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Vol 631 Tramway Winch LH Reports 1884 and 1885
Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations for the fiscal year ended June 30th 1885 In this district there are – Light-houses, and Lighted beacons ------------------------------ 39 Day of Unlighted beacons ------------------------------------------14 Fog signals operated by steam ------------------------------------4 Fog signals struck by machinery -----------------------------------2 Whistling –buoys in position ----------------------------------------2 Other buoys in position ----------------------------------------------127 Buoys, Duplicate, and spare ----------------------------------------106 Steamer, “Shubrick” Buoy tender and for supplies and Inspection – 1 Light-Houses The numbers preceding the names of the stations correspond with the List of Light Houses
Yaquina Bay Built 1869 to 1871
the question of the necessity for a light at or near Yaquina Bay, Oregon, in connection with a general programme for lighting the Pacific Coast, and as a necessary prelimniary (preliminary???) have secured by reservation a sufficient quantity of land for this purpose. It is not deemed advisable, in advance of the next annual estimates, to call for further appropriation for the Pacific Coast. The subject of the improvement of the harbor of Queenstown, Maryland, referred to in the petition, does not come within the province of the Board. The papers are herewith returned.
Feb 19th, 1869
From Chairman L.H. Board Adml. W.B. Shubrick
Sir: I have had the honor to receive the letter from H. E. Stilley Esq., addressed to Hon John Poole and referred to this Board for report. The buoys in the District embracing North Carolina are attended ( raised cleaned, painted &c) by the regular Buoy Tender, which vessel, is now provided with a competent master. The letter is returned.
Feb 19th, 1869
From Chairman L.H. Board Adml. W.B. Shubrick
Coast Guard District narrative histories 1945
to the 350 watt and 750 watt electric lamps of today; this limitation permitted slight variation in the range of the lighted beacons. The lenses increased and magnified the light as they revolved to produce a flashing effect.
Reminicenses of the Lighthouse men who tended these lights during the years when the Northwest was, for the most part, a mountainous wilderness, make interesting listening. Even after the invention of railroads, telephones and the automobile, trips to coastal Light Stations involved travel by boat, stage and horseback. Stage drivers informed passengers before the journey began, that there was no guarantee that the stage could complete the trip, in which event, the traveller made the remainder of his journey on foot. Seasonal rains, washouts, and the miserable conditions of the "roads" (deer trails, or Indian paths) made such stipulations a necessity. Today's brief trip from Bandon to Cape Blanco, Oregon, can be made either way in a fraction of an hour; earlier travellers spent three days; The uncertainty of transportation was illustrated in the following anecdote: An engineer of the Lighthouse Service was called to Destruction Island to repair the boilers. A buoy tender took the engineer to the Island and he requested that the tender return on Friday to pick him up. Friday came - and went; another Friday - no tender; a third Friday - and in the distance the curl of a tender's smoke was seen on the horizon (in those days the smoke trails of the various type ships identified them to the men whose idle hours were spent watching the horizon for the vessels that occasionally appeared there.) When the Master of the tender was admonished for his tardiness, he replied, "You said to come on Friday; isn't this Friday?". Time was of little import.
Life on the Light Stations until the middle thirties was a world of its own. Because of their locations there were no telephone facilities, and commercial electric power did not reach to the outposts. There were generally two keepers and their families assigned to each station and the competition for the most tidy and efficient station among the keepers was keen. A few of the isolated stations at Tillamook Rock, Destruction Island, Cape Flattery, etc. had four or five keepers, one on continuous liberty rotation. With the installation of radiobeacons at many of the stations, it became necessary to bring in commercial electric power or generate power at the station. With electricity available, the i.c.v. light was superceded, the fog signals mechanized, and the comforts of the keeper's dwellings increased. Telephone service or radio-telephone service soon followed as
miles from Mason City to the Canadian border. A question arose as to whether or not Roosevelt Lake constituted part of "the navigable waters of the United States" as interpreted by the laws. In March, 1944, the Law Officer advised that Roosevelt Lake was navigable and, together with the Columbia River which flows into it and gives rise to it, furnished a water way for foreign commerce. With this fact established, it became necessary to establish aids to navigation along the lengths of this lake. At that time, there was very little traffic on Roosevelt Reservoir but it was the opinion of local marine interests that the traffic was bound to increase not only commercially but in pleasure craft following the war. Numerous hazards existed that made travel especially dangers under the conditions as they then existed. In a meeting between the Superintendent of the Coulee Dam and representatives of the District Coast Guard Officer, location were proposed for spar buoys to be anchored in the lake and provide the shortest run from Grand Coulee Dam to Kettle Falls, Washington. These locations were consistent with assumed limitations of 20 feet of water at buoy locations with a maximum reservoir drawdown at elevation 1208 and a minimum distance between the buoys 1/2 mile; the normal elevation of the reservoir when full is 1290. An investigation made by the Aids to Navigation Officer determined that 27 lights and 10 reflectors would suffice to mark the lake. The Bureau of Reclamation was in favor of the establishment of 51 buoys but the District Coast Guard Officer felt that buoys would be impracticable for several reasons. Due to the lowering of the water to different levels which would cause different shoal areas to appear and changes would have to be made in the buoys to keep the channel safely and effectively marked. Furthermore, the mountainous land area which formed the bottom of the lake together with the deep water, rendered use of buoys inadvisable; for in many places the buoys would be moored in over 200 feet of water which would require large buoys and, consequently, the services of a buoy tender. Unlighted buoys were not considered, for, as such, they would be inadequate. For these reasons then the Aids to Navigation Officer determined that the 27 lights and 10 reflectors would be adequate. These lighted aids would consist of a battery box on a concrete foundation with a 200mm lantern with a focal plane of 12 feet. Aids were to display a white light of 90 candlepower, flashing either every 4 seconds, 6 seconds or 10 seconds, and were to be serviced by the Seattle Operating Base twice a year with half of the batter cells being relieved at a time. The Bureau of Reclamation extended the use of one of its boats to be used in establishing these aids and in the servicing of them.
In order to keep the navigational aids in proper working condition, a fleet of tenders was necessary to service buoys and lights throughout the waterways of the nation. With the first Congressional appropriation for buoys for the Northwest, a tender, the SHUBRICK, a wooden hulled, side wheeler, was assigned to the Pacific Coast. The SHUBRICK, as well as other early tenders, served double duty, acting as both buoy tender and revenue outter. In her latter capacity, the SHUBRICK carried 12-pound cannons as well as small arms. This single vessel serviced all aids along the coast until February, 1880, when the vessel was transferred to the lower Pacific Coast and relieved in the Seattle area by the first MANZANITA. Of historical interest is the fact that the SHUBRICK was the first vessel of considerable size to navigate the Columbia River beyond the present location of the Bonneville Dam.
As traffic in the Northwest waters increased, so did the need for navigational aids and, consequently, the work of the tenders. The first MANZANITA carried the burden along until the COLUMBINE, a U.S. Army Engineers vessel, was assigned to the same area. This ship was built and maintained by the U.S. Army Engineers and operated by the Lighthouse Service for servicing aids of the Lighthouse Establishment. ( As the Bureau of Lighthouses was previously called.) The MANZANITA was sunk off Warrior Rock in the vicinity of St. Helens, Oregon, in the Columbia River, and the COLUMBINE performed tender duties alone until the second MANZANITA was completed. These two, together with the HEATHER, operated for several years until the COLUMBINE was transferred to the Honolulu District. The ROSE, and soon thereafter, the RHODODENDRON and FIR were commissioned and assigned to duty in the Seattle Area. When the FIR reported, the HEATHER was removed from duty and tied to the sea wall at the Lake Union Locks until the outbreak of the war. At that time, the Army borrowed her and she was never returned. The old MANZANITA lay for a considerable time a derelict, off Warrior Rock, but was raised, refitted and is still operating as a seagoing tug under the name DANIEL KERN. Two fine tenders were commissioned and attached to the 13th Naval District during the war, the BASSWOOD, 1944, and the BLUEBELL, the following year. The BASSWOOD was transferred after a year's general aids to navigation duty which involved servicing isolated units and the LORAN project in Vancouver Island. ( See LORAN). In addition to these large tenders, the CG-65302-D was engaged in buoy work and the maintenance of minor aids on the Upper Columbia River between the Dalles, Oregon and Pasco, Washington.