brothers son; Kami62 Mothers brothers daughter; Kami

Am I correct in thinking that 49 to 58 inclusive maybe elder brother or younger Son - and elder sister or younger sister as the case might be? - You have not given me term. I have added there but seem to be required.

The construction of diagram A shows that the word brother has a much wider significance among the Dieri than any [crossed out ' natives eg. the'] the [?] European [?]. It instructs not only the [?] of in 1 & 2 or 3 & 4 respectively, the whole of the [sons?] of both parents collectively. WHy are they all elder or younger brothers. [crossed out 'And there is no'] But is the [same?] with 'sister'. over the action [?] further, the fraternal group, comes to include [?] among the childrenof [heart shape] groups of brothers or of a group of sisters, but it also includes in the same group all the children of the piraurus if/of their brothers or sisters. Such a group may be a very large one in numbers.

When we [consider?] relation 59 to 62 in [?] in [?] with diagram -A, It becomes [?] that they cannot [be a?] the

I am [relate?] to each other of those he [?] [?] connected. 7 & 8 are fraternal because they have their parents in common. But the parents of 7 & 8 are such that no possibility of [?] relativecan extert [?] them. Therefore their children should in a different relation [?] each other. The relation cannot be a fraternal one but is [?] that [cannot read last line]

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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