Howitt and Fison Papers


Search for Noa* noa*




3I am quite certain that this is the same with the Moorawari - but the question is what is the rule of regulation the marriage for instance of Kombu- with Matha?

A diagram like that just explained would be as under1. Kombu 2. Muri3. Matha 4. Butha

As the children of #1 and those of his brother (who is not shown in this diagram) are brother + sisterand as the children of 2 + his brother and brother + sister - and asthe same - it is evident that the only line of descent is whatwe can search from a rule is that given above - name thechildren of a man on the one side + of his sister on the other.

Please to consider this and if you care to take in handwill may be perhaps a tough problem [I will then suggest what - crossed out][seem to be the best plan to follow. In the present I think feel - crossed out][that I have set you a task in the above which will - crossed out][must quite ?? you in saying that you in ??- crossed out]then the way I should attack is by Developing atable of the marriages + descents in the line of which you referred"Cumbo" in one. The scheme will be seen by the following diagramwhich I have drawn out so as to [give the each - crossed out] have an actualperson represented in each individual tabulated - and therefore youin fact will never become "bogged".I have over come very tough problems in the Dieri tribe in this manner.

[written in left side of margin]see back of leaf

Questions here fromx page 4

The noamarriage rule for one

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

XM235_ICDMS_lowres Typed notes



The Yuin are a coast tribe in southern New South Wales. Theyhave no classes or sub-classes, but totems which, together withlocality regulate marriage. They have individual marriage and descentin the male line.

The Kurnai inhabited almost the whole of Gippsland and wereorganised in exogamous local groups. Individual marriage was broughtabout by a system of elopement. Descent was in the male line.

The Chepara formed a considerable tribe in southern Queensland .Therewas not any organisation in classes ,subclasses, or totems, but thetribe was divided into local clans with male descent.

These tribes fairly represent those described by MessrsSpencer and Gillen and by me, covering some three fourths of eastern Australia.

Considering them as a whole we see that the Dieri and kindred-tribes, having group marriage (1) and descent in the female line, are themore backward standing, while the most advanced in one direction ofsocial progress, are tribes such as the Bingbinga with eight sub-classes and descent in the male line. Other tribes have advancedsocially in an other direction, from an organisation like that of theDieri to that of tribes, such as that of the Wathi Wathi who, withthe class organisation of the Dieri, have individual marriage and notgroup-marriage. This latter series terminates, for instance, in theKurnai, with an organisation altogether on locality, andwith descent is the male line.

The progressive rate of advance has not been the same, so thatno two tribes are, so to say, at exactly the same distance fromthe starting point. It is therefore necessary to take all the factorsinto account, before determining whether any particular tribe is,or is not, primitive, or more or less socially advance than another.

In this communication I have only considered the advance fromgroup-marriage to individual marriage.

I have already explained what the reation [sic] of noa is, andshall now go a step farther and show how the potential claim of aman to one or more of his female noas is given effect to.

I have described the several ways in which this done [sic] and neednow only summarise them, giving references to where, in any NativeTribes, they are to be found.

(1) [too faint to read]

[written in left margin]is this the starting point of my explanationsThe noa relationship and to make them as clear as possibleto my readers I shall [make use of a small diagram -crossed out]in the first place enumerate the several ways in whichthe potential claim of a Dieri man to one or more of his female noas is given effect to.

re write

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

XM237_ICDMS_lowres A W Howitt Australian Group Relationships (paper)



Anthropological Institute3 Hanover SquareLondon, W.

Kindly set for Journal

Australian Group-relationshipsbyA.W. Howitt C.M.G., D.Sc.

[written in left side margin]Dr Rose

Mr Andrew Lang remarks at p. 55 of The Secret of the Totem, "If pirrauru were primitive, it might be looked for among these southern andeastern tribes .....but in these primitive South-east tribes pirrauru isno more found than subincision....".

I do not understand what Mr Lang means by "primitive tribes", because those of the south-east who have not got pirrauru, are, accordingto my classification, advanced, in so far that they have individual marriage.

I now propose to show what I take to be good reasons, for the beliefthat those tribes did at one time have a marriage of the type of thepirrauru of the Dieri, and if so, it is an answer to Mr Lang's objection.

The noa relationship is the starting point of my explanations and tomake them as clear as possible to my readers, I shall, in the first place,enumerate the several ways in which the potential claim of a Dieri manto one or more of his noas, is given effect to.

This may be by;(a) Betrothal, (Native Tribes of South-East Australia.p.p.177-8).(b) gift of the woman (p.p. 178-9)c/. (c) the kandri ceremony (p.p. 181-2); the performance of which may be inconsequence of;(d) an agreement between two brothers to become the pirraurus of theirrespective wives. In such a case they commonly lived together in a group marriage of four (p. 181).(e) consent of the husband (p. 181).(f) a man receiving the wife of his deceased brother (p. 181).(g) allocation by the elders (p. 182).

Under all these new marital conditions, the man and the woman remain noa to each other.

I have always found a difficulty in explaining the system of Dieripirraurus marriage, to those who have no actual knowledge of the conditions.In my earlier works I endeavoured to meet it by speaking of the [??] under(a) and (b) as noa marriages, but I abandoned this, because it was ratherindefinate [sic], in so far that all the unions are noa marriages. Inmy Native Tribes of South-East Australia

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie





[given in our earlier works on this subject by Dr Lorimer Fison and- crossed out][myself- crossed out]. This fundamental low of communal division underlies and runsthrough all the more developed systems, had [having - crossed out] four [sub classes- crossed out] oreight sub-classes, and even shows in the organisation of tribeswhere the class systems having become decadent, the local organisa-tion has taken their place and assumed control over marriage.

The division of the tribal community into two classes is at the foundation on whcih the whole structure of socity is built up.Indeed it is difficult to imagine how an organised society inprimitive savagery, could exist without a control xxx such as thatof the intermarrying classes and the xxxxxx strict rules which pre-serve their existance. One is led direct, when enquiring into themarriage customs of the native tribes, to a further enquiry into theprinciples of the complicated system of terms, by which their re-lationships are defined, which connect in various ways the xxxxxxxdifferent members of the community.

As before I take the Dieri tribe as my first instance.In speaking of the marriage relations I shall have occasion to use the terms "husband" and "wife" and it must be understood, that in doing so I do not use them in the same sense in which we use them,but in the first place as the Dieri would use them, in defining the relation of "noa-wife" or "pirrauru-wife" (I) and secondly in the sense in whichthose tribes use them, who, while they retain the old terms, [while having- crossed out] have lost[the- crossed out] practice they define. This is pointed out in the chapter onrelationships [terms - crossed out], but in order to avoid any chance of misconception,I direct attention to it here.

The community, that is the tribe in its social aspects, isdivided into two roles, each of which xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx has adistinguishing name, and has attached to it a group of totems. This hasbeen shewn in the last chapter.

[These classes and totems are recorded in the section, to whi - rossed out][the reader may refer for the particulars, if necessary.- crossed out]

As the native speech variesin more less divergent dia

Last edit 30 days ago by ALourie

XM161_ICDMS_lowres Notes on Attic Tribes in the case of Neaira



5Areopagus And this augustcourt comes in elsewhere in the case. For Stephanos who seems to have been the meanest I considered possibly concurableeven among Greeks, after Phano had been thrust out by Phrastor managedto palm her off as full born virgin (!!)upon the Knigarchen, as whose wifeshe administered the oath to the priestessesof the Bacchi mysteries and was herself"given as a wife to Kaechre + lookedupon things which none but a pure womanof full birth had a right to see. Of thisoffence the Areopagus took cognizanceand inflicted a fine upon theArchen but secretly because they had noauthority to punish him. He howeverassured them that he had beendeceived by Stephanos into believing Phano to be all that she ought to be andon his sending her about her businessthe fine was remitted. How instructivethis is showing us the Areopagus stillsecretly exercising functions of which ithad been deprived and still retaininginfluence enough to enforce secretillegal decisions.

(4) You observe the names of the demes tobe chiefly local but occasionally patronymic or eponymic. Hermannsays the coincidence with the eponymis accidental, but I fancy it is not so.I take all the names to be local in thesense - they were given according to

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie




Fire - [noaing?]Water - [ba crossed out] an bānmy - [marrŭmbaik?]They - gathūp [(? ?)]his X [marrŭmpaina?]my foot - [mūrrumbaik or murrumback?][djennaneik?][when?] - [Kan-bo?][This?] - [ben-joro?][Their?] - [benjero Kanbi?][From?] - [benjen ba benjero?][have?] - Ūrtŭna[?] - {Ūrtŭnu upp g?] ____________________}either[Go?] - [Ūrde yūrl-gūrl?]Back (by mob)[In left margin][?] by mob -------


[Next page]

[?] [Mangūrt [?][Send or Lend?] - [Kaiūng?]also Brand-jepalso [ued djir-rŭr?]

messenger - [word crossed out] [Ur?][?] [those?] [Njŭnunjath?]and says Kūlinsend these to the [?]round and not togrumble any more but have joy andgladness.

The ball is for playingKaiūng} [for?] [?ation?]Mung esp} kick.[?rrūn?]} threw[Braudjep?] = kangaroo rat

Last edit about 1 year ago by Christine

hw0317 Vocabulary, kinship notes



Marital group---------------------36. Husband = Noa37. Husband's brother - Jimari - Noa wauka? 38. F. Sister's husband = Jimari - ?39. Accessory husband = Pirauru40. Wife = noa41. Wife's sister = Jimari - Noa wauka?42. M. Brother's wife = Jimari - ?43. Accessory wife - Pirauru 44. Wife's brother = Kadi45. Husband's sister = Kamari

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

hw0318 Information from Gason, Volgelsang, Meyer and Flierl



[Table of 4 columns]DMarital Group_____________

36 Husband Noa37 Husband's brother Jimari or noa waka noa waka ? [second no waka in red] Please to enquire again whether 37 is not also called Noa Wakaor whether 37 and 38 are both Jimari. No 39 I have written in38 F Sister's husband Jimari ? or noa waka as Pirauru - see my remarks as to Noa and Pirauru.39 Accessory husband Pirauru [in red] or nginjaru The above remarks also apply Mutatis mutandis to 41-42-and 43.40 Wife Noa41 Wife's sister Jimari or noa waka ? [noa waka in red]42 M Brother's wife [Jimari - crossed out] ? kamari43 Accessory wife [Pirauru- crossed out] noa Demnach sheint es, dass nach Ansicht der 44 Wife's brother Kadi Eingebornen der Mann das volle Řecht 45 Husband's sister Kamari f hat mehrere Frauen zu haben, wȁhrend es einer Frau eigentlich nicht zusteht mehrere Mãnner zu haben, da, wie mir die Schwarzen versichern, dass einer welcher mehrere Frauen hat, nicht duldet, dass eine von denselben, welche es auch sei "Piranguru" genannt wird.

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie


[Five column table]

Marital Group A

[Column 1] [Column 2] [Column 3 ] [Column 4] [Column 5]Gason Vogelsang Meyer FlierlHusband Noa noa Noa noaHusband's brother Noa wauka ------ [Kadi - crossed out] Jimari F Sister's husband Noa wauka ------ Yimari JimariAccessory husband Pirauru --------- Nginjaru Pirauru ? or NginjaruWife Noa noa noa noaWife's sister Noa noa ngattata Kamari Jimari or noa wakaM Brother's wife Noa noa yimari Yimari JimariAccessory wife Pirauru ------------- pirauguru noa?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Filial Group [B C - crossed out] B

M Son Athamoora ngata mura ngata mura ngata muraM Brother's Son Athamoora ngata mura ngata mura ngata muraM Wife's Sister's son ---------? ngata mura ngata mura ---------?M Pirauru's son Athamoora ------------------------------------------- ---------?F Son Athanie ngatani ngatani ngattaniF Sister's son Athanie wauka --------------- ngatani ----------?F Husband's Brother's son --------? --------------------- ngatani - ngattaniF Pirauru's son athanie wauka? --------------------------------------- ----------?-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Parental Group C

Father Apirie Appiri aperi aperiFather's brother apirie wauka appiri mama aperi waka ormamaMother's Sister's Husband apirie wauka appiri apiri waka aperi wakaMother's pirauru apirie wauka --------------- ngin aperi waka ?Mother andrie ngandri andri andriMother's Sister andrie wauka ngandri ----------------- andri wakaFather's brother's wife andrie wauka ngandri andri waka andri waka or jibiFather's pirauru andrie wauka ----------------- --------------- andri waka--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Fraternal Group D

Elder Brother Niehie negi negi mejiElder Sister Kakoo Kauku Kaku KakuYounger Brother Athata ngatata ngattata ngattataYounger Sister Athata ngattata ngattata ngattataM Fath. Bro. son niehie negi negi neji ----? (1) or athata or ngattata or ngattataor ngattata[ditto] [ditto] daughter Kakoo Kauku Kaku Kaku --?or athata or ngattata or ngattataMoth. Sist. son niehie negi negi neji ---? or athata or ngattata or ngattata[ditto] [ditto] daughter Kakoo Kauku Kaku or athata or ngattata or ngattata Kaku ---?Father Sister's son cumimie Kami Kami Kami [ditto] [ditto] daughter cummie Kami Kami Kami Mother's brother's son cumimie Kamie Kami Kami [ditto] [ditto] daughter cumimie Kamie Kami Kami

(1) give his note

(1)The age of the respective parents of [?] (cousins!!!) determines their ages as to the children.i. In the circular filled in by Mr Flierl these referred to the numbers representing [Fall. [?] Brother & 7 [?] B. daughter -crossed out][respectively - crossed out] generally [Fath par - crossed out] the [son of - crossed out] child of the clan brother or sister of the parent of the person speaking [this is all - crossed out]Thus Fath. Eld Broth. is = Apiri pirna (Flierl) + Moth. Younger sister's husband = apiri waka (Flierl)

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0323 Gason to Howitt 21/01/1882



17fancey [sic]

"Pirraooroo" (paramour, mistress,concubine) The "pirraooroo" is givenaway during the "Kurdiewonkuna"(circumscision [sic] festival) a few nightsprevious to circumscision [sic] ceremonyAt the Kurdiewonkuna all the tribeare supposed to have free intercoursewith each other during the ceremonywhich lasts about four hours.

It is on these particularoccasions that the Pirraooroo isgiven away by the chief, butpreviously arrange [sic] by the councils. Thechief calls out each name, couplingthe name of the pirraooroo. There is no after devorce [sic], no escaping wether [sic] there is affection or not, noallowance is made. They are givenaway for better for worse

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie

hw0325 Gason to Howitt 29/08/1862




abommination [sic] in the eye of the laws of the aboridjenis [sic] _ Neither is it lawfull [sic] to have sextual entercourse [sic] with a simalar [sic] murdoo _ This law is strictly adhered to _ except in isolated cases and then in secret and by threats of the man _ the woman if of mature age will not denounce the man for fear of being charged by the other woemen [sic]as being the consenting party.

When two are given away in marrage [sic], they are each of opposite murdoo.

Frequently will a husband remark that noah arkimiewatta booyooloo, murla!! "This is indeed my lawfull [sic] wife and no Blood Relation."

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

hw0337 Notes on Dieri annotated by Gason



3(8) The principal men - eg. The chief Headmanand the Heads of Murdus, have morePirraooroo than the commonalty, partly because of their emmience and partlybecause through this emmeince inthe tribe and influence in neighbouringtribes they can give many presents.(9) a man and a woman becomeNoa to each other either by the womanbeing promised to the man during herinfancy by her father, or by beingallotted specially to him as "noa"by the Headman and the Great Councilof the tribe [Will yaro - crossed out](10) a man cannot acquire a Noauntil he has passed through theceremony of Willyaroo(11) The relation of Noa is always superiorto that of Pirraooroo where the twocoexist or come in conflict; thuswhen sleeping in a camp the two Noalie next to each other and the Pirraooroonext to them.Quere Suppose a man and his noa in campbe visited by another man and his noa - and further that the two men ar ePirraooroo to each other's wives (noa) - how would theysleep - would they occupy the same [?nurley?]?What do two men who are Pirraooroo to thesame woman call each other - Brother?

[written in left side margin]Yes

The relationshipof Noa

Yes childrenare frequentlygiven as noaby the Fatherand faithfullycarried out

Yes by right and withoutquarrell

Last edit 9 months ago by ALourie


5(16) Yes. A woman can become the Noa of one man only at one time, but she can become the Pirraooroo of several men at the same time.

(17) Yes. A man can become the noa and also the Pirraooroo of several women at the same time.

(18) Yes. A mans Noa is his only, but his Pirraooroo is at the command of any of her Pirraooroos who is older than her.

(19) Yes. When female ambassadors are sent to a neighbouring tribe it is their Pirraooroos who accompany them and not their Noas.

Quere Can you say why this is?A husband taking his natural wife as an ambassaderes, would not put up with the indigna-tion (I.E. free sextual in-tercourse) whereas no jealousy will arise by [bringing?] his concubine - [degraded?].

Last edit 7 months ago by Christine

hw0368 Dieri language and kinship



Marital groupDieriEnglish terms Vogelsang Gason Meyer1 Accessory Husband Pirauri nginjarū2 Husband noa noa noa3 Husbands brother Kadi noawanka Kardi(F) 4 Sisters Husband Yimari5 Husband's Sister's Husband negi negi waka

6 Accesory wife Pirauru pirangūrū7 wife noa [ngattata - crossed out] noa8 wife's sister noa ngattata Kamari(M) 9 Brothers wife noa yimeri yimari10 Wifes Brother's wife ngattata yimari

11 wifes brother Karete Kardi12 Husband's sister Kamari Kamari(M) 13 Sisters husband Kareti Kardi(F) 14 Brothers wife Kamari Kamari15 Wifes sisters husband negi negi waka

(M) 16 Sons wife tinarra tarū(M) 17 Daughters Husband tarru tarū(F) 18 Son's wife Kalari Kalari(F) 19 Daughters Husband paiara paiara(F) 20 Husbands father Kaka taru(M) 21 Wifes Father tarru taru(F) 22 Husbands mother pappa Kalari(M) 23 Wifes mother paiara paiara

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0367 Dieri Parental and Filial Groups



[This page is a table of 3 columns]

Marital Groups [underlined][Column 1 - name; Column 2 - Gason; Column 3 - Meyer]

33 accessory husband; Pirauru; ng in jarū -?34 Husband; noa; noa35 Husbands mother; noa wauka; Kadi ?36 Sisters husband; -; yimari37 Accessory wife; Pirauru; Piranguru38 wife; -; noa39 wifes sister; -; Kamari40 M Bothers wife; -; yimari

[Below only Meyer word given]41 wifes brother; Kadi42 Husbands sister; Kamari43 M Sister husband Kadi44 F Brothers wife; Kamari

[diagram of relationships]1mA - 2mA - 3fA [all over]4fB - 5fB - 6 mB

(32) Why is the man not called Piraupiru - [words crossed out]Mr Gason uses Pirauru both for 33 and 37.[?] notice this in no.4 - you give njinjaru

(35) (41) (43) - Kadi used for all these - I think 35 must be wrong and that [Noa crossed out] he is Noa or noa waka.

(39) is not Noa used for this - Kamari can I think [?] be used both for 39 and 42 and 44.

Last edit 6 months ago by Christine

hw0366 The Dieri Tribe: the relationships of the Pirauru and Noa




(13) The children of a woman by her Noa and those by her Piraūrū or the children of a man whether of his Noa or Piraūrū are brothers and sisters to each other; [so - crossed out] [are also the children - crossed out]

(14) Where the Noa of a man died one of his Piraūrūs would take the children of the deceased and treat them as her own.

(15) Each man in time marries a noa (with a few rare exceptions) but she may perhaps be the bed wife of some older man. Each woman becomes the Noa of some man after the ceremony of "Willpandrina" (promiscuity with the older men).

(16) A woman can become the Noa of one man only at one time, but she can become the Piraūrū of several men at the same time.

(17) A man can become the Noa andalso the Piraūrū of several women at the same time.

(18) A man's Noa is his only but his Piraūrū is at the command of any of her Piraūrūs who is older than he.

(19) When female ambassadors are sent to a neighbouring tribe it is their Piraūrūs who accompany them and not their Noas, for it is held that the Piraūrū will consent to the promiscuity attending the Embassy but that the Noa would not.

[written in left side margin]17A Every Dieri womanafter Wilpadrinais [either - crossed out] the Noa of someman and becomes the Pirauruof other men. Every Dieri mandoes not become the Noaof his promised wife untilafter the Minderie butmay before that have a Pirauruallotted to him?

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

hw0342 Howitt to Gason 24/o6/1884



Are the subjoined terms [??]given?The group of Marital RelationsEnglish Dieri1 Accessory husband Piraooroo2 Individual husband Noa3 Husband's brother Noa waka-waka (or wauka wauka)4 (F) Sister's husband Noa waka-waka5 Accessory wife Piraooroo6 Individual wife Noa7 Wife's sister Noa waka waka8 (M) Brothers wife Noa waka waka

Note (F) means female speaking (M) means malespeakingThe above table correct. S. GI have written the word wka-waka as I remember to have heard it pronounced- the sound making the "a" as in"father" is very near your"wauka"

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

hw0345 Meyer to Howitt 19/June/1884



[Table English - Dieri vocabulary]

English Dieri------------------------------------------------------wife noawife's sister [noa - crossed out] kamareewife's brother's wife yimaree(M) brother's wife [noa - crossed out] yimaree

husband noahusband's brother [noa - crossed out] Kardeehusband sisters husband negi Kamanelee(F) Sister's husband [noa - crossed out] yimaree

(M) means "male speaking"(F) means "female speaking"

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

hw0346 Meyer to Howitt June 1885



1. Accessory Husband nginjarū1. Husband noa3. Husband's brother kardiF4. Sisters Husband yimari5. Husband's Sister's Husband negi waka6. Accessory Wife girangūrū7. wife noa8. Wife's Sister kamariM 9. Brother's Wife yimari10. Wife's Brother's wife yimari

11. Wife's Brother kardi12. Husband's Sister kamariM 13. Sister's Husband kardi F 14. Brother's wife kamari15. Wife's sister's Husband negi waka

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie

hw0363 Dieri vocabulary and grammar



DieriEnglish term Aboriginal term RemarksHusband matteru + or noa + materi?[written in German]Husband's brother (pougulu) kadiSister's husband F kadiHusband's sister's husband negiWife noaWife's sister (noa) ngattataBrother's wife [M - crossed out] (noa) jimariWife's brother's wife ngattata

M. means male speakingF. means female speakingV.

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

hw0364 Notes on the Dieri



Melded from &.7This isCurr's/Curr Table expanded

Dieri Relationship[3 columns different sources Meyer, Flierl, VogelsangC1 English(Meyer) C2 Dieri (Flierl) C3 General English term (Vogelsang)1. Father aperi; apiri apiri; - apiri2. Fathers brother mama; apiri wauka aperi; Uncle apiri3. Mother andri; andri andri; - andri4. Mothers sister -; andri wauka andri wauka?; aunt andri5. Fathers sister papa?; [?] [?]; aunt papa6. Mothers brother kaka?; [?] [?]; uncle kaka7. M. Brothers son ngatamura;atamura ngatamura; nephew ngatamuraFather - (four sist [?] = moth. bro8. F. Brothers son -; - ngatamura?; nephew ngatamura9. M. Sisters son -; tidnara tidnara; nephew tinara1o. F. Sisters son -; atani ngatani; nephew -11. M. Brothers wife -; noa jimari?; sister in law noa12. M. Wifes sister -; noa [tidnari?]; sister in law noa13. F. Brothers wife -; kamari kamari; Sister in law kamari14. F. Husbands sister -; kamari kamari; Sister in law kamari15. M. Wifes brother -; kareti Kaai; Brother in law kareti16. M. Sisters husband -; kareti Kaai; Brother in law kareti17. F. Husbands brother -; noa jimari; Brother in law kaai18. F. Sisters husband -; noa wauka jimari; brother in law -19. M. Fathers brothers son -; negi or ngattata neji; male cousin neji20. M, Fathers sisters son -; kami kami; male cousin kami21. M. Fathers brothers daughter -; kauku or ngattata kaku; female cousin [kuku?]22.M. Fathers sisters daughter -; kami kami; female cousin kamiM = male speaking - F = female speakingPlease to fill in and correct the Dierirelationshipsin the second column. I have marked there which somewhat doubtful thus ? [? in red ink]

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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