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1900 2nd asst quarters Vol. 1385
Subject: Portland, Oreg., Dec. 29, 1900
The Light-House Board, Washington, D. C.
At Yaquina Head Light-Station there are three keepers, the quarters comprise one double dwelling which is occupied by the keeper and one assistant with families. This leaves the other assistant without quarters as there is no room in the double dwelling. This condition of affairs has existed ever since the light was established in 1881 and one assistant has been compelled to occupy a building erected for temporary use as an office by the contractors for the erection of the tower and dwelling, being flimsily constructed in the first instance, its condition has gradually grown worse and worse until now it is practically uninhabitable and new quarters should be provided. It has been patched and repaired all it will stand. For the last two years recommendation has been made in the annual report that an appropriation be obtained for a new dwelling but so far without avail. A suitable dwelling can be constructed for $4,000.00.
At Ediz Hook Light-Station the dwelling is arranged for the accommodation of one family, but as there are two keepers employed the quarters are insufficient and a new dwelling is urgently needed. 163
It is ?? suitable building can be ??? $4,500.00.
At New Dungeness Light-Station the dwelling is arranged for one family but as there are two keepers with families employed and a third keeper necessary, there is insufficient accommodation and a new dwelling is urgently needed. Recommendation has been made in last six annual reports that an appropriation be obtained. It is estimated that a suitable dwelling can be constructed for $4,500.00.
At Robinson Point Light-Station the dwelling is arranged for the accommodation of one family, but as there are two keepers employed the quarters are insufficient and a new dwelling is an urgent necessity. Recommendation has been made in last four annual reports that an appropriation be obtained. It is estimated that a suitable building can be constructed for $4,000.00.
I would respectfully request to be informed if these dwellings can be built out of any funds available, especially the one for Yaquina Head. If no funds are available then it is respectfully suggested that special effort be made to obtain these funds during the present session of Congress.
If the Board thought advisable it would seem that a joint resolution could be readily obtained transferring the amount needed for the erection of these dwellings from the balance in the Treasury to the credit of Grays Harbor Light-Station, Wash. This balance as shown by the records of this office is $17,978.81 ($18,704.42) and the amount needed for these dwellings can be easily spared from that appropriation as the station has been practically completed.
Vol 348 Engineer Reports 13th Dist. 1873 and 1874 CF Exhibted YB Discontinued
Office of the Light House Engineer Thirteenth District Portland, Oregon July 26, 1873 Sir: I have the honor to make the following Report of Operations for the Month of June, 1873. Yaqunia Bay LH Ogn. Examined land with reference to 20 acres being sufficient for LH purposes. Cape Foulweather Lt Station Ogn. Shipped missing parts of Lantern from San Francisco. Sodded yard where wind was tearing away soil. Made arrangements for re-whitewashing tower. Probable Operations in July. Rewhitewashed Tower. Begin the erection of the Lantern. Point Adams Lt Station, Ogn. In company with Capt. Spotts LH Inspector, selected LH Site. Carefully examined different roads from Steamer landing as Fort Stevens, to proposed LH Site, and made rough plan & estimate for Road over the best route. Advertised for Proposals for Fog Signal Boilers for this station and New Dungeness LH Station, W.T. Cape Flattery Lt. Ho. W.T. Took men and materials to this station and area by completed carpenter work on Tank for Water. Commenced caulking tank. Probable Operations for July. Complete Tank and fill with water from cistern. Repair fog signal and put into operation. Stay rotten joists in Lt. House Very respectfully, Henry M Roberts Chairman Light-H0use Board. Maj. Of Eng’rs & L.H. Eng’r Washingotn DC Thirteenth District
YH LH location and building Vol. 311
Hoisted to the top of the Island & carried to S.H. Site the Brick and balance of materials. Graded around Cistern & for the Wood & Engine House. Completed House except inside work & painting. Emptied Cistern of water 10 or 12 times, the depth of water dipped out running from one to seven feet; & the constant streams of water interfering materially, with the progress of the work. Completed Brick work on cistern, except the floor. Erected Fog Signal apparatus & kept in operation nearly one week instructing the Light Keeper & one assistant in its management. Probable Operations for June Complete House, & paint it. Floor, Plastering, & Top of Cistern. Deliver 25 Tons of coal in Wood House, from Neah Bay. Make drawings of completed work. Inspect Light House. Probable General Work for JuneCareful Inspection of the following Light Stations, with reference to improvements & repairs; Cape Flattery, Ediz Hook, New Dungeness, Smith's Island, + Admiralty Head.
Very respectfully, Your obedient servant, Henry M. Robert Maj. of Eng'rs & L.H. Eng'r, Thirteenth District.
1871-1872 keeper selection and LH building Vol. 336
Ediz Hook Lt Station, W. T.
Carpenter, Mason, Tender, with small supply of materials for light repairs urgently necessary.
Probable Operation in November Replace dangerous stove. Plaster cellar. Repair wood-work in Tower. Refloor Lantern, & cover parapet with new Zinc (Now Leaks).
New Dungeness Lt Station, W.T.
Made walk to Bell-Tower. Enclosed store-room & wood-house. Completed mason-work on Cisterns, 1 new, & 2 old. Delivered most of the Earth for the garden, & 2000 rails & posts for fence. Built about 1/2 mile of fence around pasture. Probable Operations in Nov. Complete work authorized
Admiralty Head Lt House, W. T. Put new zinc floor on Lantern parapet.
Cape Hancock Lt. Ho. W.T. Probable Operation in November Secure men, materials, & transportation for new oil house
Your obedient servant, Henry M Robert Maj. of Eng'rs & L.H. Eng'r, Thirteenth District.
Office of the Light House Engineer Thirteenth District
Portland, Oregon March 5", 1873
Chairman Light House Board Washington D. C.
I herewith submit report of operations for the month of February:
Cape Foulweather Lt Station, Ogn. Put 2 coats of paint on Watch-room, & lantern deck. Completed brickwork. Removed all scaffolding & e So Store-House. Cape Hancock Lt Station, W. L. Commenced Painting.
Probable Work for March. Finish painting. Strengthen Chimney leaks. Put eave troughs & pipes on Oil-House.
Inspected work at Cape Foulweather , Ediz hook, New Dungeness, & Admiralty-Head. Attended meeting of Board of Examiners for Light Keepers at Astoria.
Sent Lampist & Machinist to Cape Flattery Lt Station to put fog Signal into repair.
Very respectfully, Your obedient servant,
Henry M Robert Maj. of Eng'rs & L. H. Eng'r, Thirteenth District
New Dungeness Lt. Station, W.S. Purchased and shipped materials for completion of repairs. Put floor in Boat House & battens on sides. Finished door, & furnished paddock for same. Connected work-house with cistern by covered pipe. Put coat paint on Boat House & 2 coats on inside of Store Room. Inspected work of Repairs, & examined Keeper & Assistant with Capt. Spotts.
Probable Operations for April Put eave-troughs (galvanized iron) in place of defective ones on Store Room. Refit pump in Cistern. Put 2" coat paint on Boat-House; 1 coat paint on inside & outside of store-room. Put stakes to fence. Build 60 ft of new ways for Boat. Repair Boat Carriage. Connect Storeroom with Cisterns. Paint Roofs of Storeroom & Boat House.
Very respectfully, Your obedient servant, Henry M. Roberts Maj. of Eng'rs & L.H. Eng'r, Thirteenth District.
1870-73 Lighthouse Board Annual Reports
1873 All errors or omissions in the last list should be corrected. The light House Lists corrected as herein required, should be mailed to arrive at this office on or before the 1st of December next.
Sept. 3 From engineer Secretary Major G.H. Elliot To Major H.M. Robert Corps Engineers Sir: The Board desires that you will at once report in full the present condition of the Light House at Cape Foulweather and the appropriate time it will be lighted.
Sept. 8 From Engineer Secretary Major G.H. Elliot To Major H.M. Robert Corps Engineers Sir: The extension of time, sixty day, recommended by your letter of the 21st August, to be granted to Charles F. Brown contractor for Light Keeper's dwelling at Cape Foulweather, Oregon is approved.
On Side Cape Foulweather L.H. condition Cape Foulweather L.H. keepers dwelling - extension of time on contract Telegram
Coast Guard District narrative histories 1945
When the Lighthouse Service consolidated with the Coast Guard in 1939, there were 1,362 aids to navigation in the district including 31 major light stations, four lightships, 133 fog signals, 12 radio beacons, 672 minor light stations, including lighted buoys, and 676 unlighted buoys and daymarks. The oldest of the major light stations were Cape Disappointment and New Dungeness, which were completed in 1856 as the first activity of the Lighthouse Service in the Pacific Northwest.
Three-hundred and forty-seven Lighthouse personnel were employed in the Seattle District at the time of the consolidation. It was appreciated and understood that there was a natural reluctance on the part of the personnel to transfer from the Bureau to another service. To overcome the hesitation the transfer was effected by avoiding discharges whenever possible and making reductions in personnel by not filling vacancies which were in effect at the time of the transfer.
Superintendents of the former Lighthouse Districts became assistants to the District Commanders of the Coast Guard Districts for the administration and operation of the lighthouse functions. On November 13, 1939, the Superintendent and one clerk transferred from the Portland Lighthouse Service Office, 17th Lighthouse District, to the Seattle District Coast Guard Office (then in the Federal Building at the foot of Marion Street). The remainder of the Portland Office staff reported for duty on the morning of December 18, 1939. On that same day, the former superintendent of the 17th Lighthouse District was commissioned a commander in the United States Coast Guard to serve as Chief of Staff under the District Coast Guard Officer.
Of the personnel transferred, there were 70 keepers in residence on the stations in 1939. During the war, this number increased to 176 on these stations because of the fact that unskilled men inducted into the service had not had the training, background nor interest in the stations which had been common to the men earlier assigned there. Furthermore, the work at the station increased during the war years; Coastal Lookout units with their dogs and horses were generally located on Station grounds. This necessitated turning the dwellings of the Keepers into barracks to quarter the increased personnel and building kennels, stables and shelters for equipment. The end of the war began the gradual reduction of the stations to their normal peactime complements. -22-
The "romance" of the old Lighthouse has been lost, for the most part, by the mechanization of the lights and the modernization of related equipment. Isolated lighthouse sites have radio or telephone communication, motor launches, and electrically operated lights or signals. The oil lantern has been superceded and supplemented by radio aids - raidobeacons, RADAR beacons and LORAN. In addition to the lights' rays, there are "pips" and "blips" and "pulses" to guide the mariner to safety. However, though these electronic aids be far more reaching and provide greater accuracy than the light, they can never instill the same warm rush of relief and thanksgiving that fills the sailor's heart when the first pale rays of a familiar light beacon breaks through the fog and rain after anxious hours on a stormy sea.
When the Lighthouse Service consolidated with the Coast Guard, 31 major light stations were among the facilities transferred to the Seattle District.¹ Many of these Light Stations had tales of heroism, danger and tragedy woven into their histories. The oldest of these stations were the lights at Cape Disappointment and New Dungeness, completed in 1856 as the first activity of the Lighthouse Service in the new frontier - the Pacific Northwest.
The New Dungeness Lighthouse was built in 1857 on a spit off the south shore of the Strait of Juan de Fuca near the entrance to Puget Sound. Cape Disappointment Beacon was constructed on the only headland of the low beach between Tillamook Head and Point Grenville (80 miles), on the north point of the entrance to the Columbia River. The following year, another lighthouse was erected on Tatoosh Island just off the tip of Cape Flattery. The Island had previously been used as a whaling station and fishing headquarters by the Indians who had been, until then, the sole inhabitants. Before the Lighthouse was built, a blockade was established and muskets furnished to the workmen as protection against marauding Indians. The first Keeper of the station resigned because of the "annoyances" he and the other 3 white men suffered at the hands of the 250 Indians living there. Because of the treacherous waters and shoals, the easiest access to the Island was by a huge basket. In calm weather, boats could land on the beach but the basket method was the more dependable. This was by no means a "primitive" devise, for the basket and its hoist are still the best means to effect a landing.
the construction of roads by the State Highway Departments made the outlying stations more readily accessible.
Seventy keepers were in residence on the Stations when the Lighthouse Service was consolidated with the Coast Guard in 1939. During the war, this number had increased to 176 on these stations. The increase was due, primarily, to the fact that unskilled men inducted into the Service had not the training, background, nor interest in the Station which was common to the men earlier assigned there. Furthermore, the work at the station increased during the war years; Coastal Lookout units with their dogs and horses were generally located on Station grounds. this necessitated turning the dwellings of the Keepers into barracks to quarter the increased personnel and building kennels, stables and shelters for equipment. The end of the war began the gradual reduction of the Stations to their normal peacetime complements.
Early in the war, the Commandant, 13th Naval District, ordered the concealment of ten of the Light Stations that were near military areas or war industries. The walls were "toned down" with gray and the space under the eaves painted black to accentuate the silouette of the Station as it appeared from the water. (Tongue Point Repair Base was provided with a camouflage net to cover the wharves where vari-colored buoys and markers were stored. This Base was in the vicinity of the Naval Air Station, Astoria, and the work was done in conjunction with assistance from that activity.) Army activities near Coast Guard units furnished the paint for camouflaging the structures. The last of the stations was returned to its normal peace time color by the end of the summer, 1945. (See sixth page for camouflage technique)
A continuous lookout adwatch was maintained by the Keepers of New Dungeness, Ediz Hook, Slip Point and Cape Flattery Lighthouses beginning, strangely enough, 6 December, 1941. All vessels, aircraft, or any suspicious activity (such as attempts at communications between persons on shore (such as attempts at communications between persons on shore and unidentified vessels) were reported to Naval Section Base at Port Angeles and the Harbor Defense, Fort Worden. This order directed that persons engaged in suspicious activity should be apprehended and taken into custody. However, this directive was rescinded and, rather than take such individuals into custody, observers notified the nearest Army or Navy intelligence who took the necessary action.
Drills in the use of the gas mask were held at all Light Stations and a course in Chemical Warfare was complusory
Correspondence of LH board 1901-1910
Department of Commerce and Labor Light-House Establishment
Office of Inspector, 13th District Portland, Oreg.
6 September, 1904
The Light-House Board, Washington.
Sirs. In accordance with the Board's letter of 30 August, 1904, File No. 1053, I recommend the appointment of Mr. Michael Ludescher as Second Assistant Keeper at Yaquina Head Light Station, Oregon, at a salary of $550.00 Mr. Ludescher has an average of 87.40 per sent in the list of eligibles for Assistant Keepers in Class 4, certified to the Board 2 April, 1904. Of those whose names stand above his on that list Mr. Otto Hansen (letter enclosed with recommendation of Mr. Cornelius W. Stidham (letter of 5 July, 1904, enclosed) have declined appointment to New Dungeness Light Station on account of the lack of suitable quarters for their families. THe same objection applies in the present case, as Yaquina Head Light Station has quarters for the families of only two Keepers. I was instructed br the Board's letter of 15 August, 1904, File No. 1053, to recommend for appointment at this station only "Assistant Keepers without families, or who understand that no accomodations for their families will be provided."
Department of Commerce and Labor
ATJ. File No. 1053.
16 Sept., 1904
Commander C. G. Calkins, U. S. N.,
Inspector 13th L. H. District,
Referring to your letter of 6 Sept., '04, asking the probationary appointment of Mr. Michael Ludescher as Second Assistant Keeper at Yaquina Head, Oreg., Light-Station, the Board states that it does not appear that Mr. Ludescher is eligible for probationary appointment. The eligible list in this Office gives the names of Messrs. George O.T. Knudsen, Clifford B. Hermann and Charles Justen, with higher rating than that of Mr. Ludescher, in addition to the two persons named in your letter who declined appointment at New Dungeness, Wash., Light-Station, on account of the lack of suitable quarters for their families.
The Board requests you to make further recommendation or to state whether any of the persons named have declined appointment, and if so to send their letters of declination to this Office.
Captain, U. S. N.,
Department of Commerce and Labor
File No. 1053.
1 Oct., 1904.
The Secretary of Commerce and Labor.
The Board has the honor to ask the probationary appointment of Mr. Michael Ludescher as Second Assistant Keeper of Yaquina Head, Oreg., Light-Station, with pay at the rate of $500.00 a year, in the place of Mr. William P. Ford, promoted.
Mr. Ludescher has passed the required Civil Service examination and obtained a rating of 87.4 per cent.
At this station there are not suitable quarters for the family of a Second Assistant Keeper and it is necessary to appoint a man without family or one who understands that no accomodations will be provided for his family. Mr. Ludescher has accepted nomination for this position with this understanding.
Mr. Otto Hansen declined appointment to New Dungenese, Wash. Light-Station, on account of lack of suitable quarters and his letter of declination was inclosed to the Department on 18 July, '04, recommending the appointment of Mr. Louis A. Pattersen.
Mr. Cornelius W. Stidham declined appointment at New Dungeness, Wash., Light-Station for the same reason. His letter of declination is inclosed herewith.
Mr. George O. T. Knudsen declined appointment at Desdamona Sands, Oreg., Light-Station, on account of sickness in his fam-
Box 252 List of supplies 1885, YB, YH Emery Pay 1887
New Dungeness Light Station, Wash. 2 Kitchen pumps. 1 No. 8 Buck's cooking stove, with fixtures complete. 2 Grates for No 7. cooking stove 2 Fire backs " " " " 2 Barrels Lime. 5 Gallons Coal tar.
Smith's Island Light Station, Wash. 1 Boat-sail 1 Barrel Lime
Admirally Head Light-Station, Wash. 1 No. 8 Buck's cooking stove, and fixtures complete. 1 piece Zinc for stove. 1 Barrel Lime.
Point Wilson Light-Station, Wash. 2 pieces Zinc for stove 2 Barrels Lime 5 Gallons Coal tar -
1894 Keeper Logs
Journal of Light-house Station at Cape Foulweather Oregon 1894
12: Moderate breeze N. West to light South wind with thick, damp fog most of 24 hours. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. Steam schooner crossed Yaquina bar into Newport at 11.30 A.M. A steamer crossed into Newport at 2 P.M. could not [identify] what she was, being too foggy. The steamer that crossed over Yaquina bar was the U.S. Tender Columbia and landed rest of Light House supplies.
13: Light wind to moderate and fresh breeze N. West these 24 hours with thick damp fog during 24 hours. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. Mr. Stimpson hauled the last of annual supplies. The Columbia having landed them at Newport. 1st asst went to Newport.
14: Light South wind and calm; thick, damp fog during these 24 hours. Sea very smooth. General duties for the day. Had 3 visitors today. Keeper and 2nd asst went to Newport after supplies. U.S. Steamer Columbia arrived from herata head??? at Newport at 10 A.M.
15: Light South wind and calm with thick damp fog first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light N.West wind, fair weather. Sea very smooth. General duties for the day. 1st asst went to Newport on important business. Keeper took a walk about one mile from station. Had 5 visitors. U.S. Steamer Columbia left Newport and passed north going to Astoria at 8.30 P.M.
16: Moderate to fresh and strong breeze N.West these 24 hours, fair weather during 24 hours. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. Had three visitors. Keeper went to Newport to take calf over and wait for mail. 1st asst went to Newport.
17: Moderate to fresh beeze N.West with fair weather these 24 hours. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. 1st asst went rock oystering. Had six visitors. 2nd asst went to Newport after mail & medicine.
18: Moderate breeze, fair weather first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours fresh breeze to light N.West wind, thick, damp fog. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. Keeper went to Newport to take mail. Had nineteen visitors today.
19: Light South wind these 24 hours with thick, damp fog first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours fair weather. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. 1st asst went over to big creek to see about hauling some wood. 1st asst went fishing and to Newport after the mail. Had 7 visitors. First asst Keeper of the New Dungeness Light Station visited this station today.
20: Light variable winds and clam with fair weather these 24 hours. Sea very smooth. 2nd asst went over on the beach to get a load of wood. 1st asst went up on north beach for pleasure - Had nine visitors today. U.S. Light-House Tender Columbia passed this light going south at 6.30 P.M.
21: Light variable winds and calm first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours light wind to moderate breeze N.West with fair weather during 24 hours. 1st asst went fishing and took 31 visitors in tower. Keeper & 2nd asst went to Newport. A steamer passed by the station going north at 8.15 P.M. and looked like the Columbia but too dark to tell [for] certain.
22: Moderate breeze to light N.West wind first part of 24 hours. Last part of 24 hours moderate breeze N.West with clear, fine and warm weather. Sea smooth. 1st asst went fishing and to Newport after mail. 2nd asst showing visitors in tower and in bathing over on the north beach. Had 22 visitors.
23: Calm to light South wind these 24 hours with fair weather. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. Had 18 visitors today. 1st asst went fishing. 1st and 2nd assts showing visitors in tower. Steamer Robarts arrived in to Newport at 8 P.M. Keeper went to Newport after supplies Left the station at 10. A.M.
24: Light wind to moderate breeze South these 24 hours. First part of 24 hours thick, damp fog. Last part of 24 hours fair weather. Sea smooth. 1st & 2nd assts showing visitors in tower. Had nine visitors. Keeper returned to station at 3 P.M.
25: Light South wind these 24 hours with light rain showers most of the time. Sea smooth. General duties for the day. Had thirty-two visitors. 2nd asst went to Newport. 1st asst went to Newport after the mail.