Howitt and Fison Papers

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The Kurnai have no class or subclass names andtherefore no social organisation as I use that termbut they have unmistakable indications that they[had totems and therefore - crossed out] must have had all atsome former time.

Each individual had a thūndung or elderbrother, [not only in their sex totem Yürung or, - crossed out][Djütgun but also in some - crossed out] being some marsupial animal, or bird, reptile or fish. It is the [They however have no influence upon marriage - crossed out][which is regulated by kinship and local exogamy- crossed out][and survive as the merely as the elder brother and - crossed out][and also as in so far the -crossed out] protector that in[some cases such as Kangaroos + birds- crossed out] it gave[notice of - crossed out] danger, and [also -crossed out] has also invokedsongs in cases of [??]

They [thundung - crossed out] are also spoken of as jiakor flesh as in other tribes.

The [jiak - crossed out] totem was told by a man to his son whenabout eight or nine years of age and by a womanto her daughters. [For instance a man might - crossed out]point out his totem to his son and say["see there that is your thundung; yu must - crossed out][not kill it!" - crossed out]

As these names are perpetuated from fathersto sons, the daughter having also the same, descentis clearly in the male line, and they would benecessarily prepetuated in the locality to whicha man belonged. A good instance is thatof the Bunjil-baul who lived in RaymondIsland in Lake King and whose jiak was [the Gluin - crossed out] a bird the Gluin, whence their nameof Gluin-Kong, the Glui's beak.

[The Australia - crossed out][These Thundung- crossed out][The totem and its human brother are - crossed out][These toems and their human "younger brother"- crossed out][which are younger - crossed out][brother - which are sill in the relative of- crossed out][protected + protector - they the form here the - crossed out][two classes with which we now I feel certain they- crossed out][have at one time I feel [??] [??] at where- crossed out][they preceeded - crossed out]

(1) I am much indebted to the Revd John Bulmerfurther investigating the Kurnai Thundungconfirming my own endeavours, by obtaining a[which - crossed out] of [the - crossed out] old people which abundantly exhibitedof male descent.

[written in left side margin]If I am correct in believing that these "thundung"were at one time[consistent with the two primary - crossed out][?? class divisions - crossed out]part of a two class system thenwe have here an instanceof the peculiar[??] of these coast tribes.The totem which [??]to my view preceeded the class agnate[??]exist, whileit has beenreplaced by rhelocal [?agnate?]

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Borun the PelicanBorun the Pelican took a canoe from LakeTyers and went outside to Yirak because all the people from the low country and the mountainswanted to go there to feast on jiak (meat-foodeg. fish and game). They had come to Borun andasked him to get a canoe and take them there.Then Borun did as they wished and took themall to an island in the great waring (sea)outside of the shore Yiruk but in sight of it. There theycamped for the night. In the morning he tookall the men across to the land first but said there was not enough room for [the- crossed out] a womanwhom he left behind. When he came back and took her into the canoe she broke the bottom out as they were going round the end of the island and said "There you broke the canoe with carrying so many people on it at once." The canoeleaked so much that he had to land to mend itand camped there for the night. In the morning whilehe was mending his canoe the woman cut herhair off and fastened it to a piece of wood by the fireas if she were asleep there. Then she went into the waring (sea) and swam to Yiruk where the others were. When Borun landed by himselfat Yiruk he had to fight with all the menfor having run off with the woman.

[written in left side margin]Mt Singapore

Rabbit island

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XM12_ICDMS_lowres Harry Aldridge notes

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child is turned round if a man is walking towards it, should she not be looking & a man is coming to- wards the front of the boy, the man will stop & tell the woman pretty sharply "turn that boy" the woman at once turns the back of the boy to the coming man - this is to prevent illness, the man supposed to be able if he wishes to "put a "stoni?" into anyone he dislikes. A woman rubs her hand under his arm & then rubs her sons eyes with her hand - this is to give him good sight. A mother plaits a hair cord to put on her boy when about 3 years old it is put under each arm & round the neck being fastened together on the middle of the chest & between the shoulder blades - this is that the boy may develop muscle & strength in the back & chest & is generally kept on till he is made into a man viz about the age of puberty. On the chance of giving you too much of this I would like to tell of what I consider rather a good tale of the result of disobedience. Between Double Island Point & Inskip Point are two rocks called the [.....] rocks deep water close up to them, the natives say that a long time ago a camp of [.....] were close to the beach & all went out to hunt fish & leaving two boys in camp only with strict orders not

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[Table]

Name, Native Place, Division of Tribe, Wife's division of tribe

William McDougall, Raymond Island, Tatoonkolong, BrabolongTuleba, Bruthen, Brabolong, BrabolongWilliam Thorpe, Bairnsdale, Brabrolong, *Ngrangit the entrancal Blacks.Neddy O'Rourke, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, Braberry worcutTommy Johnson, Snowy River, Kroathun, Yacktoon worcutDick Cooper, Tatoonkolong, Tatoonkolong, Lowajerak Buffalo womanLarry Johnson, Snowy River, Kroatunkoolong, NrangitTimothy, Snowy River, Kroathun, TatoonkolongBilly the Bull, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, Yacktoon worcutJacky Jacky, Lake Tyres, Warrnangatty, Yacktoon worcutBilly Jumbuck, Lake Tyres, Warnangatty, KroatoonYelmi, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, BraberryDan, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, KroatoonKerlip Tom Snowy River, Kroatun, NgrangitBig Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Yucktoon worcutLamby, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Brabeerry Brathu (turee)*Charley Rivers, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, BraberryBobby Brown, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Ngrangit Ngrangit (both wives)Charley Muir, Bruthen, Braberry, KroathunKing Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Lowajerak BrabolongBen Jennings, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Warrangatty Charley Alexander, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, LowajerakSinging Johnny, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowajerakMunday, Maneroo, Brajerak, BidwellJohnny the plater, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, KroatunMurray Jack, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowerjerakLawson, Scrub black, Bidwell, Bidwell. Jack Hay, Maneroo, Brajerak, Brabrolong taken by theftJimmy Thompson, Maneroo, Brajerak, Braberry Paddy, Sale, Brajerak, Kroatun worcut has girls - to himdid not marryHanner, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon worcutKing Tom, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon

Ngrangit means belonging to the Entrance to Lakes. Lambys +c and wife Ellen are Tara

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Another legend shows the [composte?] natureof the [?] who are human and animal.

[Karnrui?] are blue cranes who had beenfishing the young men when in he [?] time.and gave them one of the fish. [?] [?] eaten [?]fell [?] the fire. Then [with?] his magic he causeda [girl?] [?] [?] side up [and?] fall in [?]what they did.

Then Bunjil [?] his conduct [?] and for [?] giving him [?] [born? or for?]fought with him overpowered him [?] [all?] [?], &all his [?] became by them [?] [?] many ownwhen he [?] why. (7)

Upside down 177 26 Wednesday 188

A Kurnai legend also shows [?] [composte?] nature of itsactions, [?] use pelican and the old time Kurnai.[There?] was a great flood which covered the land and drowned allthe people ]excepting?] a man and his women, who took refuge in a mud island,[?] & Borun came by in his canoe, and took the man acrossto themain lad, then one of the women, leaving the [best?] [looking?] womanlast. She being [forgotten?] swam across, having [?] [?] up a log of [?wood]when [my?] at landed [?]. When [? ?] returned he called herbut as she did not replyhe hurried away [and?] he[ dropped?] full asleep[save? or gave?] in a kind [?] [?] fish [spirit?] [?] & there being [?] he beganto paint himself [?] in[ the?] preparation for fighting the man whose wife had played him[un?](. When he hadwas [?] painted and [?] {Seluan?] came by[?] [?] a [?] looking [?] but [?][?] struckhim with his [?]& [?] him [?] [?] by [?] pelican an [?] [?](!)much [?] a [?] [myth? or might?] be [mutifed?]wide [?] for tribe all over our [?], [?] have [?] with [ample?] [?] to showan example of the beliefs of [?] in their [?] {[?]especially the South East of Australia. ________________

These [?] show, but less fully [?] thelegends of which they are [?], that in these beliefs the actions can[?] [?] human or else partly human & partly animal,but so [?] [?] [me? or use?] cannot [simply?] separate one element fromthe other. This characteristic [?] to [?] essentially[for] this to [?] [?] by the legend, although [?] are [?] [?] any[?] of [?] [?] [?] [?] [?] til of [Piruite & [Karui? or Karni?] (2)

Upsidedown 190 24 Monday 175JUNE

(2)

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and also of the Krauatungalung, who were their friends. (p ).

The meeting was held on the Tambo River, between Swan Reachand Lake King. the two parties faced each other at a little distance, inthe manner describes, and Bunbra had two shields for his defecne, onefor use and the other as a reserve. the other sdie were armed with clubsand boomerangs, both for throwing. It may be mentioned that the latter, usedin these ordeals, are not carved ones which return to the throwerbut these the blades of which lie all in the same plane, and thus donot return. They are used for fighting, and are capable of inflicting teriblewounds. The proceedings commenced by Bunbra saying "I want to tell youthat I did not hurt that poor fellow". The reply was "You musr fight"Boomerangs were then thrown at him, as my informant said "Like a flightof parrots". Bunbra dodged or successfully warded them off. At last a kun-nin was thrown which passed through his thigh, but which he drew out andflung back at his assailants. the women then rushed in between the twoparties and stopped the fight, and the feud was at an end.

Other instance of the Nungi-nungit are the following. Thebefore mentioned Tulaba carried off a woman from the Snowy River, for hiswife. A messenger was sent to him by the offended husband and his kindred calling on him to come forward and "standout". the meeting took place at Nibbor Island where the NicholsonRiver comes Jones Bay. This was at so much later date than the Nungi-nungitin which Bunbra was the defendant, that he was one of the older men whohad to decide on the number of spears and boomerangs to be thrown at him for his offence.The offended party stood in a row opposite Tulaba, and threw their boomerangs at him, which he successfully dodged or warded off. Then one ofthe Snowy River men ran in and stopped the fight saying that Tulaba hadalready fought with him over this matter and that it was enough, this toppedthe fight.

About the same time or a little later, a young man calledBrownie of the Brataua tribe ran off with agirl from the Tarra River, andas was usual in these marriages by elopement, in that district, theyoung couple went to Snake Island and there remained fo some time.

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The great divisions of this tribe bear the following names.

Blengbŭra at Sandy Cape, Fraser Island [Jari-bi-limg?] at Bundaberg [NūKū-nūKū-bŭra?] at Mt Perry Thi-bura at Gayndah [Kŭk-bain-bura?] at Gympie

The three latter are inland tribes in hordes who [?] [unit?] the coast at Intervals. The whole community being fishing and and coast tribes.

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6B[Table]

The Kurnai Tribes (continued)Row 1Column 1 - Clans(4) Bra-taua-lŭng claimed all their country from the Latrobe River to near Cape Lip Trap (where it joined the country of the Būnworung tribe of the Western Port district & also from the Southern watershed of the Latrobe River to the sea coast.

Column 2 - Lesser divsions(o) Kŭt-wŭt - the [Tynes?] River flowing into the Corner Inlet.(p) Yau-ŭng - Warrigal Creek South Gippsland(q) Orelin - Merrim [aus? oreid?] South gippsland

Row 1 Column 3 Wives from(o) - m(p) - n(q) - p.i.tRow 1Column 4 Wives to(o) m(p) - n.q(q) p

Row 2Column 1 - Clans(5) Jatŭn-galŭng from Jat - Southaln = Sea. All the country west of the Krauatun Kurnai (1) and east of the Bratana [or Bralana?] Kurnai (4) and lying between the Gippsland Lakes, excepting Flannagan Island which belonged to the Bit-Brita division of the Kraualungalung clan.-

Row 2Column 2 - Lesser divsions(r) Yūnttrŭr - adjoining and east of (q)(s) Ngara wŭt [Ngara wŭt?], the south side of Lake Victoria(t) Bina-jera - the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland Lakes & the sea (Baulbaul) as far as the Entrance to the Lakes -

Row 2Column 3 - Wives from(r) - m(s) - e.m.q.t(t) - d.e.f.g

Row 2Column 4 - Wives to(r) - m(s) - e.m.t(t) - d.g

This information might have been made far more complete so far as relates to the lesser divisions, that is the smaller groups of Kurnai which formes any one of the lesser divisions of the clans.

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O of A.J. 7

River and were called [Kutbriu-taura?] or Carriers of 'fire' their country being also so named - the prefix "Wurk" = 'carried' being understood. For instance the Brabra clan [underlined] munji subdivision [crossed out - The large secondary] was [crossed out - again] divided and

[left margin note - the BraBra clan inserted after secondary]

subdivided, each section occupying its own tract oo hunting or food ground until the unit [crossed out - of this] [crossed out - local organization] was a small group of kindred - frequently merely an old man with his married or unmarried sons; the wives and grandchildren.

Such an existence was that of the Bunjil-baul or men of the Island a small family which lived in Raymond Island in Lake King and which claimed all the swans eggs laid in that island as their own and exclusive property. The males of this family also - inherited the name of ---- or in English was -----------, evidently a survival of a onetime totem. [5 lines crossed out ]

[Left hand margin note - Insert after Adja-dūra tribe]

[Crossed out - Bruthen coast tribe] I might refer to every coast tribe from the Adjadura far up into Quensland of whichI have information as examples of these [crossed out - which and may term] the [crossed out - abnormal] same kind of social and local development. But it may suffice to give two more instances which are stretching examples of the direction which this development of the local [crossed out - organization] at the [expense?] of the local organization has taken place.

I have already mentioned the Woeworung tribe of the Yarra River and again take them as an instance. Here we find the old two clan system existing under the familiar names Eaglehawk (Bunjil) and crow (waaug). but the [?] [crossed out - the] totems there was only one named (Thara) (Eaglehawk?). All others if they ever existed had died out - and that these were totems at one time maybe inferred not only from

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31.

The laws of marriage in the Kulin tribes were those of the two class system, [crossed out - But are] were formulated in the Bunjil legend which I have recorded at p.-. The classes Bunjil and Waang were exogamous and intermarried, but descent here was comuted in the male line and the children took the class name of their father and not as in the tribes which I have so far mentionedd through their mother, At p 9. I have tabulated a number of the Kulin tribes and it will be seen then from that the class names were local so that certain clans were all Bunjil while other clans were all Waang, [crossed out - In &] this [chapter?] [crossed out - which] proposes mainly to describe the [word crossed out -social] broad features of [crossed out - these] tribal and the social organization and the greater groups of allied tribes which I have designated nation. It would lead me too far away from my present objects were I to enter into a discussion of the causes which may have affected these changes in the clans totems and in the laws of marriage and descent and these interesting points were to be dealt with in the following chapter.

As the classes were thus respectively segregated into defined localities and as Bunjil and Waang men had to send their wives in localities where Waang and Bunjil girls must be found it is not surprising that there were certain definite localities which [80?] boys exchanged women as wives with [easily?] [??]. Such an instance will serve as an example of the whole and I take it from the Wŭrunjeri ballŭk (see table p 9). which is numbered I. According to my Wŭrunjeri informant wives were Married by his tribes men from the tribes living about [Numbud?] in the table; [crossed out - (7) Ngarak-illum,(?)] Ngaruk-illum, Dandenong [crossed out - the Werribe R.], (6) Būnwurrung {//] of [??] [??] [islands?] (6) [crossed out - two words] [??] Gunung ilum [(]?) Seymour Buthero-balluk (10) The Yea River Waring ilum and some others which I have not noted, while in return they obtained wives from those localities.

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The impression made on my mind by theaccount of the Dora is that either the tribe has imper--fect ceremonies, or that your informant has notbeen admitted to the inner mysteries.

p. 12. This is not war upon aliens surely. It wouldbe well to inquire what sort of grievances led tothese set fights. They could scarcely be got up merelyto educate the boys, or for the mere fun of the thing.The amicable corroboree afterwards seems to showthat it is not a case of actual war.

p. 13. Can you get at the meaning of dawa inTundundawa?When the Tundundawa was sounded, wasyour informant permitted to be with the men "in thethick scrub", or had he to stay with the women? Thiswill be a good test question as to his admission to thereal mysteries.

p. 14. The white body under the outer skin. Thisis good confirmation of my conjecture in a footnoteto K& K - was it K & K?

p. 15. "Either dodge the spears, or evade them". Shouldnot this be "either ward off, or evade"?

p. 16. I don't like his expression, "flash about ashunters. There are several other instances of similarexpressions. But I suppose, when you come to writea completed memoir, you will use your own phraseology.

p. 17. (a) "Three fires". Any regulation as to their positionwith regard to the stage?(b). Dead blacks going under the sea to an island.This is valuable as pointing to the time of migration.In Fiji the path of the dead is invariably backagain along the line of migration. The dead go tothe old ancestral home. This is the true explanationof the Polynesian Avaiki, though it doesn't settle whereAvaiki is.

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9Infanticide I do not think was practisedexcepting when from motives to avoidthe trouble which they thought a child would give.

Cannibalism was practised sometimes.I have never witnessed it, but I canthoroughly rely upon the blacks whotell me of it. They assign no reasonany more than can the South Sea Islanders.

The only signs I am acquainted with are - if the fingers are put to the lips, thatdenotes silence, or if the lips are openedwith a slight smack, as in a kiss, that alsomeans that silence must be used. Their principal means of communicationwere by the use of smoke; it was wonderfulhow they could telegraph to call eachother in the old days.

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-23-1 Fuller to Fison 15/7/1872

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Aboriginal Mission Fraser's IslandQueenslandJuly 15 1872

Mr Lorimer FisonDear Sir

About two months ago we had a visitfrom the Rev Mr Buckle of Brisbane, whobrought with him you Schedule of Kinship.How long he may have had it in his possessionbefore it got into my hands I cannot say, as I neglected to ask him, but I see by your printed letter is dated Sydney March 6 1871.He handed it over to me (if possible) to fill up.I looked over it again and again, and was inclinedto put it on one side, as I thought I should scarce make much head way in filling itup among this poor ignorant people, as it seem'd to me that the different degrees of Kinshipwere very complicated, and stretching out very far into the distance, so much so that Ihad to put on my own considering cap and then get my dear wife and partner here in the wilderness to help me before I could under-stand the different degrees of Kinship myself.

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The following are answers to the foregoing questionsas far as we are able to furnish them.No. 1 The number of tribes in the colony of Queensland isunknown to either "Whites" or Blacks.This island on which we are at present stationedhas about 19 different tribes on it. It is about85 miles long and about 12 wide, and I don't supposethere are more than 300 Natives on it.The tribal bond is very little cared about now sincethey have become mixed up with Europeans and asthere [sic] numbers have gradually wasted away at theWhite man's approach, through "Grog" and other perniciousinfluences, such as Venereal disease +c +c.The names of the various tribes (commencing South and goingNorthwards) are as follows - 1. Turobburra - meaning to make Huts (Turra). 2 Purreenburra, name of small birds3 Purgunburra - sea coast. 4 Kōntilburra, big trees.5 Tuntuburra a stretch of sand on sea coast. 6 Kunnumburratongue. 7 Pokorburra rope or string. 8 [?Elitelly?], name of creek (Eli) where tribe located. 9 Elidburra, name of smallor young mussels. 10 [?Tucki?urra?] stones. 11 Poonburra, name of native food, the fruit of "Tamia" 12 Koonaburra - creek.13. Punpubburra, name of place made in a creek with boughs +c,for catching fish. 14 Wulloaburra, smoke. 15 ToomburraPoint of land jutting out 16 Turlangburra, sunshine17 Keelumberburra name of a grub and gum trees.18 Tuntyeenburra, trees or wood. 19 Ullumburra Sandy Capeor North end of the island on which the Light house now stands.

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when old and stale placed up in trees on boughslaid across for this purpose.Sometimes they burn the bones of the dead and carry the ashes about with them.Sometimes the dead bodies are placed (whole) intrees.They do not like to speak about the dead amongthemselves. I believe it is generally done in a sort ofwhisper as they are firm believers in ghosts and all that sort of thing. My man promises to show mesome ghosts as soon as a favourable opportunity ofdoing so presents itself.There is a great mourning and crying when a young mandies and the female relatives cut themselves aboutin a frightful manner with shells +c.But there is very little weeping or wailing whena woman or an old man dies.21 Their dances consist of corrobories, which to me appear about the same as Quadrille dancing among the White people.22 These people are "Cannibals", much more so in formeryears then they are now. They eat the young men,and young women that are fat.23 Their word to express "hunger after flesh" Nulla peethung24 Their word for Pig is "Kagur", for Fowl, "wagoon" and for Duck "nar"

[upside down at the bottom of the page]No 57 Fraser's Island natives

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tip70-10-23-2 Fuller to Fison 25/4/1873

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Aboriginal Mission Lake Wyba. NoosaQueenslandApril 25th 1873

My dear Sir

Your letters of the 12th Augustand Septr 4th did not reach meuntil today.They arrived at Maryborough all correctin due course, but thro' some carelessnessor neglect on the part of the Revd Mr Lavers,some 5 or 6 of my letters have been laying by on his shelves until he clear'd outfor Tasmania; when they came across myletters and forwarded them on to me.So I thought I would just drop youa few lines at once to explain whyI had not answered your kind lettersbefore; for I had often wonder in mymind whether the Schedule ever reach'd you or not.On the 25th of last October we left Fraser's Island, on account of there beingno ground there fit for agriculturalpurposes, and took up our position at

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this place "Noosa" (about 100 miles fromFraser Island) - where the Governmenthave granted a Reserve of some thousand acres for Aboriginal Mission purposes.We have been here now six months;I have been working away single handedfalling timber, clearing the land and pushingforward the work of the mission, toilingnight and day; and now, after all myhard work - toil - and anxiety, we are about relinquishing the mission and arepacking up ready to start for Brisbane,on account of our not being able to induce any of the natives to settlewith us and make this their home.We have not had a single Blackstaying with us for one whole weeksince we have been here; the counterattractions of the Europeans aroundabout the neighbourhood (who supply theNatives with "Grog" and such like thingsthat minister to their carnal appetites) -prove too much for us; and altho we supplythe Blacks with rations of flour, Sugar +cwhen they will just attend school or dojust a little work, yet they will notstay with us.And as the cold unsympathizing worldis beginning to slander us and say that weare Missionaries to ourselves +c we think

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it is quite time we cleared out of this,and got into a more active sphere of labourlest we ourselves should be cast out of the Lord's vineyard as idlers or unprofitable servants.So that (D. V.) in probability I shall be inBrisbane before this reaches you.Had Mr Lavers sent [crossed out - my] your letters down to mewhen he received them I might have gotanswers to some of your questions beforeI left Fraser's Island, but now I am in "a fix" and scarce know what to do orhow to act in order to help you.If I managed to get hold of an intelligentBlack in Brisbane, and filled up thespare Schedule - that you have sent me - withthe names that that tribe has for thevarious degrees of Kinship would thathelp to unravel the mysterious names +c?For I don't think it is likely that I shall getthe same intelligent Black to help me thatI had on Fraser's Island.On Fraser's Island there was no less than19 different tribes on the island, althoughthe total number of Blacks on the islanddo not amount to 300.I tried to get "one" Black - the most intelligentone among them - to answer my questions whenfilling up the Schedule, but in manyinstances he positively couldn't, becausehe did not know; and in some cases,though I had some 5 or 6 old and youngmen around me, yet they could not answerthe queries, but they would have to send upto the camp to make enquiries of some old

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tip70-10-23-3 Fison Diagrams of Fraser Island Tribe

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tip70-10-24-1 Taplin to Fison 5/9/1872

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Memorandum of degrees of Kinshipand other information respecting thetribe of Aborigines calledNarrinyeri and inhabiting acountry included in a trianglethe lines of which should bedrawn from Cape Jervis to a point about 20 miles above where theMurray debouches into Lake Alexandrina and from thereto Kingston, Lacepede Bay; andhaving the coast for its base.1 The nation is divided into tentribesRangulinyeri Point Malcolm tribeKondolinyeri Point Macleay [ditto](The above two tribes united are called Yarildethungur)[?Pungurat?ular] Milang tribeMungulinyeri Lake Albert [ditto] Piltinyeri River Murray [ditto]Kaikalabinyeri Lower Coorong [ditto]Kammerarorn MacGraths flat or upper Coorong [ditto - tribe]Turarorn Lake Islands tribeTanganarin Goolwa [ditto]Raminyeri Encounter Bay [ditto]The meaning of the national nameNarrinyeri is "belonging to men":other [rossed out - tribes] nations are not worthy of thedesignation, they are Merkani, wild.I can't give the translation of the names of the tribes except thesecond which means children of the second wife. But I believemost of the names refer toplaces. The word "inyeri" means"belonging to". Piltinyeri, belonging to Poltong. Raminyeri belonging toRamong.

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-24-3 Taplin to Fison and Smithsonian Schedule

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Sydney, March 6th, 1871.SIR - About twenty years ago Mr. Lewis H. Morgan, of Rochester, NewYork, discovered among the Iriquois Indians an elaborate system of kin-ship widely differing from ours. Subsequent extensive inquiries carried onby this gentleman, under the auspices of the Smithsonian Insititution,Washington, U. S., disclosed the astonishing fact that this complicatedsystem is in use not only among all the North American Indian tribes, butalso among the Tamil and Telugu peoples of Southern India, who numbersome 28 millions.

Having made enquiries among the Fijians and the Friendly Islanders, atthe instance of Professor Goldwin Smith, of Cornell University, I foundthe system prevailing among all their tribes, and have moreover lately metwith unmistakable traces thereof among the aborigines of Queensland.

The chief peculiarities of the Tamilian system may be briefly stated as follows:-

1. I being male, the children of my brothers are my sons and daughters,while the children of my sisters are my nephews and nieces; but the grand-children of my sisters, as well as those of my brothers, are my grand-children.

2. I being female, the children of my sisters are my sons and daughters,while the children of my brothers are my nephews and nieces; but thegrandchildren of my brothers, as well as those of my sisters, are mygrandchildren.

3. All my father's brothers are my fathers, but all my father's sisters aremy aunts.

4. All my mother's sisters are my mothers, but all my mother's brothersare my uncles.

5. The children of my father's brothers are my brothers and sisters, soalso are the children of my mother's sisters; but the children of myfather's sisters and those of my mother's brothers are my cousins.

6. I being male, the children of my male cousins are my nephews andnieces, but the children of my female cousins are my sons and daughters.[Note.- These relationships are reversed in the North American Indiansystem, and this is the only important point whereon that system differsfrom the Tamil.]

7. All the brothers of my grandfathers and those of my grandmothersare my grandfathers; all their sisters are my grandmothers.

8. There is one term for my elder and another for my younger brother;so also for my sisters, elder or younger. Hence there is no collective termby which I can indicate all my brothers, or all my sisters, unless I beeither the eldest or the youngest of the family.

It will be observed that this system merges the collateral line in the lineal in the third generation - thus, the son of my nephew is my grandson;but the Malayan system (of which the Hawaiian may be taken as thetype) allows of no divergence whatever from the lineal line. In that systemthere are no cousins, no nephews and nieces, no uncles and aunts.

Tabulated schedules, covering more than 600 pages, and giving thesystems of more than four fifths of the entire human family, have beenalready published by the Smithsonian Institution; and I am now requested by Mr. Lewis Morgan to work out the systems of Polynesia, Micronesia,Madagascar, and the Papuan islands. Inasmuch as results highly importantto ethnological science may be reasonably expected from these researches,I have no hesitation in asking for your help, even though no inducementcan be offered (nor, I am sure, can any be required) other than that whichthe work itself affords.

Last edit 12 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-24-4 Taplin to Fison 7/1/1873

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Father gives the navel string of his childto the father of another child belonging to another tribe boththe children become ngia ngiampe to eachother, that is, they must not speakto each other as long as they live, norcome near each other, nor touch. Butyet if one hears that the other is inwant he is bound to supply his wants.But he must do so through a third party. The natives can give noexplanation of the reason of this custom.Do you know of such a custom in Polynesia?The Narrinyeri also poison the pointsof daggers used for secret murder[?] called neilyeri by sticking theminto a dead body [?] keeping the therefor days, they then wrap the pointsin spun human hair which issoaked in the corruption from a deadbody. Of course a wound from sucha dagger is mortal. I have heard thatthis method of poisoning daggers prevails in the South Sea Islands.Do you know of it?I shall hope to hear from you againas I feel much interested in thesubject.Believe memy dear SirYours faithfullyGeo TaplinP. S. I do not think that the tattoo marks are significant of the [?ngaitye?]but I will enquire further.

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie

tip70-10-41-6 Birdgman to Fison 14/1/1874

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finished when complete, I don't expectthat what I send will be of much use to youI send it however to hear that I have [?]

We have here now a kind of [?][?] and this we do knowto a certain extent to be [?] charge of the blacksuntil the government take some steps aswe hope they will soon, the [?] with the Aboriginal greetings, and we employ a person who understands the language and takes our [?] them to look after them visitingthe different plantations where they work & the [?] soon from [?], I think we have done more here with thesenatives than has been accomplished elsewhereI have noted the experience you have made in Victoria about practices [?]the islands, there are about 750 islanders

Last edit 5 months ago by Helen Gardner
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in this district, I don't know how many thereare in Queensland altogether but I shouldsuppose about from three to four thousand certainly as afar as three hundred here isconcerned there is nothing to complain of they are well fed clothed paid & employers are compelled by the old [?] squatters their information to provide medical attentionand to send theirm home at the end of those years. I hear however chiefly from the government Agents who accompany the ships, of all of all sorts of outrages at the islands, it seems to mechiefly perpetuated by persons who reside there,it is high time that well disposed personscombine together for the purpose of bringingpublic opinion to hear enough to take the lead.

I believe the principle in what black birders called recruitingis carried on from both Fiji & Queensland is

Last edit 5 months ago by Helen Gardner
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objectionable from the reason that it mayso easily lead to slaves, as I have mentioned however there is nothing to complain of inthe treatment of the men when the come here & I believe it may develop into a kind of [?] that would be beneficial to the islanders, if measures were taken to civilize &Christianize them when they come here, whichI cannot say is done now, I notice thatlarge numbers return a second time alsorecruiting their friends, and seem to preferQueensland to their home islands, they say that the chiefs tyrranize over them, and thatthere is too much fighting going on.[??] dear SirYour most [?]John Bridgman

Last edit 5 months ago by Helen Gardner

tip70-10-41-12 Todd 27/11/1875

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2as parent for all the children.

The physique and general apperance [sic]of the North Australian Natives, as well as their habitsand, customs of all kinds, weapons, mode of warfare, +c, are in every way identical with thoseof South Australia excepting that the men havenot so much beard on their faces probably fromclimatic causes. The race to all apperance [sic] is apure one and does not show the slightest trace ofdescent or admixture with the Malay, Mongolian,or Papuyan races of the adjoining islands, althoughthe Malays visit the North coast of Australiain considerable numbers annually, and have according to their own traditions done so from timeimmemorial. At Pt Essington there are a few solitary instances of half cast [sic] Malays, but thereis no such think as a whole tribe showing traceof mixed descent.

The able theory, propounded by Mr Wallacethe naturalist, that Australia + New Guinea havenever been joined on to Asia by land communication,- as popularly supposed, - is correct in every respectas far as I have seen during nearly [four crossed out] five yearsexperience in different parts of the NorthernTerritory including the Gulf of Carpenteria;-Mr Wallace's deductions are fully borne out bythe flora + fauna of the country.

Attempts to elevate the moral and physical condition of the Australian aborigineshave been quite as unsuccessful in North Australiaas in South Australia, and they seem incapableof deriving any good or benefit from contact with civilization but have an aptitude for acquiringits vices. After being thoroughly subjected by Europeans

Last edit 10 months ago by ALourie

tip70-49-19-1 Friendly Islands Schedule

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Please explain the distinction between Hoku + Eku. Why shouldwe say Eku tamai + Hoku foha - eku fanau + hoku ilamutu?Degrees of Kinship in the Language of the Friendly Islandsnation, made by [blank]

Native PronounsMy heeku hoku Our keetau hotau His heeue hono

[table]Description of Relationship Native Term Translation

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie

XM713_ICDMS_lowres

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Customs

Johnny Wurunmi a "Whitecliff" boy is markedthis - [illustration of body markings]

He said that Bundalung blacks are marked thus:[illustration of body markings]

Tanibil In the coastal branch of this tribe [crossed out - part of the tribe] each woman hadthe two joints from little finger taken off when a girlby tying a cobweb tight round it whence the joints mortifies thehand is held in an ant bed for an hour or so for the jointto be eaten off. This is the fishing [crossed out - part of the] branch of the tribe and thisis done to distinguish its women from those of the other tribes- its [??] from Brisbane to Bundaberg. It is not doneto give her any power of catching fish. Thos Petrie

[?Jurrike or Turrike?]The [?Moreton?] Island tribe cut scars when Kippurs weremade - two or three inches apart thus: [sketch]Then when older they were continued lower down.below navelWhile these cuts are being made by the old men[the - crossed out] one of them claps [their - crossed out] his hands at the ears of the [man - crossed out] young man tokeep the pain away was not a [??]Thos Petrie

Bunya tribeThis tribe cut scars [as-crossed out] thus:- [sketch]Thos Petrie

[??] tribeThere are [scar] marks made by all these tribes in theback, which were made mostly when mourning for a deathThe cuts are rubbed in with the charcoal of bloodwood bark.Thos Petrie

Ipswich tribesThis tribe marks thus:- [sketches] Thos Petrie

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

hw0150 Notes on the Guyangal and Kurial

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These boundaries are too wide - the sources of the rivers in the coast Rangewould be the extreme limits- and for the Yūin a muchmore circumscribed limit.

The Gabo Island belonged to one familywho passed to and frombetween it and themain land in bark canoes.per Charly Brūpin

Last edit about 1 year ago by ALourie

hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages

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33Kurnai

McAlpineNunga NungaIn 1856 a black boy called Benny was with McAlpineas stock rider. A girl called Sally was in the house as servant.They ran away together to Snake Island + remained away6 weeks. When they returned there was a great row. When McAlpine went down to the camp hearing the disturbancehe found Bennie standing naked about sixty yards off. He had only a turnmung in his hand. A numberof his friends were standing behind him at a distance.There were a number of women beating rugs.Old Morgan Darby + others were at the campfacing Bennie + the others with him. Muchspeechifying went on. Old Morgan made an oration,an old woman followed him, then Old Darby spoke thenanother old woman and so on for nearly two hours.Then several men stood out each having one spear andone boomerang. Each man in succession threw his spear and then instantly his boomerang at Benny, whohowever warded off or dodged all. When all had been thrown the matter ended. Bennie was allowed to keepthe girl. Bennie was Darby's tribal brother;the girl was the tribal sister of Darby's wife.Both were born at the same place - the Tarra.

Taking FatMcAlpine saw Morgan + Darby take fat from the inside ofa dead Kurnai, roast it over the fire on a stick and eat it.It was to make them strong, but they were very much enragedat his having seen them doing it.

Witchcraft + taking fatMcAlpine had a young man in his service. This man one morning said"I shall die - some blackfellow has done something to me." He lay downin his camp and in about six weeks died."[?Poldue?] Johnny" also died under the belief that someone had taken his fat out while he slept.

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie
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