Howitt and Fison Papers


XM593 Beliefs




Among the [Ngaragn?] white men were called mūgan, [crossed out - that is ghost], the [nalgal?] term was ma-mūjan both meaning "ghost",

[Crossed out - A white man] The Kamilary called a white man "Wunda" and believed him to be a [crossed out - letters] blackfellow come back again.

My valued correspondent the late [Mr Chasey?] who lived for 5+ years in the Kamilary country - had the mark of Cupping in his back and the Kamilaroi [??] not be [??] but he was not a Murri (1) [emu?] back - The marks in his back being his mombarai or "family marks". -

[Left margin note](1) [crossed out - that is] "man" that is Kamilariblack

The Karabara also thought that white men were blackfellows returned again after death.

The old men of the tribe about Maryborough (I?) when the spirits of white men said "The is all right these are the "[crossed out - mit] mŭt-hara" (1) come back from the island, and they often [recognized?] white men as relatives come back to them and [gave?] them [crossed out - the] names & the family were quite [??] [??] anything [??] of them.

[next page] [very feint text]

As a first instance [I may?] quote by Mr [??]. Where [crossed out - has ?? ??] in the Cooper Creek nature searching for the [??] [crossed out - the] Burke & Wills in 1862 I was frequently asked by blacks to leave & [??] shouting distance with the [northern [jirri-irri?] [Kumbi?] which [being?] of the [sun?] wandering ghost. Indeed the [??] [Wuthi? or Muthi?] is even now used in the Dieri language for any thing relating to the white men, even [crossd out - 2 words] [??] -[??] [??] by the speakers [??] [Wuchi?]. Subsequently after I did find [??] at [Kutchi-werina?] [??] [crossed out - only no] one corpse and [crossed out - the far] and part of there [??] tribe (see p -) which [proceeded?] [??] South a [??] [??] of the [Callabirru?] creek in the Grey Range since the first are a [crossed out - a] and their [??] the [Minfalls?] - [??] [??] in the [Lace?] [legend?] where [??] [??] did many [??] to [??] . 191

[Left margin note]1) There being of the [Nunyalli?] totem [??] of the [Ji?] class, the [organisation?] of the

Last edit 17 days ago by ALourie

XM690 The organization of Australian tribes




[Two words crossed out] This system of which the Dieri [crossed out - is represented by the]classes and totems + are an example extends over an immense area and only surrounding Lake Eyre butalso extending up the Barcoo River probably at least as far as ? [crossed out - Mt ?ilt] in the N. west of Lake Eyre to [no name recorded] where as [?] Spencer tells us (2) it is replaced by the four class system of the - [no name recorded] tribes. A from p 18A To the southward it extended down the Flinders Ranges [crossed out - and back] to near Port Augusta and has been recorded at Port Lincoln (3). [crossed out - overall these ext] Then the clan names Materi and Kararu cover an area -[no area given] miles - [no area given] miles. In table Appendix A are given the [identitie?] and variation in the totems of each class name for a number of tribes.

To the South East the Kararu and Materi do not extend beyond the range of the [Yantru wunta?] tribe whose limits [?] may be simply definded by the Grey/Grey Range and Barrier Ranges.

To the Eastward of the limit there is a similar great area occupied by allied tribes having a two clan organization, the classes being Muthwara and Kilpara with assorted totems.

This area [crossed out - carved by] may be defned as extendiing to the Warrego River to some distance East of the River Darling and for some distance both above and below the Junction of the Darling/Darling River & Murray/Murray River (4).

The class and totem system of these tribes are illustrated by the following [crossed out - taken from] which [?] in the Wily (1) a tribe occupying the counry about the Grey Range, Kingsgaite (2) occupying the country N & S of Cadell Ranges Būlali (5) (3) Boolati occupying the Barrier Range country, and (4) TongarauKa (6) occupyingte country about Momba, Tarella, Wonominta & [Yandarlo?] including the Dunbury Range.

[Left margin notes]+ Were it not that the word totem has been so long established in the English language and that it has a meaning wuite apropriate to the Australian facts, I [ful?]temped to introduce the Dieri word "murdu" as correct.

(2) quote this work(3)sent to [Mehelmi?](4) See as to local organization of these tribes p 14.(5) From Būlali - a hill(6) Tongarauka = Hillside or "under a hill"

[Table][Column 1] Class divisionsMūKwara[Column 2] TotemsBilyara - EaglehawkTirlta - KangarooBūrKūma - BandicootKultapa - DuckKarni - Frilled lizardYaranga - opossumKurli - dog

[Column 1] Class divisionsKilpara[Column 2] TotemsKulthi - EmuTūrū - carpet snakenamba - bonefishBauanyal - PadymelonWongarū - wallaby

Last edit 17 days ago by ALourie

XM692 Chapter V Tribal Governments




The Tongaranka [tribe - crossed out] represents a number of tribes [on the Eastern side of - crossed out] in the country between the Barrier & Grey Range and the Darling River all of whom [are also - crossed out] recognise themselves as Itchimunduwhich designation I have taken as the name of [that - crossed out] a Nation (see p -)

Among them the office of Headman was in one sense hereditary, but it did not descend in the direct [line not - crossed out] nor apparently in the female line although the [totem - crossed out] class & totem names did so. This seems therefore to be an [is therefore - crossed out] [one of the - crossed out] instances in which [the -crossed out] it was the Headman [was - crossed out] of the local division of the tribe and not [of the - crossed out] of the totem.

The Headman in the year 1884 succeeded his brother [and - crossed out] whose son was passed over in his favour, and it was understood in the tribe that he would be suceeded by his son who had some authority. [But althou - crossed out] This shows that although appertaining to a certain family, the succession to it really depended upon the acquiescence of the old men since it was distinctly stated that merits as a fighting man, orator or medicine man had great weight in [causing - crossed out] securing his power.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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