Howitt and Fison Papers


Search for Bunjil* Būnjil* Bŭnjil* būnjil* bunjil*






Harry Daramung han [sic] for Thundung a bird called Gliun (the Porp melanotis). When he was a small boy his father said to him "That is your Thundung, you will have it when I die". Do not killbit [sic]Big Charley's Thundung is twofold being both of the Congereels.The Burra which is the smaller one and the Noy-yang which is the larger one. He eats both of them.King Charley is also of these totems and could also eat of them.Tulaba's Thundug [sic] was the Jira (kangaruu) [sic].Big Joe's was the Thurung the Tiger snake.Billy Jumbuck's was the Thurung the tiger snake.Old Timothy (Bunjil barlajan) was ?

When Mr Bulmer was with Billy Jumbuck in the bush, the latter was walking along side of a tiger snake which was wriggling alongbeside of him. Mr Bulmer said "What is that?, Billy replied "That one belonga me", and was very angry because Mr Bulmer killedit.

Those cases of natives both men and women, who had tame anija [sic]show that they were their totema for instance Bunjil Bataluk,who had a tame Iguana, Old Lawson''s wife who had a tame native cat, of another who had a tame snake and so on.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie


The Kurnai have no class or subclass names andtherefore no social organisation as I use that termbut they have unmistakable indications that they[had totems and therefore - crossed out] must have had all atsome former time.

Each individual had a thūndung or elderbrother, [not only in their sex totem Yürung or, - crossed out][Djütgun but also in some - crossed out] being some marsupial animal, or bird, reptile or fish. It is the [They however have no influence upon marriage - crossed out][which is regulated by kinship and local exogamy- crossed out][and survive as the merely as the elder brother and - crossed out][and also as in so far the -crossed out] protector that in[some cases such as Kangaroos + birds- crossed out] it gave[notice of - crossed out] danger, and [also -crossed out] has also invokedsongs in cases of [??]

They [thundung - crossed out] are also spoken of as jiakor flesh as in other tribes.

The [jiak - crossed out] totem was told by a man to his son whenabout eight or nine years of age and by a womanto her daughters. [For instance a man might - crossed out]point out his totem to his son and say["see there that is your thundung; yu must - crossed out][not kill it!" - crossed out]

As these names are perpetuated from fathersto sons, the daughter having also the same, descentis clearly in the male line, and they would benecessarily prepetuated in the locality to whicha man belonged. A good instance is thatof the Bunjil-baul who lived in RaymondIsland in Lake King and whose jiak was [the Gluin - crossed out] a bird the Gluin, whence their nameof Gluin-Kong, the Glui's beak.

[The Australia - crossed out][These Thundung- crossed out][The totem and its human brother are - crossed out][These toems and their human "younger brother"- crossed out][which are younger - crossed out][brother - which are sill in the relative of- crossed out][protected + protector - they the form here the - crossed out][two classes with which we now I feel certain they- crossed out][have at one time I feel [??] [??] at where- crossed out][they preceeded - crossed out]

(1) I am much indebted to the Revd John Bulmerfurther investigating the Kurnai Thundungconfirming my own endeavours, by obtaining a[which - crossed out] of [the - crossed out] old people which abundantly exhibitedof male descent.

[written in left side margin]If I am correct in believing that these "thundung"were at one time[consistent with the two primary - crossed out][?? class divisions - crossed out]part of a two class system thenwe have here an instanceof the peculiar[??] of these coast tribes.The totem which [??]to my view preceeded the class agnate[??]exist, whileit has beenreplaced by rhelocal [?agnate?]

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Toto-wara-wara was a great man in the muk-kurnai time and he always stops atYerick to take care of the Kurnai there. When Bundawāl was a boy old Morgan(Bunjil gwaran = thunder) and old Darby tookhim [??]. Being a stranger from another placehe had to speak their language (Nangai) and nothis own. But he could understand it because it was like his. He could only drink out of a bark bowl while one of the men stirred the waterwith a stick. This was to avoid the evil which would come in him otherwise he being a stranger to this country. He would have the Wia-wuk reallyis his lips and mouth would become [??] as also his teeth would come out. Wia-wuk really means "Bad-country" but it is applied to theeffects upon strangers who are not all protected by the [people Kurnai -crossed out] Brataualung who speak the Nangai languageTotawara-wara is known to all the blacks at Lake Tyers and the Snowy River.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie




Tharra wurka means simply the name of a placeTharra being name and wurka country or place. ---The translation of Terthangis the south for the Blksalways speak of man according to the point the compass they dwellin, it is Tathung---Bunjil wurruk Kanimeans simply an inhabitantof a particular place ora native of a place as distinguished from a stranger. Bunjil is a word used to express a manwho has a particular hobby

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie


for instance one who is muchgiven to hunting a particularanimal as Bunjil NarratBunjil Tambun +c.---The word Woolum I think does not belong to the Gippsland languageThe only approach to the itin sound is Booloommeaning two---Moomoo is also not of the language. I find in the Maneroo languageMoomoo means to break into little pieces, or a lotof little pieces scattered about and Moomogangmeans a white man

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie




Katagga or the little girl which a man called his little sister Katarri. But the general term used by parents to express their child either male or female was Waimbiu. I will get you all information I can about the Bunarak[?] and Bunjil Norrook and send it. With kind regards I remain faithfully yours John Bulmer

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6B following A

[As to Wenberi's song I my- crossed out]Wenberi's song as given by Dr. Torrance differs slightly froma it as I wrote down from Berak sometime before, which with its translation [of which - crossed out] runs as follows.

"Nge tuigar ngala ngibenba ngalungawe go all the bones to all of them

dindirnding nga Dullen wilnitshining white in this Dullen country

warreindung Bunjil mamen-ngata yerriniThe rushing noise of Bunjil father ours singing

thulurm eik nga wurugaluk eikin breast mine this inside mine

Berak said that this song was made on the death of Wenberi'sbrother who died through evil magic in the Dullen countrybeyond Geelong. (The corroboree song?)

used to go out a mile or more from the coast in their bark canoeto spear fish.

As an example of his songs, I give one which he composed whengoing down the coast in his boat to attend the Kuringal [initiation - crossed out] cere-monies which I have described in chapter - [a previous paper- crossed out][Note "Australian Ceremonies of Initiation" "Journ. Anthrop.- crossed out][Inst", May, 1884- crossed out]

He sang the song in the evening, sitting by his camp fire and beatingtime with two short sticks, while an appreciative and admi-ring audience stood round.

Umbara's Song

Galagala binja buninga ngaliCapsizing me striking me

winbelow jena ngarauan udja(the) wind blows hard (the) sea long stretched

kandubai buninga melinthi buningabetween striking hard hitting striking

ngali mulari binja buningame dashing up me striking

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie


6diulirunding nga Dulur wiluitshining white (in) this Dulur country

Wa WEINDUNG Bungil mameng-ngata yeninThe noise rushing (of) Bunjil father ours singing

tgulurmeik nga wurngaluk -eik.(in) breast mine this inside-mine

Other poets composed under what may be called naturalinfluences as distinguished from supernatural. Umbara, the bardof the Coast Murring told me that his words came to him "not insleep as to some men, but when tossing on the waves in his boatwith the waters jumping up round him." [(Note) He- crossed out] This man is a fishermanand owns a good Sydney-built boat, which he manages with the aidof his wife. In the olden times these "sea coast men" (katungal)used to go out a mile or more from the coast in their bark canoeto spear fish.

As an example of his songs, I give one which he composed whengoing down the coast In his boat to attend the Kuringal [initiation- crossed out] cere-monies which I have described in chapter - [a previous paper- crossed out][Note "Australian Ceremonies of Initiation" "Journ. Anthrop.-crossed out][Inst", May, 1884- crossed out]

He sang the song in the evening, sitting by his camp fire and beatingtime with two short sticks, while an appreciative and admi-ring audience stood round.

Umbara's Song

Galagala binja buninga ngaliCapsizing me striking me

winbelow jena ngarauan udja(the) wind blows hard (the) sea long stretched

kandubai buninga melinthi buningabetween striking hard hitting striking

ngali mulari binja buningame dashing up me striking

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie




[Upside down at top of page]- 205 - 9 Sunday - White Sunday - 160

As a comparison with the [Legend- crossed out] beliefs in the Mura-mura[of the Lake Eyre tribe - crossed out]. I know of no better example than thoseof the [Kurnai - crossed out] Kulin and Kurnai tribes of Victoria.A numbers legends [sic] have been published by different authors takenfrom their folk lore (1) [and of the - crossed out] of which I note [versions which - crossed out] several different versions (1)[I collected myself and which have been from - crossed out] from Woeworung + Kurnai narrators collected originally myselfAs the Kurnai were an offshoot from the Kulin stock, theexplanation which I am able to suggest as to the legends of the

[Upside down]- 806 - 8 Saturday - 169

former may be applied to the analagous legends of the latter.

[I have - crossed out] legends [relating to- crossed out] [I have not been able to learn of the ceremonies suppose to be - crossed out] [few - crossed out], I am [??] of any beliefs or legends relating to theinitiation ceremonies of the Kulin, and the reason may be thatthose ceremonies [were many that- crossed out] did not have the sand or [??] characterof the Bora at the Kuringal. But with the Kurnai there wasan legend [sic] relating to the Jeraeil. As to [the number - crossed out] legends recording[the - crossed out] wanderings they also are few, those relating to the sky-countryare more numerous, but in most of these [relate to the actions - crossed out]the actors are [anoth - crossed out] beings who combine the human andthe animal element.

A few instances will illustrate these several classes.of which I have quoted from the work of my daughter in the Folkloreand legends of some Victorian Tribes (1) - [The other instances are - crossed out]The Wotjoballuk legend - see reverse ofThe Kurnai legend relating to the [Init- crossed out] Jeraeil ceremony is the

(quote here)

The Woeworung legend of Lohän is that he when he was [baking eels- crossed out] cooking eelsat the Yarra River a Swan's feather was carried by the south [wind - crossed out] breezeand fell on his breast. Walking in that direction he at length reached[the sea the - crossed out] Westernport Bay where the Swan [was - crossed out] lived. There he remained until they migrated Eastward, when he followed them, and at last came to Corner Inletwhere he made his home in the mountains of Wilsons promontory, watching overthe welfare of the people who followed him south to the country he had found (2)Another legend relates to the [early - crossed out] wanderings of the [ancestors - crossed out]Kurnai predecessors. Bunjil Borun the first Kurnai marched acrossapproched from the north west until he reached the sea at the Inletswhere Port Albert now is. On his head he carried his canoe in which washis wife Tūk. Bunjil Borun is the Pelican & Tūk the musk duck.

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[written at top of page]and the Alcharinga ancestorsof the Arunta

[written in left margin]1. ThomasBrough SmythDawsonLangloh Parker

A legend of the Wotjo tribe gives an account of the wanderings of the two Brambramgals [who were the - crossed out] in search of their sister's son Doän(the flying squirrel) who had been killed and eaten by Wembulin (tarantula); [afterwards they - crossed out] and [went - crossed out] afterwards further meeting with various adventures and naming these places where theyoccurred, until the younger of the brothers died. [The elder brother + their mother sought for him - crossed out] Theere was elder 'shaped' part of a tree [??] the form of a man and by his magic it became alive + called him elder brother United once more the Brambramgals travelled far to the west where they lived in a cavern, but no one knows where they have gone (p. )

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2Other legends relate to [supernatural?]beings and their dealings with in Kulin andthe Kurnai (3)

[Any?] a number which relateto Bunjil [?] [?] [?] which was [Whispering?]mountain. Bunjil after living in the earth and teachingthe Kulin [?] arts of [peace?] and war and giving themtheir laws, gathered his wives, [sons?] and [women? or new men?] round himand told Bellin Bellin the [musk?] crow to letthe ]?] [one?] of his bag. [He? or the?] [?] Bunjil at all[?] people were causing a whirlwind [?] [?]into the [Tharaugall-ben?] a beautiful landwhere they look down upon the world as stars (4).

There are no Kurnai legends known relatingto [Munjan-nyaur?] the analogue of Bunjil but thelegend of [Baunau?] relates an [?] [?] the land.

I [was?] of the old timeKurnai having left their camp to go huntingand gathering [fort? sic fought] the [supematural?] being [Bullum banthan?]came there and stole their fire. When the peoplereturned they found their fire gone and [Ngarigah?] the[?] lived [?] [?] [?] it. Ngarang theswamp [turkey?] who was also there [flew?] after[Bulumbanthan?] and swooping down knocked off partof the fire they were carrying, which fallingon [?} ground ?] caught and [presented?] [?] [Tut-brug? or Tut-bruy?]the [?]. Meanwhile [Mullum- banthan?] had[?] up [?] [?] [flew?] up [to?] the sky where itheld fast, and up [?] she climbed with the remainder of thestolen fire. (5).

The Kulin legend of Bunjil and [Kinburri?], the[?bear] tells how the Kulin being away from their camp,[Kinburri?] came by and taking all their wooden bowls of waterplaced them in thetop of a young gum tree which hecaused by his magic to growbigger than any of the trees about.

The Kulin finding their water gone complained toBunjil who with his two young men [Tadjeri?](the???) and [Turuy?] (the ? man)who killed [Kinburri?] andreturned the bowls of water to the Kulin.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie


Another legend shows the [composte?] natureof the [?] who are human and animal.

[Karnrui?] are blue cranes who had beenfishing the young men when in he [?] time.and gave them one of the fish. [?] [?] eaten [?]fell [?] the fire. Then [with?] his magic he causeda [girl?] [?] [?] side up [and?] fall in [?]what they did.

Then Bunjil [?] his conduct [?] and for [?] giving him [?] [born? or for?]fought with him overpowered him [?] [all?] [?], &all his [?] became by them [?] [?] many ownwhen he [?] why. (7)

Upside down 177 26 Wednesday 188

A Kurnai legend also shows [?] [composte?] nature of itsactions, [?] use pelican and the old time Kurnai.[There?] was a great flood which covered the land and drowned allthe people ]excepting?] a man and his women, who took refuge in a mud island,[?] & Borun came by in his canoe, and took the man acrossto themain lad, then one of the women, leaving the [best?] [looking?] womanlast. She being [forgotten?] swam across, having [?] [?] up a log of [?wood]when [my?] at landed [?]. When [? ?] returned he called herbut as she did not replyhe hurried away [and?] he[ dropped?] full asleep[save? or gave?] in a kind [?] [?] fish [spirit?] [?] & there being [?] he beganto paint himself [?] in[ the?] preparation for fighting the man whose wife had played him[un?](. When he hadwas [?] painted and [?] {Seluan?] came by[?] [?] a [?] looking [?] but [?][?] struckhim with his [?]& [?] him [?] [?] by [?] pelican an [?] [?](!)much [?] a [?] [myth? or might?] be [mutifed?]wide [?] for tribe all over our [?], [?] have [?] with [ample?] [?] to showan example of the beliefs of [?] in their [?] {[?]especially the South East of Australia. ________________

These [?] show, but less fully [?] thelegends of which they are [?], that in these beliefs the actions can[?] [?] human or else partly human & partly animal,but so [?] [?] [me? or use?] cannot [simply?] separate one element fromthe other. This characteristic [?] to [?] essentially[for] this to [?] [?] by the legend, although [?] are [?] [?] any[?] of [?] [?] [?] [?] [?] til of [Piruite & [Karui? or Karni?] (2)

Upsidedown 190 24 Monday 175JUNE


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{Tharan-galk-bek?] (1) or the Gumtree -country. It was described to me as a land where there were trees. The tribal legends also speak of it, as the place to which Bunjil ascended with his people in a whirlwind (p -).

With the Kurnai this place is called blinte-da-nurk or freely translated "bright sky of the cloud", also bring-a nurt or "bone-of-the-cloud".

[Left hand column](1) {Tharan-galk?] is Eucalyptus Viminalis -galk = wood or treebek = country

The Ngarigo called the sky Kūlŭmbi, and said that on the other side there was another country with trees and rivers. This belief was also held by the Theddora and Woigal. ( other [?] come in here).

$ The human [Kunacks?] spirit, ghosts &ct. [underlined]

[Left hand margin] Dieri here from p 9add [with?] [?] [say?]

It is thought by the Dieri that when anyone dies his spirit goes up to the [Pirri-wilping?], the sky, but also that it can roam about the earth invisibly. *If the deceased was a person of any influence food is placed for many days, and in winter months a fire is lighted, so that the ghost may warm himself at it. The ground round the grave is carefully swept, and they believe that on it they can see the footsteps of the deceased. The kind of inquest held on the deceased is described at p , also shows quite clearly that the spirit of the deceased is supposed to be present and able to point out the person who is guilty of his death by magic. Should the food at the grave not be touched, it is supposed that the deceased is not hun-gry.* They also think that the spirit can establish themselves in ancient trees and always [speak?] of [much?] with reverence, and are careful that they are not cut down or burned.

[Left hand margin - transpose ** to p 17a]

The [Warriayeri?} thought that the spirits of the dead went up to the sky, [Wai-irre-warra?].

The belief of the [Biandik? or Bakandi?] was [?] [?] are spirits in mankind,which they called [no-one?]. At [?] one went [downward?] into the sea, and would remain a whiteman (1). The other went into cloudland". They said that the [?] [?] go "up there" [ikan-marn? or ikan nuarn?], where everything is to [be?] [found?] [?] [?] [?] [?] [?] [fat?] kangaroo [?] [said?] [to?] be like a kangaroo of the clouds" (1) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(2) The [Biandik? or is this Bakandi?] tribe of South Australian Aborigines by Mrs Jane Smith/Smith related in 1830.(1) She is ending a belief [integrated?] [?] which now - but see p. p .

Last edit 4 days ago by J Gibson




Bunjil is also the Eaglehawk, but - nowhere is there thatconfusion of [?] locality or of nature which is found in theactor vis the tribal legends. Bunjil is represented as an old blackfellow,the benign ["Nurungaeta" -crossed out] or head man of the tribe.[He lived He had -crossed out] His two wives who were Gunawara (Black Swan)and according to some accounts his son is Binbial -(theRainbow). Other accounts say that was his son.[A legend rela- crossed out] He [also -crossed out] is said to as well [given - crossed out] taught the membersof the Kulin their arts of life and a legend [?reveals?] himin the distant past when the Kulin intermarried [word crossed out] regard to class distinction or the restriction of relationships,he gave his wisdom to the medicine men who had gone up to him, consulted him that the people should divide themselves into two parts, "Bunjil in this side and Waang was that side".,Thus accounting for the divisions of the community into two they exogamous intermarrying moieties which regulate Kulin marriage.

[Finally Boru- crossed out] Another Bunjil legend recountshow Bunjil went up to the sky with all his people, "sons" the legend says, in a whirlwind which theMusk Crow (Belin Belin) had thred [sic] up in a skin bag.

There they remain and were pointed out by the old mento the [young- crossed out] boys. A significant instance is that of Berak.When he was a boy "before his whiskers began to grow" his mother's brother took him out of the camp at nightand pointing to a star with his spear throwersaid "Look that one is Bunjil - you see him and he sees you. CommonlyBunjil was spoken of as "Munya ngain" that is "father-our" rather than by the other name. I have seenBerak use gesture signs indicating "old man - up there" toavoid [the using Lang- crossed out] speaking the word Bunjil; -

One thing has struck me in [these-crossed out] the legends whichrelate to this being namely the preponderance in [their- crossed out] him of the anthropomorphic element. [In the custom -crossed out]

Usually the actors in these tales combine the human [anthropomorphic- crossed out] and animal element so completely that one cannot tell where one begins and the other ends. But taking Bunjilas the example, he is in all cases the old blackfellow[remaining lines are too faded to read]

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie


When he was a boy "before his whiskers began to grow" he [?] [?] mothers brother took him out of the camp at night and pointing, [at?] a [star?] with his spearthrower said "See, that one is Bunjil - you will [look?] and he will see you: Commonly Bunjil was spoken of as "[Munya njain?]" that is "father-son" rather than of the other name. I have heard both use [?] [?] in relating "old man - up there" to avoid [3 words crossed out] speaking the word Bunjil: -

One thing that struck me in the legend which relate to this being namely the preponderances in [crossed out - them] him of the anthropomorphic element. [crossed out - In the custom] Usually the actors in these tales combine the human [word crossed out] and the animal elements to completely tell one cannot tell who was [Bunjil?] and the [?] side. But taking Bunjil as the [?], he is in all cases the old blackfellow.

[Cannot read line]

in the [bat?]. Yet Bunjil is in nature the Eaglehawk, his [son?] is the Rainbow, his brother is the star Antari Australis, thus all retaining a [?] character but with a [purpose?] human element.

[Left hand margin note]his two wivesas [Blackmans?] one [?] [?]actors/actions?

[words crossed out - The kurnai legends tell how] (quote the bullroarer)

Among the Kurnai, under the influene of the teachings of the initiation ceremonies the [?] of the [?] all being then in the equivlent to "[Munyari njain?'" [crossed out - with the Kurnai] is restricted to the initiated men. + if [?] at the last [?] such ceremonies that then the [totem?] of the [?] or name and are these contained with little to [?] " when they go back" that is to the camp, which they have [?] and heard. There being - [crossed out - only Kurnai, with ?] no other name than "[Munyari njain?]" "our father". [Rest of line crossed out][Line crossed out]

Left hand margin + note]The old woman knew that [?] is not [?] being [Munyari njain?]-but -

This legend is that he went up to [the sky?] where he still is. [cannot read line] [?] the "[?]" and its ceremonies. His son is the [Jŭundūn?] the [Pupine?] [?] is this [manifested [?] came down at the ceremonies to make [the?] boys into men. One legend relates ([?] [?]) returning [words crossed out] where the [?] is seen ( [?] [?] them).

All I can say as to the belief of the [?] is [during?] from an old woman in [?] [?] woman, who when I said that who [?] replied " Are those about [?] is that he been up the [Murray?] and not he coming from walk a [?] [?] to make the boys not them/men. [cannot read rest of line]

The belief in [Daramutun?] the "[Biamban?]" [words crossed out] the ([?]) to [Biamban?] is common and to this tribe is which alluded at the tribal [?].

The teaching to [Daramutuin?] are

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6A[Table][Title]The Kurnai Tribe

Column 1 - Clans, row 1(i) Krauat-ŭn-galŭngfrom Kanat = east; galŭng= a possessive [postfix?] = of or belonging to the sea coast from near Cape Everard to the Snowy River, all that river with its tributaries up to about [Willis?]; the sea coast from the Snowy River to the Entrance to the Gippsland Lakes with all streams flowing into Ewings Marsh and [Ru?yers?] -

[Column 1, row 2](2) [Brabralung?] - from Bra-bra manly and (ga)lung = if or belonging to all the [crossed out - country waters of the] drainage areas of the Tambo, Mitchell, and Nicholson Rivers with the [?] tributaries to their extreme sources, also to the weir on the Mitchell River to Providence Ponds, with a corresponding frontage to the Gippsland Lakes.

[Column 1, row 3](3) Bra-yak-(g)alŭng = him Bra = man, yak = west - all the country west of Providence Ponds watered by the Avon, [crossed out - River]] Macalister [crossed out - and] Thompson and Latrobe Rivers down to the junction of these into [?] & thence [?] valley the eastern bank of the Latrobe to Lake Wellington thence - eastward by the [?] to [somewhere?] near [?], thence northward to Providence Ponds.

Column 2 Title - Lesser [?]Row 1 - a) Ben – Sydenham Inletb) Dūra – 12 miles up the Snowy River from the seac) Wūrnŭng-gattung – Lake Tyersd) Brt-bitta (= a hollow in the ground)– Jimmy’s Point – entrance to Gippsland Lakes

Row 2 - (e) Bruthen, in the Tambo River(f) Waiŭng = widgeon - near Bairnsdale in the Mitchell River(g) Wŭk-wŭk = Lindeman Flat. Mitchell River(h) Mŭnji = on the north shore of Lake Victoria= There! or "the place of" e.g. -?(i) Dairgo - on the Dargo River

Row 3(k) Kŭtbūn-baura from Kŭtbūn = to have or carry and baura = fire. The name also of a hill or the upper Avon River.(l) Bŭnjil Nŭlŭng - the country between the Avon River and the Eastern boundary of the clan, south of Stratford - Bŭnjil = personal appelates of the older men-Nŭlŭng = mud. Named after the Head man of the division at the time when Gippsland was settled by the whites -(m) Bunjil-clan - the country between the Avon and the Macalister Rivers. Dan = emu - the name of a Head man -(n) Bunjil-Kraura from Kraura = west wind [Northern?] country of the clan west of [north?] to them almost impenetrable forested scrub in west Gippsland from the name of the Headman.

Column 3 title Wives fromRow 1 a) wives from b c d and Mallagoota Inlet and Twofold Bayb) wives from c a t and [p. 13] Bina-jera (the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland lakes and the sea as far as the Entrance to the Lakesc) Brüthen – on the Tambo River – Waiūng Widgeon – near Bairnsdale Mitchell River and Kŭbbūn laura – Upper Avon Riverd) b and Bina-jera (see b) or is it I = Būnjil Nŭlŭng – between Avon River and eastern boundary of clan south of the Stratford

wives toa) b c d k Twofold Bay Mallagoota Inletb) c e g t Bina-jerac) Bruthen Waiūng Widgeon Kŭbbūn laura and Bina-jerad) b or I and Bina-jera

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O of A.J. 7

River and were called [Kutbriu-taura?] or Carriers of 'fire' their country being also so named - the prefix "Wurk" = 'carried' being understood. For instance the Brabra clan [underlined] munji subdivision [crossed out - The large secondary] was [crossed out - again] divided and

[left margin note - the BraBra clan inserted after secondary]

subdivided, each section occupying its own tract oo hunting or food ground until the unit [crossed out - of this] [crossed out - local organization] was a small group of kindred - frequently merely an old man with his married or unmarried sons; the wives and grandchildren.

Such an existence was that of the Bunjil-baul or men of the Island a small family which lived in Raymond Island in Lake King and which claimed all the swans eggs laid in that island as their own and exclusive property. The males of this family also - inherited the name of ---- or in English was -----------, evidently a survival of a onetime totem. [5 lines crossed out ]

[Left hand margin note - Insert after Adja-dūra tribe]

[Crossed out - Bruthen coast tribe] I might refer to every coast tribe from the Adjadura far up into Quensland of whichI have information as examples of these [crossed out - which and may term] the [crossed out - abnormal] same kind of social and local development. But it may suffice to give two more instances which are stretching examples of the direction which this development of the local [crossed out - organization] at the [expense?] of the local organization has taken place.

I have already mentioned the Woeworung tribe of the Yarra River and again take them as an instance. Here we find the old two clan system existing under the familiar names Eaglehawk (Bunjil) and crow (waaug). but the [?] [crossed out - the] totems there was only one named (Thara) (Eaglehawk?). All others if they ever existed had died out - and that these were totems at one time maybe inferred not only from

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their occurrence in other more backward standing tribesover a vast extent of Central Australia, but also from the numerous references to certain animals as the "sons of Bunjil" which play a great part in the myths of this tribe (1).

[Left margin note - (1) quote old tales from new lands &c-]

The Woeworung was on of a large related group, or "nation" tribes which occupied the greater part of Central Victoria - from the Sea [crossed out - to] nearly to the banks of the River Murray. [Crossed out - The Woeworung tribe was divided into certain] [crossed out - clans as follows: - the people] The Woeworung language was spoken over the Yarra River watershed, and as far South inland as [crossed out - Dandenong] Cranbourne - western Werribee River and northwards to Mt Macedon: But these people did [?] form all one tribe being divided locally as follows:- giving the names of the Headman [crossed out - who] at the time of settlement of Victoria.


[Title] Wŭrunjeri (Wŭru = white gum tree)[Column 1](3) The Real Wurunjeri [underlined] The Upper Yarra [crossed out - from]including Yarra Flats - Northern slope of Dandenong Mtns.Southern [?]

[Column 2](a) [Kurnage-belung?] [underlined]Yarra River from Yarra Flat down - the Plenty River (b) Bebejan [underlined] Saltwater River up to Mt Macedon [willibilleri?] [underlined]

[Column 3]Boiberit [underlined]Part of Sunbury and Werribee.Bŭng-erim

All the [Werunijeri?] spoke the Woeworung language excepting the Berberits who spoke a dialect called [thŭri-wurung?] - But all were of the Waaug clans (crow).

The clan law which which required them as waaug crows to obtain wives from people who were Bunjil (Eaglehawk), the [separation?] of the two clan names severally into localities [crossed out - also] [?] about a law which was local in its application.

Thus [crossed out - taking] the men of that subdivision of the [crossed out - tribes] Werungeri [crossed out - also] [crossed out - of the Woeworung for speaking people] who lived in the Yarra about where Kew and the eastern the suburbs now are, [crossed out - the] were being crow[underlined] obliged to take wives from the Ngarūk Willŭm living about Dandenong who although also speaking Woeworūng were Eaglehawk [underlined], from the Gūnŭng [crossed out - willum] Ballŭk who were Eaglehawk lived near Mt Macedon but spoke Būnwurung Campaspe, from the Būthera balluk who were Eaglehawk lived near Seymour on the Goulburn River [crossed out - and spoke ?] from the Waring (cave) illŭm ballŭk who were Eaglehawk and lived on the Yea River, from the BalŭungKara Muttŭng who were

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Eaglehawk and lived in the Ovens River near Wangaratta and from the Wŭdthau-worŭng speaking people who lived at Geelong. While [crossed out - they] women camefrom these places as wives, their sisters went to their places as wives also.

[left margin note - Faira? Creek]

(or tabulated-thus)Table showing the intermarriage of the [Kulin] clans and tribes

Name of the tribe - (1) Urŭnjeri Ballŭk Locality - KewClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (2) Būllŭk-wilŭmLocality - CranbourneClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (3) Nira BallŭkLocality - Kilmore, BendigoClass - WaangLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (4) Kūr-ŭng-jang BallŭkLocality - WerribeeClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (5) Yau-ŭng-ilŭm BallŭkLocality - Between Mt Macedon, Kilmore, HeathcoteClass - WaangLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (6) Būn-worŭng BallŭkLocality - Cape SchankClass - WaangLanguage - Būn-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (7) Ngarūk-ilumLocality - DandenongClass - BunjilLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (8) Būn-worŭng Locality - MordiallocClass - BunjilLanguage - Būn-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (9) Gūnŭng illum balluk Locality - Mt MacedonClass - BunjilLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (10) Būthera balluk Locality - SeymourClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (11) Waring ilum balluk Locality - Yea RiverClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (12) Yiran-ilum-balluk Locality - Goulburn River, Seymour to BenallaClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (13) Ngūr-ai-ilum-balluk Locality - MurchisonClass - BunjilLanguage - ngurai-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (14) Ben-ben-dora-balluk Locality - MorupnaClass - BunjilLanguage - ?

Name of the tribe - (15) Wŭdtha-wurŭng-balluk Locality - GeelongClass - BunjilLanguage - Wudtha-wor-ung

[14 insert here]

Column 5 - Remarks - Urŭn = white gum treeballuk = people a number ofWoë = noWillŭm or ilum = campNira = cave or hole in a bankthagun = noyan-ŭng = stone būn = nongarūk = stones

A My informants stated that the people were either bunjil and waaug as far as the Avoca River [crossed out - where] beyond which the people were [Ganulih?] and [Krokitch?]. To the north eastward along the flanks of the mountains and up the rivers as far as the Buffalo River Bunjil and Waaug also extended. [Similar?] they extended to [crossed out - about] near Colac.

To this I may add that [Gamuch?] & [Krokitch?] extended over the extreme north west of of Victoria [?] Mt [Gambier?] (1) On the upper Ovens, the Kiewa, the Mitta Mitta Rivers I have found that the classes were [Matiau?] (Eaglehawk) and Yuthembrŭk (crow) thus [?] in [law?] confirming the statements of my Kulin informants.

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[Crossed out - The Social Organization][Crossed out lines 1-3 - This is founded and indeed has been developed out of the division of the community into two moieties for which we have used the term classes (+)]

In two tribes very far apart from each other not only in geographical situation but also in their customs [crossed out - have] we have found [crossed out - a] legends purporting to explain how, their division of the tribe came about. The Dieri legend is that "after the creation, brothers, sisters and others of their closest kin intermarried [promiscuously?] until - the evil effects of these alliances becoming manifest, a council of the chiefs was assembled to consider in which way they might be averted, the result of their deliberations being a petition to the mura mura (good spirit) in answer to which he ordered that the tribe should be divided into branches and distinguished one from another but different names after objects animate and inanimate such as dogs, mice, emu, rain, iguana and so forth; the members of any suchbranch not to inter marry, but with permission from one branch to mingle with another. Thus the son of a dog might not marry the daughter of a dog, but either might might form an alliance with a mouse, rat or other family." (1)

[Left mergin note](1) K and K - p 25para. The Dieyeri Tribep 13. cin/within [?]South Australia 1874 -

The other legend we found to belong to the Woeworung of Victoria (2) and it states that "at first all the perople married without any restriction until two medicine men went up to the sky and consulted Bunjil the great supernatural being who [crossed out - they] the Woewurung believed [ordered?] them who ordered that 'Bunjil (Eaglehawk) shall be on this side and Waaug/Waang (crow) shall be on that [crossed out - the other] side and Bunjil shall marry Waaug/Waang and Waaug/Waang shall marry with Bunjil but no one shall marry one of the same name.

[Left margin note](2) see list of tribe at p.-

For Waaug/waang - Is this Wa-ang?

These legends are of no value in authority as history or as to [transmitting?] [crossed out - by which] the [actual?] matter in which

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[Diagonal line upper left to lower right through text sometimes obscuring words]

[Table of 3 columns][Table title] - Clans and totems of the Wobjoballuk [underlined]

[Column heading titles]Classes - Totems - Claim

[Column 3 crossed out - Moiwillŭk (carpet snake) - tikomai (venomous snake)mindai (a small snake) - morokŭt [??] -wūrip (small bird with top knot) - mitjan (the moon)

[Column 1 at right angle to text 1-6] [Kro Kitch?]

(1) - Ngauina-gŭli [underlined] men of the sun - Bunjil (formal?] , Ngiarau (Turkey), ? (opossum), gŭr (a grub), jaruka (a tuber), gore (kangaroo), Burra (red kangaroo)

(2) - [gartapuka?] [underlined] [?] which [cos?] - "

(3) - Bareurin [underlined] a cave - "

(4) - Batya-ngal [underlined] Pelican - (There are Batjangal in both classes, I have not been able to ascertain how the totems are divided between each).

(5) - Wartwŭt [underlined] (Hot wind) - Moiwillŭk (carpet snake), tikomai (venomous snake), mindai (a small snake)morokŭt ([perman or German?] to Southeast), wūrip (small bird with top knot) mitjan (the moon)

(6) - Mŭnya? or Mŭrnya?] [underlined] a yam] - ?[Line across page]

[Column 1 at right angle to text 1-6] Gamutch

(1) - Jallan [underlined] deaf adder - [Gŭ??owara?] (black man) - [crossed out wūrand] Berejŭl (tiger cat)[Waa?] (crow), Wilkri (dingo)

(2) - Ngŭngŭl [underlined] The sea - ?

(3) - Batja-ngal [underlined] Pelican - [two words crossed out] ? (thunder), [gonŭ??] (magpie), boäm-baik (stick tail-native cat)Wanyip (Fire), [?]rtjuk (white gull or girl), Burtila (white back cormorant?]), Borŭp (small black cormorant) , Wangwŭng (large black cormorant) Ngari (Casuarina glauca), Karinbal (a wader with spotted breast & long [legs?]), Baruga ( grey heron), Propom ([?])

(4) = Wiraut [underlined] black cockater = Joyo (small iguana), Nganur (Lace lizard), Ngŭri ( black duck) gŭmil (green turtle), [Bernér?] (teal) jering (a bird)

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26 The class system of the Woeworung classes apparently only the remains of a two class system with totems, [crossed out - and] but it is significant [crossed out - remarkable] that in the tribal [myths?] there appear what are spoken of as the "sons" or " young men" of Bunjil, [crossed out - and I [?] that] In Urēu myths they play the same part as do the Muk-Kurnai of the Gippsland tribe. It is not unreasonable to look upon them as being the former totems of Bunjil and they all are under

Tadjeri = brush tailed phascologale = Achenar Turnung = ? = ?Yukope = ? = α crucis Dautŭn [Trydro?] [?] [glirus?] multi colour = β crucis Djŭrt-adjŭrt [Tumunculus caveburelis?] = β centauri Thara = -- = α centauri

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[crossed out - to] as far as the Ovens River above Wangaratta, the source of the Goulburn/Goulburn River, and Yarra/Yarra River Rivers and the Western Port district to the boundary of Gippsland.

[Left margin note] This Nation may be [further?] spoken of as the Kuli in Kulin for the word commonlyused for "man"?

But little has been recorded as to the classes and totems of these tribes and it has only been possible for me to obtain information from the survivors of those of the constituent tribes, namely the Woeworung of the River Yarra/Yarra Riverwatershed, the Thagŭn worŭng of the --------- and the Galgal Bullluk of the Avoca River.

A list is given of [crossed out - these] tribes with their loations and other particulars at p - . I now subjoin the class system [crossed out - as] of the Woeworung and Thagun worung which appears also to have been that of the Bunworung and other neighbours of the two former. As to the other tribes of this nation all that I can say is that they had [word crossed out -?] the classes Bunjil and Waang/Waa and that no totems were known by my informants other than the ones given below.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Column 1 title] Classes - [Column 2 title] Totem[underlined]Bunjil Eaglehawk - Thara = [Quiet?] Hawk Waang/Waa crow - None [underlined]

According to Mr Cameron the Mortlake tribe in the Western district know that their class [Krokaje? or Krokage?] was the equivalent of the class Bunjil and that Kubitch was the equivalent of the class Waang. Similarly one of the [Gaigal?] Bulluk told me that in his tribe he was Waang and therefore also [crossed out - ??] [crossed out - the] was Gamutch in the next adjoining tribe to the west and that Bunjil was the same as Krokitch.

This the approximate western boundary of the "Kulin" Nation is fixed. In the north it extended to within a certain

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distance of the river Murray where were the northern boundaries of [crossed out - the River] tribes belonging to another group, [crossed out - To the eastern] and with the class & totem systems quite different in type within which I have been describing.

The [crossed out - system of] Woeworung system is clear, a modification of the two class system [crossed out - of the River & which occured] of the tribes at the Darling/Darling River & Murray/Murray River Rivers - "Wukwara and Kilpara" - but the totems are absent all but one. In my mind this is a case where the totems have died out and the [crossed out - tribal] myths of Kulin tribes throw some light upon their past existence.

These myths relate the [doings?] long ago of beings who were supernatural such as "Bunjil" who is featured in them as [crossed out - having] being another [principle?], and of other beings who were Animals and yet human, who took the forms of the Kangaroo, the wombat, the opossum, the Emu, the crow, the spiny anteater [crossed out - any] many another [crossed out - yet] [??] moopoke as human being, that is big as [crossed out - these] aborigines themselves would (1). Some principal actors in these myths are the "Sons of Bunjil", or "[Bunjil's/Bunjil]] young men"[crossed out - that is] Thara the Quail Hawk, [Dju??yart?] the Nankeen Kestrel, [Dautun ?]the Blue [mountain Dart?], [Yūkyuthy?] Green parakeet, Tadjery the [Numbat?] Phascologale and [Turuny?] [himself?] the opossum [Wurun?]. Of these Thara is itself a totem and I cannot [find?] [??], the remainder were totems also and all of them were the class totems of Bunjil. But no traces remain of the totems of Waang the crow if [crossed out - it] [crossed out - be] they are not to be found in the other [Actors?] in there myths.

[Left margin note] (1) are [??] in Mr. [21A?] - Howit1898.

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The laws of marriage in the Kulin tribes were those of the two class system, [crossed out - But are] were formulated in the Bunjil legend which I have recorded at p.-. The classes Bunjil and Waang were exogamous and intermarried, but descent here was comuted in the male line and the children took the class name of their father and not as in the tribes which I have so far mentionedd through their mother, At p 9. I have tabulated a number of the Kulin tribes and it will be seen then from that the class names were local so that certain clans were all Bunjil while other clans were all Waang, [crossed out - In &] this [chapter?] [crossed out - which] proposes mainly to describe the [word crossed out -social] broad features of [crossed out - these] tribal and the social organization and the greater groups of allied tribes which I have designated nation. It would lead me too far away from my present objects were I to enter into a discussion of the causes which may have affected these changes in the clans totems and in the laws of marriage and descent and these interesting points were to be dealt with in the following chapter.

As the classes were thus respectively segregated into defined localities and as Bunjil and Waang men had to send their wives in localities where Waang and Bunjil girls must be found it is not surprising that there were certain definite localities which [80?] boys exchanged women as wives with [easily?] [??]. Such an instance will serve as an example of the whole and I take it from the Wŭrunjeri ballŭk (see table p 9). which is numbered I. According to my Wŭrunjeri informant wives were Married by his tribes men from the tribes living about [Numbud?] in the table; [crossed out - (7) Ngarak-illum,(?)] Ngaruk-illum, Dandenong [crossed out - the Werribe R.], (6) Būnwurrung {//] of [??] [??] [islands?] (6) [crossed out - two words] [??] Gunung ilum [(]?) Seymour Buthero-balluk (10) The Yea River Waring ilum and some others which I have not noted, while in return they obtained wives from those localities.

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In the south of the Great Dividing Range Eastwards of Melbourne, [crossed out - there] was one of the Kulin [crossed out - clan] tribes known as the Būnworŭng or " Broad lips" [underlined] [No is above Broad lips] speaking people whosecountry ended in the dense jungles of the Great Forest of South Gippslandand in the Coast at Andersons Inlet.

Beyond them occupying the whole of Gippsland with the exception of the dense jungles and great mountains of Croajingalinglying back from the coast, were the five clans of the Kurnai[whom which - crossed out] whose local organization I have already describedat pp. 78. This tribe had no class system and no totems such as those which I have described. But there issome evidence which justifies the belief that at one time they had the classes + totems of the Kulin tribes.’

The Kurnai dialects are [strongly allied to the - crossed out] from the same stock as the Būnworung + Woeworung languages. The legends [of both the K ?? - crossed out] of [these - crossed out] the Kurnai and Woeworung both speak of the same supernatural anthropomorphic Loän who migrated from the Woeworungcountry into south Gippsland. Bunjil the great supernatural Being of the Kūlin tribes whom they called “Mamenjalō" or "our father"reappears in the Kurnai legend as ["Mungan ngar" - crossed out] “our father”(Mŭnjan ngaar). But the class name Bunjil has disappeared and is only recognizable as a name which attaches to men ofa certain age as a personal [?depictor?] accompanied by some special name, and what might be freely [translated as "Mr"?], such as Bunjil Gworun – 'Mr" Thunder referring to the deep voice of this man so named, or Bunjil Barlajan "Mr" platypus" referring to this man’s skill in killing that monotreme animal. The totem names maybe recognized in the names of beasts, birds, fishes +c which men inherited by the sons from their fathers as Wambat, Sea Salmon, Sandpiper, +c.

As there were no classes or totems there could not be any law of marriage regulated by them, but the restrictions which in other tribes attached to marriage, [were - crossed out] arose among the Kurnai out oflocality. Thus the men of each locality was restricted in [its - crossed out] their choice of wives to certain other localities as I have [?indicated?] in the table on p 6A. The local restriction [was - crossed out] acted in the same

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33manner in this tribe as did the class restriction in tribes having class divisions and totems. I have gone more fully into those subjects in the chapter on “Marriage”, to which the reader may be referred.

In saying that the Kurnai have totems the exception must be made of what are properly described as " [crossed out - sex] totems, namely Djitgůn the Superb wren (Malūrus cyaneus) and Yirŭng the Emu wren (Malachurus stipilurus) the former being the [crossed out - Kaus] "womens sister" and the latter the "mens brother". These totems do not however give a name to the individual. No man is called Yerŭng not any woman Djitgün, But at the Initiation ceremonies of this tribe there is an unpublished ceremony which I have described in the chapter Relating to "Initiation" at which Yeerůng is invoked as the "mans brother" during a whole night by both the men and the women, the reason why Djitgun is not invoked being that it is the boys only who are being initiated - the object of that part of the ceremonies being to send the women to sleep as boys [crossed out - into] in order that they may wake next morning to the stature of men. Fights accasionally occur in the Kurnai clans by reason of the men killing a Superb warbler, or the women killing an Emu Wren accompanied by insulting jeers and taunts to the "Sister" or to the "Brother" of the victim as the case may be.

Among the Kulin tribes there were [crossed out -several] also "ten totems" and of them there were two of each sex. The "mens brothers" were the Emu wren as among the Kurnai and also the Bat who was Balayan the son of Bunjil and the womens sister was the Superb warbler and also the Owlet-nightjar. [Naribim?] [gurūk?] [underlined] With wren tribes also it was common for men or women to kill the [crossed out - to see] totem of the opposite sex.

Among the Wotjoballŭk the mans brother was the bat, Mŭn-ŭng, [??] and the womans sister the owlet-nightjar.

[written at the bottom of the page]Would it be worth while to have a footnote pointing out that the sex-totems may possibly [possibly underlined] be a survival from the undivided commune?

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[crossed out - In] The Great dividing Range which to the westward of the [mountain?] of Melbourne [leaves?] until in Western Victoria it shows mainly by isolated mountain, in the Eastern side rises into a great chain [crossed out - of mountains] extending to te north East until at the boundary of the colony it rises into its greatest elevation in Mt Kosciusko to the height of 7386 feet above sea level.

The great streams from their mountains form valleys [crossed out - also] through which flow northwards round the River Murray to [southwards?] to Bass's [Straits?].

Tribes such as the Woewurrung claimed the river [crossed out - in which] flowing through their country as part of their territory grounds to its sources in the mountains [crossed out - where] by which in summer they [behove?] themselves to hunt. But [crossed out - ?] [crossed out - further than] beyond the sources of the Goulburn/Goulburn River and Yarra/Yarra River Rivers the [crossed out - in] Dividing Range/Great Dividing Range widens out into greater alpine plateas [palteaux] [crossed out - which] with tracts of grass and herbage and bordered or circled with still higher rugged mountains. At an elevation of about 5000 ft the timber ceases and the ultimate great downs and summits are clustered with an alpine vegetation glorious in summer time with flowers. [crossed out - So] Such alpine tablelands continue in succession and at [various?] altitudes from near Woods Point at the sources of the Goulburn/Goulburn River and Macalister/Macalister River River until they terminate in New South Wales in the [tablelands?] of Kiandra. [crossed out - They] The higher plateaux are in winter covered deeply with snow but the lower ones such as that of Omeo in Victoria and Maneroo in New South Wales are habitible all the year round.

[crossed out - In a] On such elevated plateaux were located certain tribes which to some extent formed a nation [which - crossed out] with a community of customs, of ceremonies while yet having some connection with the adjacent tribes of the lower lying [where - crossed out] country. In many these mountaineers occupied the upper valleys of this region also. [crossed out - upper valleys of the Rivers. Rest of line crossed out] about [crossed out - three lines that are difficult to read]They [mitūman?].lived in the Upper Ovens/Ovens River and Buffalo/Buffalo River Rivers and which was claimed by the Kulin as being Bunjil. In the Southward they intermarried with the small Dargo [Dursut?] of the Brabralūng clan of the Kurnai which inhabited a small trail of open country [crossed out - along the] about the junctions of the Dargo, Wonnangatta and Wentworth Rivers. To the Eastward they intermarried with the Ngarego tribe which inhabited part of the

[Left margin note]The [??] tribe which inhabited the Omeo tableland and the Upper Mitta Mitta & Tambo/Tambo River Rivers was [??] into the Omeo

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on such elevated plateaux were located certain tribes where the elevation was such within the region of perpetual sun during the winter months, as [crossed out - but such was the case with the Omeo tribe]: at Omeo in Victoria and Maneroo in New South Wales: But even in such cases the mountain tribes usually occupied some of the higher River valleys which [crossed out - lay any?] [prohibit?] the plateaux from either side, or where the tablelands were inaccessible during the winter months, [crossed out - in summer] the tribes which claimed them had their winter quarters in lower lying country.

Thus [crossed out - The Omeo tribe] on the Gippsland side one branch of the Baiaka clan, the subdivision named [Kŭtbŭru-taura?] or Fire carriers? whose headquarters were on the Avon River [crossed out - at the] in the [above - and [??]] foothills bordering the plains, during the summer time ascended the spur of Mt Wellington where at a height of 5000 ft then reached the southern edge of [crossed out - the] a plateau now called the Snowy Plains; which extended northward between the deep valley of the Macalister and Wonangatta Rivers a distance of _____ miles to the Great Dividing Range.

Similarly from the oppposite side the tribe which occupied the valley of the [crossed out - Upper Ovens River and its tributary the] Buffalo River ascended during the summer, [crossed out - the latter] then almost isolated Plateau called the Buffalo Mountain, [crossed out - and the] and was therefore the distant and hostile neighbour of the Braiaka. [crossed out beneath - former the ???? tableland now known as the Dargo High Plains.]

Beyond [crossed out - these] and still following the Great Dividing Range to [crossed out - the] north Eastward lies the vast tableland out of which at successive elevations rise the sources of the Mitta MittaRiver, known now as the Bogong High Plains, and Omeo.

Here lived formerly a mountain tribe which was divided into two great local groups. One was the Theddora Mittŭng (1) occupying the [Cobungra - crossed out] the Mitta Mitta River and its tributaries [from - crossed out] upwards from about the [Gibbo?] mountain, the Upper Kiewa River and the Ovens River above the Buffalo Mountain, thus being the neighbour of a number of lowland tribes in the northern half of the Dividing Range, among which was the Buffalo tribe which was claimed by my Woeworung informant as [the outlying member of the - crossed out] belonging to those who had the ‘names’ (classes) Bunjil and Wang (1)

[Left margin notes]Theddura Mittung

Mittung = a number of people; also = a number, many. this word particularly appears in Mitta-Mitta River in reference to its rise & number of tributaries.

(1) see p.-----psee also as to the [??] also of the [??] & Omeo with some Kurnai ch us. p.

Last edit 24 hours ago by Christine



more impenetrable by the exuberant growth of [the - crossed out] a climbing grass (1) which often [rose up - crossed out] [?embraced?] everything [with in its ?? li - crossed out]for twenty feet above the ground. Even when in some places the country was a more open forest the river flowed with in a belt of almost tropical jungle. Moreover animal life was scarce and the whole area could only support a tribe as small as the Biduell-mittŭng who probably never numbered more in all than a couple of score of individuals. These people called themselves “maap” – men and were looked down upon by all their neighbours. They had no system of Initiation and I saw once at a [Kuriu - crossed out]Bora of the Coast-Muring [sic] that [one of these - crossed out] a Biduell man of probably seventy years of age who was then visiting them on friendly terms was contemptuously driven in among the women and children at the commencement of the ceremonies and left behind as not being a “full man”. -

The Biduell language was compounded from the surrounding languages. They had some of the class names of their neighbours, for instance they hadthe sex totem [here - crossed out] Yirŭng [cut men - crossed out], and I observed the [totem - crossed out] class name "Yukanbrŭk= crow and the totem Tchuteba = Rabbit Rat of the Ngarego and theYalonga = Rock Wallaby - of the Coast Muring [sic]. I even found onefamily bearing the name of Bunjil. Their relationship terms[are - crossed out] were also derived from the same neighbouring tribes, someterms being Kurnai and some Muring as might have been forecastfrom their composite language. The prime facie case of a mixed descent is strengthened by a statement made by a Biduell man who claimed as his country the upper valley of the [upper - crossed out] Broadribb River which flows into the Snowy Rivernear the coast and thus in the Kurnai country. He said that his “father’s father” was a Kurnai of Buchan (1) who left his country and settled in the small piece of open county known as [the - crossed out] Goungra, west of Mount Ellery. (2)His son obtained a wife from the Thedora of Omeo, the son of this marriage, my informant, married a Ngarego woman. This pedigree accounts for both Yirŭng and Yŭkembrŭk. [Such - crossed out] Another case is one where before the settlement of Gippsland by the white man, a Brabrolŭng eloped with his brother’s daughter who according to the classificatory system of kinship was counted as his own daughter. The offence againt tribal law was one of the most serious he could commit and he escaped with her. [and was not seen - crossed out]

[written in left side margin](1)

Is this Marap?

Are they not thenprobably mixedrefugees?

(1) this is not as isusually supposed aScotch name given to theplace by some of the Earlysettlers who were [mostly - crossed out] [??]from North [??] but anative word which should beproperly written Bŭkan, meaninga net bag in which the blackfellowscarried their things. The proper nameof the place is "Bŭkan-munji"or "Bag-there" or the "place of the bag"(2) Būrrūmpa of the aborigines

Last edit 24 hours ago by Christine




[crossed out - 8] 10/15?

The [?] tribe had descent [?] though the fathers ([?] - p -) and as the [crossed out - where had] class names had become localised, these were in its true [(Weun?-?)]that is local [?] of the [?] some which were [words crossed out - ? whose some] all [words crossed out - of the one [?] (class) and ?] [crossed out - of the] Bunjil and the others all [?],[crossed out - all of the other [Wh?] class](see p.)-

The old men governed the tribe and any [?] there were [?] men called [Ngŭrŭnjaeta?], If a man was sensible and 'spoke traight" and did ill to no one, [?] listen to him, and obey him. [3 words crossed out] Such a man might become a [Ngŭrŭnjaeta?], [3 words crossed out] almost certainly [3 words crossed out] be the case if [?] [?] -[?] go before him. and [?] It is [?] has the [?] [?] certainly who called the people together for the great tribal meetings, sent out messengers, and [?] to his [?]

Who was always of mature age and possessing some eminent qualitiesfor which he would be respected.

Last edit 6 months ago by Christine
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