Howitt and Fison Papers

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Search for Kumbo*

XM123_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 26 December 1903

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with the [.........] side of the Aborigines question I remember writing you about the Unghi tribe located between the Maranoaand Warrego and that they called themselves Ipai, Kumbo etc and and also Oorjilla, Kuberu etc.You suggested they were probably on the border land dividing Ipai lot from the Oorjilla.Not long since I met a Mr H.S. Wills son of Horatio Wills who was murdered. He told me that 200 miles north of the Unghi the words Ipai Kumbo were unknown and theywere all Oorjilla Kuberu. We compared a lot of words and there was an extraordinary resemblance, a great many words being almost exactly the same.

Wish you a pleasant Xmas

Yours faithfully

ALP Cameron

Page 45 [..] some argument [...... ... ....] "dismiss?" this statement that totems [........] this field of [.........] selection. [...] a [....]. the [........... ....] mallee here marries [.....] kangaroo with a bandicoot & [.........] kangaroo or [........ ......] on [.... .......] and [............] as the two primary divisions as [........]. Then according to "Lang?" any [....] could marry any [......] or any [......] and of course "be?"

Last edit 10 months ago by ALourie

XM36_ICDMS_lowres

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VI Is correct and requires no answer.VII She laughs at Ipai opossumbeing allowed to marry Buthabandicoot and says to make itcorrect according to theirlaws. Ipai can only be theringtailed opossum not thereal opossum. Marryingbetween Ipai & Martha KumboKubbitha, Murri Ipathawere never allowed in thetribe in recent times.VIII Yes, I notice she uses the termsUncle, only for her Mother's brother& not for her father's brothers.IX The diagram of the blood relativesI have gone through as you sug-gested and she says no also

Last edit 8 months ago by Helen Gardner

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[Note on angle at top reads]Lettersent -askingMiss Bensonto make the [??]12/7/06(8)

(1) Is there in the Morrawari or Guama tribe any practiceof "betrothal" that is the promising of a girl, perhaps when an infant, to some boy or man?(2) This leads up to a question to which I have been trying to find a reply for a long time past. Which taking your informant "Combo" - (or as I wrote the name Kumbo) - as an example of all the "Matha" women, his contemporaries, would it be lawful for him to have as his wife? (3) I can best explain this by a diagram showing the "marriage rule" of another tribe - the Dieri of Central Australia

1. (m) Matteri 2. (m) Kararu3. (f) Kararu 4. (m) Matteri

In this tribe there are only two classes - Matteri and Kararu, and you will [remember - crossed out] see that in my Kamilaroi diagram [I should - crossed out] (which I return)(1) that there are also two classes Delbi and Kupathen. Now I believe that Matteri is the equal of Delbi and Kararu of Kupathen(3) Now - just as Delbi marries Kupathen and vice versa so Matteri andKararu intermarry. The marriage rule of the Dieri [is that - crossed out] shown by (4) the above diagram. 1 and 4 are brother and sister, so are 2 and 3 and (2) in this tribe a marriage is almost always accompanied by an exchange of a sisterfor a wife. Thus 1 marries 3 the sister of 2 who marries the sister of 1. [As - crossed out] In this tribe as in the Murrawari the child takes the

Last edit 25 days ago by ALourie

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December 1st 1907

Class TotemIpai X Kangaroo = gaalahKumboGillah =girrahB- duck = gom-dune-'gullScrub turkey = War'-gooh'-gahCodfish = Girr'ali'yeeRed Snake = Garru = B-diamond lizard = ThrornineCrawfish = Mao'rar'moo'roo'tiger snake = Mill'ah'aru gaenhorse fly = Mao'rao'gnine Mosquito = Boo'roo'aneSmall black ant = MelgiddyMeat ant = Nar'ah'ree'water rat = Moog'geeTerantular [sic]= Moor-fineEmu = NooringWalleroo = Narr'ah'goofrog = Tharndietree frog = Bill'harlgreen frog = Burrendigel

1. can you learn which of the sub-class Ipai-Kumbo totemsmarried with the severalMurri-Kubbi / totems?you have given kangaroo and Iguanakangaroo and opossum, [iguana - crossed out][and Kangaroo - crossed out]what about all the other totems ?

Last edit 9 months ago by ALourie
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[3 columns]Male Marries Children are

Ipai - Kangeroo [sic], Kubbitha iguanna [sic], Murri, Matha, iguanna [sic]Kumbo - [ditto] Matha opossum, Kubbitha Kubbi opossumMurri guanna [sic], Butha Kangeroo [sic], Ipai Ipatha KangerooKubbi guanna [sic], Ipatha Kangeroo, Butha Kumbo Kangeroo

You are quite correct the descent of namesruns through the Mother in the Moorawari

Last edit 25 days ago by ALourie
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I have two separate sheetswritten. the sub classes, theirtotems, and the aboriginalwords.

As regards the totems beingdivided into sub classes,I am inclined to thinksuch is the case, as theyare divided into light anddark bloods. The light being"Boomberah" which is thinand flows freely if cut.the dark being "Margoolah"which is thick and if theperson, or animal, is cutwill only drop away fromthe wound being too thickto run out.

Class, Sub class, Totem, sub totemMerigalle, Ipai Kumbo, Kangeroo [sic], Margoolah

Class Sub class Totem sub class Pirrahwah Murri Kubbi, Iguanna [sic] Boomberah

[written in left side margin]I give a form ofthe [??] [??]-the [??] + [??]are not sub totems butdesignation 2 - what [??]the totems in calling the "totem class"

Has [??] abandoned thisold marriage rule- theBlood rules of marriage must alsobe abandoned.3

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie
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I do not know if I am doingright when I put Boomberahas the word for the sub totemand substitute Pirr'ah'nah"as the class name.

But I have been talking toa Moorawarri black manand he has explained itthus.

Merigally, Bindie goin (thickblood) = Margoolah, belongsto Ipai, Ipatha, Kumbo Butha.

Pirrahnah, Nubbine Nubbine-goin (thin blood) = Boomberah.belongs to Kubbi Kubbitha,Murri Martha.

In olden times if a Merigallyblack wished to fight witha Mir'rah'nah black they usedto say Urine lenggyeugh ingarmiel= I am ashamed from you

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

XM689_ICDMS_lowres

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in the Wiradjuri of Riverina a Headman was calledBidja-bidja whereas I have heard him described as one who "gaveorders to people", and there was such a Headman in each (?)(?) . The Bidja-bidja was always a medicine man.If he were for instance the (?) Kumbo and a medicine man he would be the headof the Kumbo sub-class, but all the other people in the (?)Yilrai, Murri or Wumbi would (?) him. Similay eachtotem had its Headman, probably its (?) (?). (1)(?) had the Bidja-bidja (?) "(?)" -(1) (?) (?)

The office of Headman was in a sense hereditary, because the son wouldinherit the position of his father if he possessed any oratorical orother eminent ability; but if not then the son of the deceased's brotherwould hold the position or failing him the nearest relation, having thesame class name (I). But this was with the consent of the community.Each social division elected its own Headman.

The Headman called his people together for any matter requiringthem to assemble, for instance holding the Burbung ceremonies,. At suchmeetings of the tribe, matters relating to the interests of the wholetribe are discussed, and thecourse of action, as to murders, abductionof women, adultery or war is decided upon. The medicine man commonly hasposition of Headman. (I). (?)

So far as I have beenable to ascertain there was not anyrecognised Headman, as such, in the Wukelbura tribe, but the strongest andbest fighting men were listened to in a debate, and the aged men held (?)little authority. ( )

On the other hand it is said that in the Dalebura tribe the (?)

Last edit 25 days ago by ALourie

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The Dieri [unreadable]p XX of 35(i) p.

marriage it is shown (1) how in the Dieri tribe a man though he is entitled by birth right to marry in any of the [crossed out - totems] of the other clnss, cannot claim all the women in them as his Piraurus - p 41. [Nurreri-Kumbo?] tribe [??]

There is a strong feeling of fellowship between all those of the same totem. On the arrival of a visitor at a camp he is entertained by his relatives, or in default of men by his "murdu" "Those of the same totem keep together, eat and sleep together and lend each other their women. Even strangers from [crossed out - as] distances of 3 - 400 miles are thus hospitably entertained. The first question is "[Muira?] Murdu?" that is to say "which is your totem?" The surrounding and distant tribes have [crossed out - to say] some totems different to those of the Dieri but there can always find out which are equivalent. ([??] ) - p 41i

According to Mr Gason the two principle totems of the Dieri system are Warugate (Emu) and Talara (Rain) and he [sais?] that this always a matter of ambition with parents to marry their children into one of these "Murdus". This of course means that the Kararu people would desire to marry into the Talaramuri in, and the materi people with the Warugate murdu. Such premium of a totem above its fellows would, are unable [??] [crossed out - for] tend towards hereditary chiefs then [?]. p 40 -

Last edit 3 months ago by Christine

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Notes

p. 2. (a) Have you got the arrangement of the class names right? It isBulkoin Baring = Ipai KumboBunda Therwain Muri KubiIs not the order Bulkoin - Therwain, Bunda - Baring?It cannot be as you arrange it, or we should have father& son in the same primary class.(b) Note the diversity of spelling Baring & Parung. One ofthese shd be adopted. Baring seems the most likely, as itoccurs twice to the other's once.(c) "In most cases... takes her by violence." Is this becauseof a real objection on the woman's part?p. 3. (a) "The married girls... + widows make a camp apart"Does not this demand the existence of unappropriatedwidows, who seem to be on the same footing with unmarriedgirls? Is this likely? Not likely, I think, unless there isfully developed individual marriage with nothing like aLevir right to the widow(b) the young man + the unmarried girl. This seemsimportant. Should not careful inquiry be made as towhether the class laws regulate this intercourse?p. 4 (a) Hospitable treatment of stranger from a distance.This is worth noting for Curr's benefit. It is especiallyvaluable because it shows the possibility of a man travellingafar, if he has anybody to answer for him, + yes that thecustoms of hospitality may be used as a lure to entrap.The progressive stages of possible travel are mostvaluable. This is to be treasured up against theday of wrath.p. 6 (a) The open council. But did not the old menhold exclusive councils also?(b) Is it not likely that the old men have an undertakingamong themselves before one of these sees the Blurang?

Last edit 27 days ago by ALourie

tip70-10-41-4 Lyon to Fison 15/09/1873

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Ippai Murri Kubbi + Kumbo.Their females I fancy are thesame as you mention asIppatha, Matha, Kubbotha, + Buthaare names to them quite familiarothers go by the names of KangarooPossum +c I proceed now to answer your 10 questionssome of which are slightly altered1) My fathers brother - Yabins Aiton2) [ditto] Mothers sister - Yangardi Aiton3) [ditto] wifes sister - Querda Aiton4) [ditto] husbands brother - Coungal Aiton5) [ditto] Brothers son M Terju or Toana Aiton[ditto] daughter M Toana Aiton6) [ditto] Brothers son F Terju Aiton

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie

tip70-10-41-8 Alexander to Fison 13/10/1874

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Tribe Bookamba "Warrego River Blacks"Queensland10/10/74

No 1 (M) Tom[ditto] 2 F wife Kitty[ditto]3 (M) BillyNo 4 (F) Kitty

No 1 Marries No 2 their issue are Nos 3 and 4

"Class name" and "Totems" of above

Class names TotemsNo 1 Kumbo KangarooNo 2 Matha (Murri) opossumNo 3 Kubo doNo 4 Kubotha do

The children takes the "Totems" of their Mothers andtheir mother's class names regulates that of its ownthe child of an Ipai mother would take her "Totem"and its class name would be Kumbo. The child ofa Matha (Murri) mother its class name would be Kubi and so on. As far as I can understand the childrenare of the mother Tribe and the "Totems" regulates themarriages and is the only restriction of intersexual selectionP.T.O

Last edit 9 months ago by ALourie
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Tribe "Bookamba" "Warrego River Blacks"Queensland10/10/74

No 1 (M) Jacky[ditto] 2 (F) wife Jenny[ditto] 3 (M) Tommy[ditto] 4 (F) Malj x x from Brisbane[ditto] 5 (M) Billy[ditto] 6 (M) Jacky[ditto] 7 (F) Mary[ditto] 8 (M) Willie[ditto] 9 (M) Johny [ditto] 10 (F) Minie

No 1 Marries No 2 their issue are Nos 3, 6, 7, and 10No 3 marries No 4 their issue is 5 No 7 marries No 8 their issueis No 9. No 8 calls No 1 "Kunahgilla" (uncle) No 8 calls No 2"Tombero" (aunt) (intended for Father + Mother in Law)

Classnames and Totems of aboveClassnames Totems Classnames TotemsNo 1 Kubo Snake 6 Kumbo KangarooNo 2 Ipai Kangaroo 7 do doNo 3 Kumbo do 8 Murri opossumNo 4 Matha Murri scrub turkey (wogoon) 9 Ipai KangarooNo 5 Kubo do do do 10 Kumbo do

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

hw0149 16/11/1881 Hobbes, Merriman to Howitt

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1/Division of Tribes + Sub Tribes - correct"Katungal = means Sea coast - i.e. Twofold Bay to Sydney - andnorthwards - includes 90 mile beach to South."Murrin - means Sister in law - and country inhabited by them isas described - extends to Gippsland - beyond this in the moun-tains men are called Gundunrook [Gundunrook is underlined] -"Bimeringal and Gundanrook - almost identical in meaningthe former extends from Parramatta and round the limits of the Murrin or Marriwan country Woradjeri - the name of the tribe - Kunamildan (meaning "come inthe night" being the name of the sub-tribe - this people onlycame down to the coast, sneakingly not boldly at night - Kill a Murrinman and go away again directly, Merriman's father - named Ugaridgeroo - (meaning Flood-tide) was thus killed, he was Biambun(old man, or King) of Wallaga tribe of MurriwanYuin - is a general tribal name of aborigines from Sydney to Merimbula = beyond this to Cape Howe - [?Maru? - could be Mairu] [Maru underlined] but all areKatungal"In the Katungal country the names of animals +c are thusKangaroo - Booroo Bream - Buri* Bush rat or Bandicoot = Merrijigga Mullet - WarigilaCrow - Wa go-ow Wild Duck - WombaraFisherman Jack - Birimbamin Native Dog - MerriKongwari [Gunimbil crossed out] is a general name for dogs of all kinds wild aswell as tame = Gunimbil is not known" names of animals were not general amongst the YuinMerriman can only remember two - one a Broulee man namedWarrigal [Warrigal underlined] (native dog) and another Murrira [Murrira underlined] (Emu) other nameswere Burruwalwa [Burruwalwa underlined] (one who know s everything) Ouwiti [Outwiti underlined] (canoe) Kumbo(marrow) Nyerriwang (thunder) Bulleer [Bulleer underlined] (dust) Kayan [Kayan underlined] (very top peak ofthe Dromedary) Mundu pira (stone tomahawk) Merriman's name is

[written under a line drawn at the bottom of the page]* The other names in your list are alike

Last edit 25 days ago by ALourie

hw0153 Precis of information as to the tribe of Aborigjnes inhabiting the country between Mallagoota Inlet Victoria + Shoalhaven NSW

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3 Kamilaroi classes

[table]

Two classes four sub classes with family names totems)Ipai Kangaroo, opossum, Bandicoot,Dilbi Kŭmbo Paddy melon, Iguana, Black DuckEaglehawk, Scrub turkey, yellow fishHoney fish, Bream

Mŭri Emu, Carpet snake, Black snakeKŭpathin Red kangaroo, Honey, WallerooKŭbi Frog, Cod fish.

Thus supposing a man were "Kangaroo" - then he would beeither "Ipai" or Kŭmbo - but in either case he would beDilbi - also supposing him to be on the other hand "Emu"he would be either "Mŭri" or "Kŭbi" but in eithercase he would be Kŭpathin.

My informant told me that he was Kaualgor = Kangaroo- that his father was also Kaualgor - that he did not know what his mothers name was, but that his three sisterswere Mŭnyŭnga = Eaglehawk. This suggests to methat in the Yūin the descent is [??] for boysthrough the father and for the girls through themother - in other words that the boys take their fathers names while the girls take their mothers name.Now please to observe on the otherhand the laws of marriage and descent of the above Kamilaroi

[table]male marries children areIpai - Kŭbitha - mŭri + mathaDiebi Kŭmbo - Matha - Kubi + Kubitha Kŭpathin

Mŭri - Būtha (Kŭmbūtha Ipai + IpathaKŭpathin Kŭbi - Ipatha - Kŭmbo + Būtha Diebi

Note that after all in the above the rule is "Diebi" marriesKŭpathin and the children are Kupathink + vice versa.

[written in left side margin alongside top table]Female name is formedby adding "tha"e.g. Ipai - Ipatha

Last edit 25 days ago by ALourie

hw0150 Notes on the Guyangal and Kurial

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Old Merriman is Ūmbara=black duck. Harry Cook=járūat (a small owl);Bega Charly=nganajan (Bat; Tallboy-tiska (a small owl). Hawden= Kŭmbo. Jabberch- NgaribarThey have totem names and perhaps traces of the class names Bega Charly has two names - ngananaja (Bat) and Mŭrŭmbŭl=Brown snake; but this appears to include "the man's brother" - yet on Maneroo the Bat is a totem; at Bermagui the individual hasonly one totem name e.g. Merriman who is Umbara (black duck) [crossed out - but he also has what may] other totem names according to him areKaualga=Kangaroo - Jannangabatch= Porcupine which is also called Gouran- moura; ngaribár=water hen (Porphyris)[crossed out - and] These names are always inherited from the father.

The Bat and the Mŭr-au-rai (Emu wren) are the brothers of the men; and the "tree creeper" Tintegallan is the women's sister.It is said that it was the Mŭraurai that made the human sexes distinct by splitting up the then existing peopleand by them sewing them up again. To kill the tree creeper would greatly offend the women and cause them to fightwith the men. It is said that long ago there were no men and women on the earth but only animals birds reptiles +c. That therewere no trees and that the earth was bare and "like the sky as hard as a stone." Daramulun lived on the earth with hismother Ngal-al-bal. He placed trees on the earth. At this time when the earth was only inhabited by animals +c the landextended far out where there now is sea. The Thrush (Kabboka) when out hunting killed a wallaby and gave some of it tothe other birds. Those looking at it and smelling it said "it is going rotten" and complained about it. The Thrush being very much enraged, while the others were out hunting, commenced to dance and sing (the Tālmarū dance) until he caused a furious gale of wind to arise. Whirlwinds swept leaves, sticks and dust into the air, and torrents of rain fell and drowned the whole countryand all the people in it except some who turned into fish and some who crawled out on the land and became men andwomen. Some say that only two escaped - a man and a woman - who [crossed out - crawled] climbed onto Mt Dromedary and then escaped and from themall the Murring are descended. Daramulun at this time went up to the sky with his wife and his mother Ngal al balwhere he now is.

When at Bombala in June (?) 1882 - I was told as follows:Bega Jerry = Kaualga - Billinga (Kangaroo - grey magpie) which he received from his father. The Kangaroo itself gave him notice when hisfather was killed at a distance. One old man now dead had for his Jo-e-a -Winbore = Eaglehawk. [At B - crossed out]A young man from Bŭngŭlly south of Moruya gave his totem as Merit jigar (Long nosed bandicoot) and Jarauat = (owl) which he had from hisfather who told him when he was a little boy. A young man from Braidwood said he was "Nŭra" (?) which was also the totemof his father, who had told him that "no one should marry so as to mix the same blood, but must marry a woman of someother name than his own, and besides this go for a wife as far as possible from his own place." Thus his father being ofBraidwood went to Moruya for a wife, and if his wife had a brother the Braidwood man would have had to givehim his sister in exchange - or as he said as a "Kind of swap".On this subject Jerry said it is a rule that the "Waddy men" who get their living by climbing trees must go down tothe sea and get a wife from the people who get their living by fishing - the Waddy men and Fishermenget wives from each other. (note resemblance of these clans to the Aigicores - to the [?Oermorod?] +c of Attica)

Last edit 11 months ago by J Gibson

hw0402 Howitt to Miss Benson 14/08/1899

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Draft letter to Miss Benson 14/8/07

Since I posted my letter to you on the 7th inst. Ihave had a matter in my mind which I hopewill consider my my justification in troubling you again.It arose out of the Ipatha woman's statementthat the Moorawari tribe extended down theRiver to Bourke.[A statement was made - crossed out] An account has been published some time back[that the - crossed out] about a tribe which [extended from - crossed out] is called Kurnuand which is said to extend down the Darling for 80 milesbelow Bourke. [Does Ipatha- crossed out](1) Does Ipatha know of that tribe - and is [the -crossed out]Kurnu the name of it?(2) The class-names given are said to be the following.Muk Kungurra Murruri Kilpurgurra IbburiKubburi NgumburiDoes Ipatha know of these names?

(3) It is said that the man Mukkungurra-Murrurican marry the woman Ibbundyerra (the sister of [Ibburi - crossed out] the man Kilpungurra- Ibburi - alsothe woman Kilpungurra-ngummun dyerra, [+c - crossed out][Does Ipatha know about these - crossed out][he also can marry the woman- crossed out]Does Ipatha know these names + the above marriages?(4) Can she tell me how many of the Kurnu tribeare now living and where they live?(5) If she does not know the Kurnu tribe then which tribe lived below Bourke? and did it have the above clannames - or Ipai-Kumbo Murri-Kubbi?

[written in left side margin]I am slowly working out the material for a communicationto one of the [American - crossed out] Anthropological Societies and I shallhave to thank you for important contributions

Last edit 25 days ago by ALourie

hw0139 John Fraser to Howitt 26/4/1882

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2.to the Police officer who was here waiting for him. He was taken to Maitland for trial and [was - crossed out] acquitted the man who brought the charge against him being severely reprimanded by the Judge - I mention this to show the confidence the poor black placed in me. Now in reply to your printed appendixI will try +answer the questions as fully as I can.

(1) Gosford a Post [?town?] - The Greengai tribe under a chief or "Nooragine" Boundaries Eccleston on the North. Paterson South Dungog East + Singleton West - (or there abouts)

(2.) For the most part Kumbo. Some of the Ipais amongst them

(3.) The woman about to be married makes a fire and a camp when the man is lead to the spot by his Father or any old man ofthe tribe, after camping together the ceremony is complete and considered final. The woman is chosen if possible from a neighbouring tribe - no relations are allowed to marry. Not even cousins

(4.) The descendants of the Royal family are always looked up to they are called Kumbo or Ipai according to their descent

(5.) Father "Beeungar" Mother "Kinger" Brother " "Bingi" Sister "Naneen"Uncle "Cowan" Aunt ["Cum?ing"] Cousin "Keeparrah".

(6.) The tribe is governed by a chief or king (who must be an aged man before he is thought much of) which office they hold by descent the govt. is not in the hands of Drs or wizards -

(7.) Consists of the oldest and (as a rule) [the - crossed out] most intelligent men of the tribe. I once came suddenly on a group of these old fellows sitting in a circle in deep deliberation and was told by one of them in a whisper not to tell the other Blacks what I had seen . Those men are thought a great deal of by the members of the tribe -

8. Any offence of a serious nature is punished thus or rather the offender. He is obliged to stand at a distance with a shield or Hulamanwhilst a certain number of spears (varying according to the enormity of the offence), are thrown at him - if he can defend himself well and good [??] he is either killed or seriously wounded - Individuals fight it out with any weapon present at hand -

9. There is a messenger attached to every tribe who is a sort of "flag of truce" and can go safely from one tribe to another The red net worn as a band round the forehead is used as an emblem for calling the tribe together. Nothing is known here so far as I can learn of message sticks. When a messenger appears in sight, a peculiar cooee is given when all in hearing assemble to hear what he has to say but not a word is spoken to the messenger till he thinks proper to unburden his message. and some times he sits quite silent for a long time - but when "the spirit moves him" his eloquence is wonderful and listened to with the greatest attention.

Last edit 10 months ago by ALourie

hw0145 Howitt notes on coastal tribes

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Gringaitribe [?] of [Rural?] [peoples?]

This group of coast tribes has some peculiarities in their class [organization?] which may perhaps indicate whether they are analogous to the other coast tribes in and [with?] organization.

The Kamilaroi class names in the Gringai tribe

[three lines crossed out]

Much of the Gringai were named Kumbo, but there were some Ipai [any or away?] there, and there was no family of the [Kulbri?] sub class the members of which lost their names from their father (1). Some of the blacks in the Port Stephens district claimed to be Gringai, - [was?] to two of them the man was Ipai and his wife was Kubbitha, [away?] there were also Murri & Matha individuals. In the neighbourhood of Maitland there were also Kumbo and Butha the children aKubbi man (2). If these examples represent the marriage & descent [other?] subclasses of these tribes before the [?tent?] of the coming of the whites, one can only conclude that they were in a state of decadence, of which I have no other example. [Words crossed out]

The Ipai should marrie Kubbitha [words crossed out] and that the children is [words crossed out] rule, that [words crossed out] of a Kubbi should be Kumbi [&? or?] Butha [?] in and with the [Kamubia?] rule, but that there was one family the man of which hid the names for their father Kubbi in quite [?] one of by the [?][rule? or tribe?] but also the tribe shown by the [?][?] in the Gringai tribe. The [?] as o names to use is that [?] be a case [?] may have arisen through the breaking down of the

{Left hand margin] (1) [Bindell?](2) Fraser

Ipai [?][Kumbi?] [Kathi?][Ipai and Kathi linked and Ipai and Kumbi linked]

Last edit 25 days ago by ALourie

hw0146 Howitt notes of the Gringai

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The Gringai tribeJ W Boydell Gresford

Tribe boundariesA This tribe occupied country bounded by Ecclestonin the north, Paterson in the south, Dungog in theEast and Singleton in the west.Most of the Gringai were named Kumbo butthere were some Ipai among them. Thereis one family of the Kubbi class who take B their name Kubbi from the father andnot from their mother. (on Saturday I had avisit from two of the Port Stephens blacks a man andhis gin. They are part of the Gringai tribe to which Mr Boydell's blacks belong and yet the man is Ipai and his wife Kulbitha and sheknows of the Matha class and that implies the existence of the Muri class - Mr Fraser 5/6/82)One man told me that a Kubbi must marry aKubbitha and that their children are of theKumbo class and there is a family herebearing the name of Kumbo whose fatheris a Kubbi and mother a Kubbitha.Totems C There are totem families in thistribe. 4 totem families - Black snake, Black crow, EaglehawkStingaree J.F.Marriage2 The woman about to be married makes a fireand a camp when the man is led to the spotD by his Father or any old man of the tribe. Aftercamping together the the ceremony is completeand considered final. The woman ischosen if possible from a neighbouring tribeNo relations are allowed to marry, not evencousins.

There are many instances of marriage by elopementand capture.

[written in left side margin]I think that the boundaries will befound much moreextensive that this J.F.

Class names

See note at end

One gin call herself"Stingaree sucking Meg"

Last edit 10 months ago by ALourie
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This is a Table

Note: The free Kamilari class system as it seems in the Gwydin Rni is this:

in the Table there sre three columns and three rows including a title row

two primary classes. four sub-classes Wtern names

Kūpathin { Ipai Kūmbo Emu Carpet snake Black snake Red Kangaroo Walleroo Honey Codfish Frog Dilbi{Mūri Kūbbi Kangaroo Opossum Bandicoot Paddymelon Iguana Black Duck Eagle Hawk Scrub Turkey Yellow. Fish Bream Honey fish [sic]

Last edit 9 months ago by Margaret T. Newman
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10 Notes on the Gringai tribe (underlined)

Handwritten note in the left hand margin near the top:I think it is only a part of the Gringai

Written in the left hand margin just above halfway down the page:

Mr Boydell says thar the answers to his questions on ths head were so contradictory and confused that he did not know what tobelieve. J.F.

Written in the left hand margin towards the bottom of the page:See page 1Body of text:

A (inside a blue circle) It seems from this that the tribe spoken of by Mr McRea p.q.adjuries [sic] the Gringai. It should be Known to them. In this connection see also whatMr Dawson says p.18 - 11 Barter between tribes.

B (inside a blue circle) Is it to be understood that in olden times they were “mostly named [?Kneubo?] - but there were some Spai”. The marriage spoken of “Kubbi and Kubbicha” is soextraordinary that it should be rigorously investigated.It is in fact the marriage of “tribal” brother and sisterwhich is so far as I know elsewhere prohibited. [sic]The usual marriage would be Kubi + Ipatha = Kumbo & Butha. See also 1 (1 is written inside a circle.) Page 1. classnames. The only way I see to obtain light is to note all the Marriages and [?descucts? descents ?] ( among crossed out ) any of the blacks may remember. Those for instance of their parents, grandparents, paternal and maternal uncles and aunts to which all more likely to (whe crossed out) have been according to the old laws than their own marriages. Writing down the classnames of the individuals in a line of descent would most likely afford some valuable evidence. On this head see the note 1 (1 is circled) already referred to This is all the more important as the Gringaitribe may be as are many coast tribes abnormal inits social organisation.

C (inside a blue circle) This requires to be further investigated. It may be that the totem names are now only trace (able There is a blot)in some such form as the following. In (there is a blot) tribe the totem names are now only retained as something appertaining to magic — for instance a man whose name is “Kangarir”supposes that the Kangaroos give him warning of danger. As they put it the name “Kaualgai”(Kungaroo) is not so much a persons name

Last edit 9 months ago by Margaret T. Newman

hw0179 Cameron to Howitt 21/8/1886

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fact of Ipai bearingthe Willi totem makeshim rank as a Kumboand Kumbo bearing thesame totem makes him rank as Ipai. In likemanner a murri gurungranks as a Kubbi and a Kubbi gurung as a Murri. My informantcould not explain thereason for this peculiarityand he said that theprobable reason whythe Wonghi blacks gave the rule that Ipai marriedmatha was that in thattribe the preponderatingtotems were Willi and gurung or equivalents tothem. The totem Budthurungis distinct from the primaryclass Budthurung.

I tried to find outsomething about gesturelanguage and message

Last edit 10 months ago by ALourie
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Wirradhuri or Warrajury Tribe[table]Primary classes Sub classes Totems[?Mikulo or Nukulo?] Ipai Yunghi (Mallee hengunarr (Padymelon)Willi (oppossum(relating to dry) Kumbo Yunghi (mallee henUroini (Emu)Willi [of -crossed out] (opossum)

Budthurung Murri Murri (Red KangarooBudthurung (Brown duckThuringhi (snakegūrūng (Bandicoot)(Relating to wet) Kubbi Murri (Red KangarooBudthurung (Brown DuckDthuline (Iguanagūrūng Bandicoot

Table of marriageIpai= yunghi marries Kubbitha=Budthurunggunarr Dthuline(and also mathā gurung)Ipai = Willi marries Matha BudthurungMurriThuringhi(and also Kubbitha gurung)Kumbo = Yunghi marries Matha murriuroine BudthurungThuringhi(and also [matha- crossed out] Kubbitha gurung)Kimbo=Willi marries Kubbitha BudthurungMurriDthulineand also matha gurungover

[written in pencil on Table of marriage]A a (1) Mallee henBd II BandicootPadymelon (3) I BdLace Lizard BoA (a) (2) Bc III BandicootBrown snakesnakeBandicootAb a(1) b(4) Brown ducksnakeBandicootBrown DuckLace LizardBandicoot

Last edit 25 days ago by ALourie
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Marriage Table continued)Murri =Murri Budthurung marries Butha YunghiThuringhi uroine(and also Ipatha Willi)

Murri= gurung marries Ipatha gunarryunghi(and also Butha Willi)

Kubbi=MurriBudthurung marries Ipatha gūnarrDthuline Yunghi(and also Butha willi

Kubbi = gūrūng marries Butha yunghiuroineand also Ipatha willi

There was anothertotem proper toIpai + Kumbobut my informanthad forgotten it

[written in pencil on marriage table]Red Kangaroo Mallee HenBrown Duck Emusnake opossumBandicoot PademellonMallee HenopossumRed Kangaroo PademelonBrown duck Mallee HenLace LizardopossumBandicoot Mallee HenEmuopossum

Last edit 10 months ago by ALourie

hw0180 Cameron to Howitt 18/11/1886

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Murrumbong MossgielNSW Nov 18th 1886A. W. Howitt EsqSaleMy dear SirSome months ago I wrote to you inreference to some further information Ihad obtained about the class + totem systemof the Waradhuri and have not heardany reply as to what you thought of it

I am also uncertain as to whether youreceived my letter. Briefly this informationwas that the two primary classes wereMukulu=Ipai-KumboBudthurung=Murri-Kubbi

The former embraced everything on theuniverse connected with dry and the lattereverything connected with wet - thus Malleeand all trees that grow away fromwater were Mukula as also were birdsand animals, while those whose habitatwas in the vicinity of water wereBudthurung.

The Ipai totems were yūnghi (Mallee hengunarr (padymelon) willi (oppossum)Kumbu were Yunghi Mallee hen)Uroine (Emu) Willi (oppossum)Murri totems were Murri (Red Kangaroo)Budthurung (Brown Duck) gurung ([snake - crossed out] Bandicoot) and

[written on top left of page]Replied tosending Fisonremarks26/11/86

Last edit 7 days ago by ALourie

hw0181 Cameron to Howitt 12/12/1899

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what the children of each marriage are inthe paper you send me, but meantime Imay say that the child always takes thesub class of the mother but takes herown totem, thus when Ipai (of any totem) that[marries Kubbitha Buthurung - crossed out] is permittedto do so) marries Kubbutha BudthurungThe child is murri or matha Budthurung.When Kumbo marries matha Budthurungthe child is Kubbi or Kubbutha Budthurungand so on.With all complements of the seasonBelieve meYours faithfullyALP Cameron

Last edit 10 months ago by ALourie

hw0184 Howitt Notes on the Wiradjuri

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1In another part of the Wiradjuri country; namelynear Mosgiel, north of the Lachlan Riverthe [class system primary - crossed out] class system [to complete][with - crossed out] was the rwo primary classes, and the subclassesare those of the [no] Kamilaroi [The system - crossed out][so far as I have received it from my valued correspondent it is known to me is as follows: - crossed out][Mr ALP Cameron- crossed out] This tribe divided the wholeuniverse between the two primary classes, [mukulu - crossed out][= Ipai- Kumbo and Budthurung= Muri - crossed out][Ki - crossed out] Mukulu and Budthurung

The former enmbraced everything in the universe connectedwith "dry" and the latter everything connected with wet;thus the Mallee (1) and all trees that grow far away fromwater were Mukulu as also were birds [in the drier dirt - crossed out] and animals which did not frequent waterwhile [there - crossed out] where habitat was in the vicinity of water wereButhurung.

[The Ipai totems were yūnghi (Mallee hen), gūnarr - crossed out][(pady melon - [sic], willi (opossum - crossed out]The following table shows Wiradjuri classes,subclasses and totems.

Wiradjuri class system[table]Classes Subclasses totems Yunghai - Mallee hen 1Ipai (a) Gubarr - Padymelon 3Willi - Opossum 2A Mukūlo (Relating to dry) Yunghi - Mallee hen 1Kumbu (b) Uroine - Emu 4Willi - opossum 2Murri - Red Kangaroo IBudthūrung - Brown Duck IIMurri (c) Thurunghi - Snake IVgūrūng - Bandicoot IIIB Budthurung(Relating to wet) Murri - Red Kangaroo IBudthurung Brown Duck IIKubbi (d) Dithulin - Iguana Vgūrūng - Bandicoot III

[It seems - crossed out] The marriages and descents [are shown- crossed out][in the subjoined table - crossed out] in this branch of the Wiradjuri are quite abnormal, [but fall in with several similar - crossed out] and are as follows :- (give table)[marriages in the Wonhibon Wonghibon tribe, whose - crossed out][country was - where boundaries - crossed out]

Last edit 25 days ago by ALourie
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I - MKbo Kbi

I of these the following are customary to the Kamilaroi lawIpai + MathaKumbo + Kubbitha Murri + IpathaKubbi + Butha

If the descent is in the female line : thenIpai - [Willi - crossed out] Yunghi + Matha guring would give Kubbi guringbut if male descent ditto would give Kumbo Yunghi

II (1) The list shows that [of the Ipai - crossed out] Mukulo four totems oftwo are common to both classes - one to each class(2) So also of the five totems of Budthung - these belongto both classes - while some belong to several classes(3) The [??] may be that the master totem of Mukulo - belongs to both of its classes

III [(4) - crossed out] Does the word Mukulo = Relating to dry + Budthungmeans "relating to wet"?

IV Is it possible that descent is in the male line?If so would account for these peculiarities in the classsystem?

V now give this marriage problemDieri - and - Wiradjuri

[written in left side margin]Sent these quns(I)(II)

[written in right side margin]yungainelie+ gunanaroni

nuri Budthunggung

ThyghsDihul

Last edit 25 days ago by ALourie
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Kubbitha (d) Budthurung II[Red kangaroo - crossed out] Murri IDthuline [Iguanga - crossed out] IA (a) Ipai Yunghai (1) B Matha (c) [Snake - crossed out] gureng IVA (a) Ipai - gunar (2) B Kubbitha (d) Budthung[Red Kangaroo - crossed out] Murri IDthunlin [Iguana - crossed out] VMutha (c) gurung IV

(a) Ippai - Willi (3) B Matha (c) Budthurung II[ditto] Murri IThurinyi IIIKubbitha (d) - gurung

A (b) Kumbo- yinghai (1) B Matha (c) murri IBudthurung IIThurungi IIIKubbitha d gūrūng IV

A (b) Kumbo Uroine (4) Matha (D) murri IBudthurung IIB Thurungi IIIKubbitha d gūrūng IV

A (b) Kumbo Willi (3) Kubbitha d Budthurung II[ditto] Murri I[dittp] Dthuline VB Matha gūrūng IV

Murri Murri II(c) Murri Budthurung [III - crossed out] Butha (b) - yunghi (1)Uroine (4)A Ipitha (a) Willi (3)B Murri (c) Thuringi III Butha (b) Yunghi (1)A Uroine (4)Ipatha (a) Willi (3)(c) Murri- gurung IV A Ipatha (a) gunar (2)Yunghi (1)Butha (b) Willi (3)

(d) Kubbi-murri I Ipatha a gunar (2)A n (a) Yunghi (1)Butha b Willi (3)B (d) Kubbi Budtherung II Ipatha a gunar (2)A Yunghi (1)Butha (b) - Willi 3(d) Kubbi Dthurin V A Ipatha (a) gunar (2)Yunghi (1) Butha - Willi (3)(d) Kubbi gurung IV A Butha (b) yunghi (1)Uroine (4)Ipatha Willi (3)

[written in left side margin]Ipai - MurriKumbo Kubbitha

Murri murrithe same

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie
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