Howitt and Fison Papers

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XM107_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 8 September 1880

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MuluruluVia BalranaldN. S. W. Sep 8th 1880

A. W. Howitt Esq Sale Gipsland

Dear SirYou will be surprised not to have heard from me for so long a time but I have been prevented bymany things from writingand merely write now to say that it is not from wantof inclination. I have leftthe district from which I wrote last and am managinga station in this District(Balranald ) where I believe the blacks belong to the Barkinjee tribe but

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

XM105_ICDMS_lowres Letter to Howitt 13 June 1880

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CanobleMossgiel June 13th 1880

A.W. Howitt Esq Sale Victoria

Dear SirYours as the 7th is to hand.By this mail I return againthis form filled upon as neatlyas I can but there is considerabledifficultly as I find they callseveral of the relationshipsby the same name - For instancethey have 020 distinct wordssignifying Brother in law, son in lawfather in law etc, thus a man would call his brother's wifeWoopau (wife).

In reply to some of your questionsthe father gives the child a name without any ceremony, but when this child becomes a young man he attends a

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XM106_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 4 July 1880

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Cameron Mossgiel NSW July 4th 1880

A W Howitt Esq Sale Gipsland

Dear Sir Yours of the 11th July [crossed out] June isto hand some time sinceI regret that pressure of other business has pre-- vented my reply my former no's have [?] able to fill in and return your circular relationships, but will do so as soon as possible The Unghie tribe inhabitedthe tract of country lying,say, between the Maranoa and Warrego Rivers the

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie

XM118_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 3 August 1882

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Mulurulu Balranald[July-crossed out] August 3rd 1882

A.W. Howitt EsqSale, Gipsland [sic]

SirYours of 22nd ult. is to hand as well as the M.S. for which accept my best thanks.I read the latter great interest and as youasked me to express my view freely I will do so.

My essay was finished before I receivedthe M.S. but it would not have altered anyviews I had formed because in most of whatyou say I concur. As you are aware I alwayslooked upon the sub divisions into four classesas an extension of a reformatory movementhaving for its object the prohibition of consan--guinous marriages and this I have mentioned in my paper. I scarcely think it canbe showed that the cause of prohibitions of intercourse between son in law and mother in law arises in the manner indicated in yourpaper. You commenced your argument by saying "I take first the more ancient system having onlytwo classes with uterine descent"; but yourargument is confined to this system as youdo not refer afterwards to any other system.

[written perpendicularly at top of page]Do you think thatthe legend concerningthe Bukumuru isconnected withthe totem systemI have an idea that certain groups saykindred havingtotem names believethat they are descendedfrom an ancestorwho at the generaltransformationwas changed into the animal wholse name theynow bear.

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XM121_ICDMS_lowres ALP Cameron to Howitt 14 August 1883

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MuluruluAug 14th 1883

A W Howitt Esq

Sale

Dear Sir

I am in receipt of your note of the 4th kindly offering to take the reconstruction of my paper in hand. I very gladly avail myself of the offer. I thoughtwhen sending if that much of the matterwas unsuitable for the anthropological Institute, although it might meet the case when a paper was required onthe aborigines generally. I have had such autumn time up here for many months that I have found it very difficult tobring my mind to bear on subjects one -earmarked with business, nor can I work much now as shearing commences today.

If however it is not too much to askit will be a great kindness to me to doas you say in connection with the essay and you should not trouble to send me drafts as I am sure any arrangement you may make will beperfectly satisfactory to me

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XM122_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 20 October 1883

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Rpd10/11/83

MuluruluOct 20th 1883A W Howitt EsqSale Gippsland

My Dear Sir

I received the [essay?] on your notes[? ] last week. The work of taking to pieces reconstructing and rewriting must[have?] given you a lot of work for whichI need not say how much obliged: I cannotobtain any fresh information for the blacks all seem to have deserted this district and are gone I know not where. I have given what answers I could toyour notes in any matter that neededelucidation. I am perfectly satisfied with the paper on it now [?] ; You say that if I desired the portions relating to Mr Hardieseems as to usual [?] of [ ] tribes befrom Clunes could be added but of courseit is not necessary. I notice you haveomitted the parts relating to Infanticideand Cannibalism; would it not have been as well to let them appear? butyou know best what is most suitable

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[....]

Boorall MaryboroughSeptember 30th 1882

A.W.Howitt Esq.Sale - GippslandVictoria

Dear SirI beg to acknowledge yourletter dated August 1st asking for in-formation about the aboriginesI shall be most happy to answer yourquestions & [....ally] to afford any in-formation I can, your questions Iwill answer at an early date for thefollowing reasons - for the last 10 yearsthe customs & habits of the aborigineshave completely changed & altho thereare a great many here now of the [young? ........]know what were the habits & customs of their fathers, therefore I must get someof the old hands & work out the information.

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Replied10/11/83

BoorallOctober 29th 1883

A.W.Howitt Esq.Sale - Victoria

SirI have to thank you for twopamphlets duly received I have also receiveda printed circular asking for informationabout the aboriginals, having been away from home rather much lately correspondencehas been unanswered hence my silence.To answer the printed circular properly it would take more time & applicationthan I am disposed to give, but as I shall be passing through Melbourneabout next March I shall - if you thinkit worth while - come to Sale & give youall the information I know of & I amconvinced there are very few that have

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had the same opportunities of observingthe aborigines of Wide Bay in their wildstate - anything like what I have.I have read with interest hoping tosee something new in the papers being byJohn Mann on the aboriginals & their customsnow being printed in the "Sydney Mail"I don't put very much value on the informationin them for the sources of his posts are toomuch taken from hearsay not personalobservation & when ones interest is continuedon the description of some ceremony you find that Mr Mann goes on "I have reasonto believe" &c &c I venture to say Mr Mann has in many instances been the dupe of some clever nigger.If I don't hear from you again I shall conclude that a visit to Sale is not necessary.Yours truly Harry. E. Aldridge

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XM32_ICDMS_lowres K H Bennett to Howitt 9 May 1880

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Yandembah BooligalN. S. WalesMay 9th 1880

A W Howitt Esq, SaleGippslandVictoria

Dear Sir

Yours relative to the social customs of the AboriginesI rec'd a few days since - I regret to say that I cannotrender you any informationon this interesting subjectfor although when a boy some 25 years since - I acquiredto a certain extent a knowledge

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Murray. I have questionedJenny Cooper & Billy McDougalland they tell me they do notremember any specialstick but that one was usedin that same way as on theMurray and that the Corroboriecomes from the Melbourne sideit was first performed at SaleSending pipe clay day onlyreferred to the Kurnai. I donot remember any being senton the Murray for that purposethough they would send itas an article of exchange totribes when they had some.

The formal messagesonly referred to the WaimbioI have not seen it amongthe Kurnai but the factis the Kurnai have notfollowed their natural habits

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for many years.I will try to get all theinformation as to gesture languageI dare say it will be veryinteresting, Lamby is nothere at present, but theblankets are coming thatwill stir the old fellowup to his duties!I believe the blacks usedto have a great manygestures to express whatthey meant, though Mr Boyallseems to know very littleabout them but the oldfellows will.

With kind regards to MrsHowitt I remainfaithfully yoursJohn Bulmer

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SaleJany 15 1879

My dear Mr Fison

I send you Bulmer's letter which will interest youI think a short note somewhereas to what King Charley says about the Twofold Bay men will beinteresting and will fit in yourtheory. I also send you some moredata to complete or make less incompleteTable A. Also the sketch maps ofGippsland. I shall see what Ican do as to your large map butI fear - I fear !

In hasteYour sinyAW Howitt

I have marked Charlotte Waters on it.

[written in small print on bottom left side of page]I send small [??] by postPlease look at it and then tellme exactly what I shall noteupon the map of Australiawhich I will illustrate when youreturn me the [??] and your instructions AWH 20/1/79

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died just after Joe got out of prison. She was then living with a Black called John McFarlane. Joe did not take her back, why I do not know except that because she was dying. I will not fail to make may way to [Fenclyde?] when I visit Sale. At present I am very busy building school house & houses for the Blacks. I dare say in a few months I will get time to have a holiday. With kind regards to Mrs Howitt in which Mrs Bulmer joins [I remain?] faithfully yours John Bulmer

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[map illustration on page]

July

S- 2 9 16 23 30M - 3 M 17 St BendocT- 4 S Tg BW- B 12 W 26T- 6 [?R?] R 27F- S S S B S O 8 15 22 29

Omeo SSale 5 [??] [??][?Bdil?]me [?roosy?]Bendoc

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May S- 7 14 21 28 M- 1 M 15 St 29 T- S S Tg S 30 W- 3 10 W 24 F T- 4 11 R 25 F- S B S B S- 6 13 20 27 Sale [??] [??] Walhalla - [?Tongath?] Bairnsdale Foster

new page

June S -

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[Table]

Name, Native Place, Division of Tribe, Wife's division of tribe

William McDougall, Raymond Island, Tatoonkolong, BrabolongTuleba, Bruthen, Brabolong, BrabolongWilliam Thorpe, Bairnsdale, Brabrolong, *Ngrangit the entrancal Blacks.Neddy O'Rourke, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, Braberry worcutTommy Johnson, Snowy River, Kroathun, Yacktoon worcutDick Cooper, Tatoonkolong, Tatoonkolong, Lowajerak Buffalo womanLarry Johnson, Snowy River, Kroatunkoolong, NrangitTimothy, Snowy River, Kroathun, TatoonkolongBilly the Bull, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, Yacktoon worcutJacky Jacky, Lake Tyres, Warrnangatty, Yacktoon worcutBilly Jumbuck, Lake Tyres, Warnangatty, KroatoonYelmi, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, BraberryDan, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, KroatoonKerlip Tom Snowy River, Kroatun, NgrangitBig Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Yucktoon worcutLamby, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Brabeerry Brathu (turee)*Charley Rivers, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, BraberryBobby Brown, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Ngrangit Ngrangit (both wives)Charley Muir, Bruthen, Braberry, KroathunKing Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Lowajerak BrabolongBen Jennings, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Warrangatty Charley Alexander, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, LowajerakSinging Johnny, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowajerakMunday, Maneroo, Brajerak, BidwellJohnny the plater, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, KroatunMurray Jack, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowerjerakLawson, Scrub black, Bidwell, Bidwell. Jack Hay, Maneroo, Brajerak, Brabrolong taken by theftJimmy Thompson, Maneroo, Brajerak, Braberry Paddy, Sale, Brajerak, Kroatun worcut has girls - to himdid not marryHanner, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon worcutKing Tom, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon

Ngrangit means belonging to the Entrance to Lakes. Lambys +c and wife Ellen are Tara

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XM689_ICDMS_lowres

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a Dairgo man, and Flannae speared him.. We let him lie there and did noteat his skin because he was a Kurnai man like ourselves. (p ). As he wasa friend of the Braiaka we went up to the Heart)I), to look for them. Wefound anumber of Dairgo, Braiaka, and Brataua there and we found them,but we were beaten because they had guns as well as spears, and werehelped by two black police, and one police trooper. We ran away and leftevery thing behind us, our blankets and clothes taking only ou spearswith us. We had left our women near the Lakes Entrance at Metung,where the wild dog turned the Kurnai into stone. Our enemies and the policefollowed us up as far as Lake Tyers, but they could not cross and so weescaped. For a long time we were quiet, but at last we went up to Manerooto get the Brajerak (p ), to come down and help us. By this time the whitemen had brought so many Brajerak from Maneroo , and Omeo. with theminto Gippsland, that we and they had become friendly. So we got the Maneroomen to promise to help us and with them went round the mountains intoOmeo. There we got Nukong (p ), also to help us, and we left our women there,Nukong sent lewin (messengers), to the men at Ovens River and Mt.Buffaloeto send help, and it was arranged that we should meet them at Kut-bun-taura (p ), that is Bushy Park station. Then we went down by way ofDairgo but found no one there. At Bushy Park the men from the Ovens Riverand Mt.Buffaloe]] met us. We had gone there to get some food and to see someof the Brabralung from Wuk-Wuk (p ), who were living there pretending tobe friendly with the Braiakalung and the Dairgo men. There could not havebeen less than tweo hundred of us, at least the white men there so counted us

(I) The name of a stsation property near Sale, where when first occupied,the shape of a heart was found cut in the ground.(2) The Kurnai had a belief that the Dingo sometimes speaks in theirlanguage, and that any one hearing this is turned into stone. The narratorrefers to a belief that at Metung, a camp of Kurnai were literally petri-fied by having one of their tamed Dingos say "you are eating fish andhave not given me any". A Kurnai man once told me that when a boy, hewas out hunting with his father, and heard one word "bring", that is bone, when he and his fatherboth ran off as fast as they could, and this aved their lives.(3). Brajerak see p(4) Nukong see p(5) Wuk-Wuk see p

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

XM208_ICDMS_lowres Charles H Kerry to Howitt 14 July 1898

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+ it is more than likely that anyexplanations + interpretations supplied mewere coloured just as my informant fancied. The information about the marriage customsof the Macquarie Tribe - I have written toa friend in the locality to ask if any one out there knows anything of the [??]- I am not sanguine that I can securefor you the desired assistance. Thesettlers out back have no friendly feeling to the tribe + take no more interest in themthan is necessary for keeping them on the move when they come in to the headstations. Re Sale price of the photographs of Bora2/0 + 3/- ea is my rate for ordinary+ Platino wallet copies but as far as theseries now with you is considered - I wouldprefer to ask your acceptance of samewith my Complmts. You will note theyare all protected by copyright.Thanking you for trouble takenI amYour faithfullyCharles H Kerry

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XM187_ICDMS_lowres Hagenauer to Howitt 15 February 1880

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Ramahyuck Febr 15th, 1880

W.A. Howitt EsqSale

My dear sir,

I have some blue gums here at the station and am therefore able to giveyou the name from the blacks correctly as follows: Ballook - blue gum.

I also made careful inquiry about your other questions and can give youreliable information on question No. I.* When a baby was born by a native womanthe navel string was not separated from the afterbirth under at least 4 hourswhen the string already showedsigns of getting dry, then it wasgenerally cut (not broken) with a shell from the rivers or creek.The navel string, after being cut was

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

XM188_ICDMS_lowres Hagenauer to Howitt 1 May 1880

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Ramahyuck May 1st 1880

Dear Mr. HowittI received your note of the 26thultimo in due time and called yesterdayat your office at Sale, but didnot find you,so I give you the information about the nameof the tribes mentioned, andhope when I seeyou to have a longer talk about it, for youseem not to have had any informationon the subject.

I Tarrawarracka Tribe, or news ofthe Tarra family.lived at Port Albert, Tarraville, Alberton;in 1862 I found 17 still alive, but now there isonly Jimmy Fetched and old Lamfrie's wife

Bellum Bellum - Woodside, Prospect and alongthe seacoast along Reeves Lake.Only alive now: Tommy Arnott and AlbertDarby others are all dead.This was the tribe or family of oldMorgan in 1862.

Woollum Wullum, Hilltop along the Latrobe asfar as Rosedale; still aliveColeman, Lily - was old King Jimmycountry.

Moona and Ngattbau - from Stratford downto Lake Victoria old Ngary's country.

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East NorambyCooktownMay 5th 1885

Dear sir,

I herewith forward a tablefilled in that I hope willsolve your difficulty re: thetotem names in the "classSystem"

You will notice that thoughthe child takes the same beastor bird as the mthers yet it isof another species or genderYour faithfullyJocelyn Brooke

A.W. Howitt EsqSale

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XM262_ICDMS_lowres J C Muirhead to Howitt 16 March 1882

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Elgin DownsMarch 16 1882

Re: TarimaA.W. Howitt EsqSale, GippslandVictoria

Dear Sir,I am in receipt of your letter date Feby 9th. I have also to thank you for two interestingpamphlets, I received from you some time since, I willfind out the exact locality of Corella Downs, I will alsotry and correct the tribes up till that place.

Re Tarrymah, I can not say by what superstition the Tarryma, are first prohibited from speaking to one anotherbut as I have before intimated, they are the leading menat all Bora or Cumbāh Ceremonys The Tarrymah first propose for the Tribes to meet, they send message sticksand presents to one another, when the Corroboreecommences the Tarrymah are in the front of the performanceThe Tarrymah among the nonpreforming [sic] tribesare seared, near the corroborree [sic] fires also on thefront of the onlookers, they (the onlooking Tarrymah)cover their heads either with handkerchiefs or Rugs as thepreforming [sic] Tarrymah approach, them quivering +contorting the muscles of their bodys [sic] the preforming [sic]Tarrymah often advance to the onlooking Tarrymah+ putting their (the onlooking Tarrymah) Blankets aroundthem, shift them to other fires placed for their [?comfort?]where boughs are placed for them to sit upon, at times during the preformance [sic], the preformaning [sic]Tarrymah aproach [sic] the onlooking Tarrymahupon their knees, + not unfrequently have I seenthe acting Tarrymah carry the other Tarrymahback to their respective camps, but stillthey never speak, the onlooking Tarrymah

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XM263_ICDMS_lowres James C Muirhead to Howitt 17 October 1882

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Elgin DownsOct 17th 1882

A. W. Howitt EsqrSale GippslandVictoria

Dear Sir,I have herewithenclosed to you, a sort of tablereferring to an Aboriginal (Kurgita)+ his relations, the name he adresses [sic]each by, their totem + class.I thought such might interest you.I RemainSirYours faithfullyJas C Muirhead

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Walsh RiverDec 14th 1882A.W. Howitt EsqSale

My Dear Sir,

[next page]

I remain dear sirYours TrulyJocelyn Brooke

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are still very troublesome spearingcattle and horses wholesale ifthey get the chance and as thereis so much rough scrubby countryhere they will be troublesome forsome time until the country ismore closely settled.I wonder your society does not employ some one to collect the informationyou require it would not be difficultThe man would need a few horses anda black boy or two as interpreters andup the coast he could get lots ofinformation from the fisherman's campsthey all employ blacks and manyof them speak EnglishI amSir Yours FaithfullyJocelyn BrookeToA W Howitt EsqSaleVictoria

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XM65_ICDMS_lowres

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In studying the class system of the blacks one requires to knowa certain ammount [sic] of natural historyas there are so many differentspecies of birds and beastsfor each of which the blackshave a different name.I know of no less thantwenty different kinds of hawkand believe there are as many moreunknown even to Gould who Ifancy is the best authority on Australianbirds.I remain dear SirYours faithfullyJocelyn Brooke

A W Howitt EsqSaleVictoria

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XM69_ICDMS_lowres

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Walsh CampCooktown

Sir,I here with enclose somerought sketches of weaponsimplements +c and drawingsdone by the natives in caves.These weapons +c are commonlyused by all the blacks inthe Cook district.

I am a poor hand at drawingbut they will give you anidea and any one able to drawwould be able to draw them better.

The pictures in the caves areexactly like mine, some Ihave seen most [?indecent?] butquaint.

Yours trulyJocelyn Brooke

A W Howitt EsqSaleVictoria

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XM70_ICDMS_lowres

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(circular)Terms of RelationshipIn the language of the Kiaburra (Eagle Hawk) tribeascertained by J. Brooke native word for my

The object of this inquiry is to ascertain the specific terms of relationshipin the native language by which each person would indicate the other or addressthem. To effect this a good plan is to arrange before the native informantsticks or any other convenient objects in the order marked in the diagram,explaining that these objects represent certain persons. It will be foundadvantageous to construct the diagram by this means little by little,ascertaining the first term before proceeding to the others. As eachterm is ascertained it can be marked down in its place on the following list.Example. Having placed two sticks end to end, thus ___1_____ _____4_____explain to the native Nos. 1 and 4 represent two brothers, of whom No 1 is the elder. Then ask him "What does No 1 call No 4" (i.e. by what term ofkinship does he address him). Supposing the native to be of Gippsland hewill answer "Bramung". Insert "Bramung" opposte to "No 1 calls No 4and ask "What does No 4 call No 1?" The answer will be "Tundung".Insert "Tundung" opposite No 4 calls No, 1. Then rearrange the sticksfor further inquiry. If all the numbers given cannot be ascertained,insert those which are procurable; they cannot fail to be of value.

Due honor will be given to all who help in the inquiry when theresults are published. Please return this sheet when filled up to A W Howitt Sale Victoria

[diagram]1M 2F 3F 4M5F 6M 7M 8F9M 10F 19M 20F 21M 22F 17M 18F13M 14F 15M 16F 25M 26M

Explanation of the Diagram M signifies Male, F signifies Female; the personsindicated in the diagram are arranged in the order of seniority and descentThus No 1 is the elder brother of 2, 3 and 4. No 3 is the younger sister of 2 and the eldersister of 4. No 9 is the elder brother of 10, No 1 is the husband of 5 andtheir children are 9 and 10. No 10 is the wife of 12 and their children are 15 and 16.

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hw0387 Cameron to A. W. Howitt 1884 January 29

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WarrnamboolJany 29th 84

A.W. Howitt EsqSale

Dear Sir

I think of paying you a visit next Tuesday 5th Febif that will be convenient,if not you might send aline in the meantime to 210 Kingston Terrace Church StRichmond Melbourne.

Since Writing I have paid another visit to theStation at FramlinghamThe tribe about Mortlake wascalled Kiriwurru and wasdivided into Krokage andKuritche but there seems tohave been this peculiarityon the marriage laws. Therewere two other classes called

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