Howitt and Fison Papers

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XM123_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 26 December 1903

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with the [.........] side of the Aborigines question I remember writing you about the Unghi tribe located between the Maranoaand Warrego and that they called themselves Ipai, Kumbo etc and and also Oorjilla, Kuberu etc.You suggested they were probably on the border land dividing Ipai lot from the Oorjilla.Not long since I met a Mr H.S. Wills son of Horatio Wills who was murdered. He told me that 200 miles north of the Unghi the words Ipai Kumbo were unknown and theywere all Oorjilla Kuberu. We compared a lot of words and there was an extraordinary resemblance, a great many words being almost exactly the same.

Wish you a pleasant Xmas

Yours faithfully

ALP Cameron

Page 45 [..] some argument [...... ... ....] "dismiss?" this statement that totems [........] this field of [.........] selection. [...] a [....]. the [........... ....] mallee here marries [.....] kangaroo with a bandicoot & [.........] kangaroo or [........ ......] on [.... .......] and [............] as the two primary divisions as [........]. Then according to "Lang?" any [....] could marry any [......] or any [......] and of course "be?"

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie
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could by that means marry his own daughter.Among this Wonghibone a man may marry with a [matia]] or a Kubbitha but the totem control with another prevents his marrying his daughter or his niece.

Ipai malley hen marries mattia Kangaroo, herdaughter is Kubbitha Kangaroo and the totem [??] does not permit him to marry her. How then can it be said that totems do not [?]. ...... ... ....] of matrimonial selection.ALPC

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie

XM35_ICDMS_lowres

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trying to explain to me. I donot think they are very strictnow in their marriage lawsand it is only the very old peoplethat remember any of theirtraditions. The x will showthey marry.

Combo x Martha Butha x MurriBrother to Butha

M Kubbi Kubotha F can marry Ipai Ipatha F x Kubbican marry

M Murri Martha F can marry M Combo Butha Fcan marry

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie
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E) "Conho?" to a "Kublitha?", is a "Buttiang?" (father) F) " to an "Ipai?" is a "Kuthie?" (Uncle) G) " to a Martha is a [.......] (Husband)

The Martha woman who is grand- daughter to the head "Conho?" man must not marry that line of "Conho?" man, because they are of the same blood. They must be of different blood, which is called [.........] [........]. So the matter of this Martha woman when she is [.......] gives her to a "Conho?" man, who need not necessarily be of another tribe, but not of the same blood. Therefore a [Boo.....] man cannot marry woman of the [Booni.....] blood but must marry of the [..........] blood. The old "gin?" who is talking to me is an "Ipatha?" herself. This is so as not to confuse things. She says

Last edit over 2 years ago by nburgess
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they were "originally?" decended from different animals. The Kangaroo, "Emu?", Iguana, Opossum, "Paddymelon?", Snake and others. Their law "means?" that "two big?" [.....] [....] not marry; like Kangaroo and "Iguana?" So she having an "Ipatha?", she is a Kangaroo gin, there- fore she marries an Iguana blackfellow. They go under this heading, as she gave them to me.

"Conho?" = Kangaroo "Kublai?" = Iguana "Ipai?" = Kangeroo Murri = Iguana

these being some of the tribal forefathers.

Last edit over 2 years ago by nburgess

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VI Is correct and requires no answer.VII She laughs at Ipai opossumbeing allowed to marry Buthabandicoot and says to make itcorrect according to theirlaws. Ipai can only be theringtailed opossum not thereal opossum. Marryingbetween Ipai & Martha KumboKubbitha, Murri Ipathawere never allowed in thetribe in recent times.VIII Yes, I notice she uses the termsUncle, only for her Mother's brother& not for her father's brothers.IX The diagram of the blood relativesI have gone through as you sug-gested and she says no also

Last edit 5 months ago by Helen Gardner
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quite correct.The Ipitha woman is of theMargoolah blood.

Answers to letter of June 22/1907

I While Ipitha was small shewas given by her parents to a Kubbi man. She being of theMargoolah blood, the Kubbimust belong to the Boombera

II In reference to your diagramof the two sisters and brothersbeing given each in exchange.She says it is frequently doneKubbi 4, wants to marry Ipitha8, and says to Ipai "I take your sister, and you can have mineKubbitha" 2.

Last edit 5 months ago by Helen Gardner

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She seems quite familiarwith the subclasses such asMurruri, Kubburi, IbburiQummburi.These she says are all thesame as the subclasses of the Moorawari such asCombo, Ipatha.

[written in left side margin]Which are the equivalents? [get her to write - crossed out]Please write them:one under the otherIpaiMurrwuri

III She does not know these mar--riages but says Kulburri + the others you mention allbelong to the Burrumbinyatalk.

IV She cannot say how manyof the Goornoo tribe areliving. She says they livenear Bourke on the Wilcanniaside of the Darling

V The Goornoo tribe she knowsand their class names she does

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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[table]

M Ipai brother brother Kubbi2f Kubbutha sister sister 4f Ipatha 3f Matha sister in law 7f Butha 4m Kubbi f Ipatha(Kubbi 4 calls Ipatha 8) (Ipatha 8 calls Kubbi)(Nuhar = wife) (Gecking= husband)

Kubbi 4 is given to Ipatha 8 byMatha 3 who is "goondie goondie" == mother in law to Ipatha 8.Also Kubbitha 2 who is calledNubbo-nubbo = gran mother byKubbi 4The same ceremony is gonethrough in reference to Ipatha 8.

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

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Draught letter

(9)

10/7/06

"Clovelly" - Metung10 July 1906

Dear Miss Benson

I have to thank you for so kindly and promptly givingyour assistance in my enquiries and as I feel that they alsoare interesting to you I gladly avail my self of it.

I have gone through the [Guamo] relationship terms andnow make a few remarks on them.

[(1) The term Mungunna is applied to the Husband's Sister + also to the husband's - crossed out][brother's wife. But the latter should be another bubba - crossed out] (1) (5 + 2, 5 + 3) Is it correct toapply the terms Bubba and Mungunna (younger sister) to the Husband's sister?[The- crossed out] (5 + 8) Husband's brothers wife - this seems correct because 5+8 should besister's "own or tribal". (2) the term quealira = wife (1+5). Is it correctfor [the - crossed out] this term to apply to (F) brother's wife (2 + 5)? (3) Is dorgoona correctlyapplied to (F) husband's sister's husband (5 + 2)? [should it not be It seems to - crossed out][me that - crossed out] (4) [Is - crossed out] are not 11 + 7, and 13+6 - both yub-boo (father)? [(5) I see too you give - crossed out][two terms for "mother's brother" - yubboo moorang (11+1) and (5) Is not "mother's - crossed out][Sister's husband's yubboo? - crossed out] (5) What is the term for "father's sister's husband"? (9 + 6, 9 + 710 + 6, 10 + 7)? (6) I note in the filial terms that the term (1 + 9) deerger = (M) son and (1 + 10)deergeau = (M) daughter. As in some other Queensland tribes I take it that the termination in"au" in the latter is the feminine suffix, analogoris to the Kamilaroi suffix "tha" as in(M) Ipai + (F) Ipatha. If so should not it be applied through all the filial terms? It seemsthat while a man calls his son "deergee", a woman calls her son "tooarna".Is this the same throughout all the filial relationships, and should not"daughter" where spoken of by a mother be "tooarnan"?

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

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4Table of the Marriages and Descentsin the Moorawari tribe

1 Kubbi 'Bill Ipai 'Joe' 92 Ipatha 'Polly' Kubbitha - Jane 10

3 Kimbo - Tom Murry - Jack 114 Matha - Ann Butha - Mary 12

5 Kubbi - Paul 6Kubbitha - Alice 13 Ipai - Peter 14 Ipatha Sarah7 Ipatha - Mary 8 Ipai - John 15 Kabbitha - Sophie 16 Kubbi - Alex

I have given the same relationships as those in the Dieri Diagram. The individuals are put down with the sub-class - names,as they must have been. But I have added fictitous personal names to identify each. If you would kindly - take 3 + 4 as beingyour input "combo & martha", and then add to each number instead of the fictitious english name, the actual personal name [of each individual -crossed out][that to the personal names -crossed out] by which each individual is [known - crossed out] was or is known Then you will not be in ayour in fact in a "fog".The questions are as follows:(1) where did each husband or wife come from - ie. beginning withwhere did Kubbi Bill belong to? where was his country? where did his wife Ipatha Polly come from? How did he get her - was it by betrothal, or by gift, if so by whom; or did he get her in the same manner as the Kamilaroi get their wives? (now I must explain that one of theSouthern Kamilaroi, when he had attended a certain round of Boras, had theright [??] [??] girl, "Ngaia Kulade Kura mulaYaralla" that is "I myself wife will take (steal) by and bye")

Was Ipatha Polly in any way related to Kubbi Bill? Have they anyterm which is like the Dieri noa - indicating those males +females [who are perm - crossed out] between whom marriage is permissable.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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December 1st 1907

Class TotemIpai X Kangaroo = gaalahKumboGillah =girrahB- duck = gom-dune-'gullScrub turkey = War'-gooh'-gahCodfish = Girr'ali'yeeRed Snake = Garru = B-diamond lizard = ThrornineCrawfish = Mao'rar'moo'roo'tiger snake = Mill'ah'aru gaenhorse fly = Mao'rao'gnine Mosquito = Boo'roo'aneSmall black ant = MelgiddyMeat ant = Nar'ah'ree'water rat = Moog'geeTerantular [sic]= Moor-fineEmu = NooringWalleroo = Narr'ah'goofrog = Tharndietree frog = Bill'harlgreen frog = Burrendigel

1. can you learn which of the sub-class Ipai-Kumbo totemsmarried with the severalMurri-Kubbi / totems?you have given kangaroo and Iguanakangaroo and opossum, [iguana - crossed out][and Kangaroo - crossed out]what about all the other totems ?

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie
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[3 columns]Male Marries Children are

Ipai - Kangeroo [sic], Kubbitha iguanna [sic], Murri, Matha, iguanna [sic]Kumbo - [ditto] Matha opossum, Kubbitha Kubbi opossumMurri guanna [sic], Butha Kangeroo [sic], Ipai Ipatha KangerooKubbi guanna [sic], Ipatha Kangeroo, Butha Kumbo Kangeroo

You are quite correct the descent of namesruns through the Mother in the Moorawari

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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I

I have two separate sheetswritten. the sub classes, theirtotems, and the aboriginalwords.

As regards the totems beingdivided into sub classes,I am inclined to thinksuch is the case, as theyare divided into light anddark bloods. The light being"Boomberah" which is thinand flows freely if cut.the dark being "Margoolah"which is thick and if theperson, or animal, is cutwill only drop away fromthe wound being too thickto run out.

Class, Sub class, Totem, sub totemMerigalle, Ipai Kumbo, Kangeroo [sic], Margoolah

Class Sub class Totem sub class Pirrahwah Murri Kubbi, Iguanna [sic] Boomberah

[written in left side margin]I give a form ofthe [??] [??]-the [??] + [??]are not sub totems butdesignation 2 - what [??]the totems in calling the "totem class"

Has [??] abandoned thisold marriage rule- theBlood rules of marriage must alsobe abandoned.3

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie
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II

I do not know if I am doingright when I put Boomberahas the word for the sub totemand substitute Pirr'ah'nah"as the class name.

But I have been talking toa Moorawarri black manand he has explained itthus.

Merigally, Bindie goin (thickblood) = Margoolah, belongsto Ipai, Ipatha, Kumbo Butha.

Pirrahnah, Nubbine Nubbine-goin (thin blood) = Boomberah.belongs to Kubbi Kubbitha,Murri Martha.

In olden times if a Merigallyblack wished to fight witha Mir'rah'nah black they usedto say Urine lenggyeugh ingarmiel= I am ashamed from you

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

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your satisfaction. If I can someday find a perfect Murowarritalker I will write out anotherpaper and do it over. Becauseafter your explanation of thesub classes I can see the oldwoman was sadly mixedthough perhaps you will be able to manage after youreceive your papers with theDiagrams on.

Yes they have the subclass& it is exactly as you say; thereare natural Mothers + fathers &also titular ones: which theyrecognise & it makes all thedifference in the world to theirtalk.

Does it makes a difference in your papers as to the headed yourtrees with an Ipai and I havereceived all my talk from aas Combo + Martha, therefore I haveused them as the head of yourtree in finding out thingsto me, as far as I can see it, itmakes no difference

Maogee-Maogee is wrong I find out it means aunt. 1 + 11 I Gundill& one calls 12 Dunigi 11 + 8 Maogee-Maogeethis being Murowarri.

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

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Questions - where did Murray Jacks wife come from -

Ask Braidwood boy what his Joeah nurra means

Charley AlexanderHow did he get [?salmon?] name - were there other salmon people or only his father - was his father birth-salmon - to watch the Kuringal all tell me all

Gesture languageHow do they fix the messengers days of travel?

[next page]

Murray Jack gave the following as his namesFather - Waralang Brown snake - of YuckembruckMother - Tchuteba Rabbit Rat - of Yuckembruck

Murray Jack - Ebai owl - of Malianwife - Maralang Brown snake - YuckembruckBoy & Girl - both Ebai Malian

It seems evident from the above that descent in the totems followed the father. Murray Jack was not clear on these totem names except in so far that he said persisting that it would not be right [?in?] man to marry a woman of his own name and that his name came from his father and that he gave it to both his children girl [?or? could be and] boy.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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on this subject Jerrysaid "It is a rule thatthe "waddymen", that isthe men who get their livingby climbing trees must godown to the sea and get a wife from the people whoget their living by fishing.The tree climbers and fishersmarry with each other".

(This may illustrate the rise of the Gournditch mara clans - so that inpart as the totems die out - local distinctionstake their place -Note in this the Atheniansclass distinction i.e. Algicores +cGeomorir, Demiourgoi +c

[next page]

A young man from Bungully this side ofMoruya said that hisJoea was -Meritjigar - Jaraurat Long nosed bandicoot - owl

These he received from his father.

It was also said that these Joea names weretold them by theirfathers when they were little.

It is liked noted that Jackand Mragula calledeach other by their totemnames "Ebai" and "Bunin"and also called memy totem name.Bud-a-luk - Iguana

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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[Crossed out 36] 37

[Left margin note]Bidwel [Biduel?]-mitŭng

The class divisions of the Wolgal tribe were obtained from this old man who was one of the singers or bards and [crossed out - who] had joined the Ngarejo/Ngarego/Ngarigo of Maneroo.

[Table of 2 columns]

Class system of the Wolgal tribe

[Row 1][Column 1 heading] Class divisions[Maliaro?] - Eaglehawk

[Column 2 heading] Totems1 Banda - Kangaroo2 Nūron - Emu3 [crossed out - Yubai] Ebai - Hawk4 [Niari? or Mari?] - Dingo5 Wūthering - Flying Squirrel 6 Belit-belit - Lyre bird

[Line under row]

[Row 2][Column 1 heading] Class divisionsŪmbe - crow

[Column 2 heading] Totems1 Megindang - Wombat 2 Natjauajau - Bat 3 [Maralang?] [crossed out - Wajnalang] - Brown snake 4 Bringal - Star (Venus) 5 Waniyūk - Bandicoot 6 Wandeli - Porcupine

[Line under table]

The law of the class divisions the ususal one. But that of the totems was said to be that the totems would marry as placed in the above lists. For instance another Wolgal man Maliau-Ebai (3) [crossed out - would marry] married Umbe-marakang [crossed out - Wearalang? and to] (3) and the children take the class and totem names of their mother. This I give with reserve. yet this old man - [Mr Agula?] - was so far as I knew him a trustworthy informant, and a perfect mine of songs both festive and ceremonial (Bora) of this tribe.

At any rate the Wolgal as thus defined would touch upon if not include some of the Wirajuri speaking people when class system differs materially from the above, being of the familiar being Kind to us under its Kamilaroi Form.

Before proceeding further into New South Wales it is necessaryto say something of the coast tribes beginning with the Biduell/Bidwel-mitŭngwho have have just mentioned. This small tribe was not counted among the Kurnai although the Krautŭn clan of that tribe occupied the sea frontage from the Snowy River mouth to Cape Everard thus cutting off the Biduell/Bidwel from the [sea - crossed out] actual coast frontage.

Their country is one of high mountain ridges descending from the coast range, which is the edge of the great Maneroo table land, and of lower usually sandy country extending to the coast. The whole country was covered with forests and most with dense scrub which were made

Last edit 11 days ago by Christine

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Ya! Ya! Ya! Orr Orr [unable to read this line] [at side of the above three lines] - scratching song at end of [??] +c

Song of Ebai = Malian [?Eaglehawk?] = [?? - could be Daramulun] [?? - could be Bermagui]

[?Burrn?] [?burrn?] - the [??] Burin bun = [??]

[unable to read this line] prevent rain coming - which would [??] [??] fall

[?Burandong?] ck Mt Nelson Lake

Brumberimbelli Hill (Flat [??])

new page

Buran = stem

Within mile of camp on hill top of spur boys [?painted?] (see below) then all men assembled in group and one [?calls?] a [?? - looks like shren] T-r-r-r All then [?shout?] [??] Yan - yan - yan - yan

Last edit about 2 years ago by ALourie

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Notes

p. 2. (a) Have you got the arrangement of the class names right? It isBulkoin Baring = Ipai KumboBunda Therwain Muri KubiIs not the order Bulkoin - Therwain, Bunda - Baring?It cannot be as you arrange it, or we should have father& son in the same primary class.(b) Note the diversity of spelling Baring & Parung. One ofthese shd be adopted. Baring seems the most likely, as itoccurs twice to the other's once.(c) "In most cases... takes her by violence." Is this becauseof a real objection on the woman's part?p. 3. (a) "The married girls... + widows make a camp apart"Does not this demand the existence of unappropriatedwidows, who seem to be on the same footing with unmarriedgirls? Is this likely? Not likely, I think, unless there isfully developed individual marriage with nothing like aLevir right to the widow(b) the young man + the unmarried girl. This seemsimportant. Should not careful inquiry be made as towhether the class laws regulate this intercourse?p. 4 (a) Hospitable treatment of stranger from a distance.This is worth noting for Curr's benefit. It is especiallyvaluable because it shows the possibility of a man travellingafar, if he has anybody to answer for him, + yes that thecustoms of hospitality may be used as a lure to entrap.The progressive stages of possible travel are mostvaluable. This is to be treasured up against theday of wrath.p. 6 (a) The open council. But did not the old menhold exclusive councils also?(b) Is it not likely that the old men have an undertakingamong themselves before one of these sees the Blurang?

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-39-2 Fison to Howitt 14/7/1884

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[page scanned upside down - transcription as if page reas correctly from top to bottom]

A BAkaniara A marries Kabaji B. Akamaia KabajiTheir child is Opala, [therefore] Opala is B Opala [written under B]Opala (B) marries Ungerai A Ungerai [written under A][Therefore] Their child Ampajona is A Ampajona [written under A]Ampajona A marries Apongurdi B Apongurdi [written under B][therefore] Their child is Tungeli is B Tungeli [written under B]Tungeli B marries Apenonga A Apenonga [written under A]

Kabaji B marries Akamaro A[therefore] Their child Ungerai is AOpala B marries Ungerai A[therefore] their child Ampagona is AApongardi B marries Ampajona A[therefore] their child Apenonga is ATungeli B marries Apenonga A[therefore] their child Akamara is A

[diagram at right side of above table]KeepathinIpai Akamara A AmpajonaUngerai A Apenonga [?Kucabe?]Muri Opala B TungeliKabaji B Apongardi KubiDilbe

Ungerai A marries Opala B[therefore] their child Apongardi is B

ChildrenAkamara A marries Kabaji B - Opala BAmpajona A [ditto] Apongardi B - Tungeli BUngerai A [ditto] Opala B - Apongardi BApenonga A [ditto] Tungeli B - Kabaji BOpala B [ditto] Ungerai A - Ampajona ATungali B [ditto] Apenonga A - Akamara AKabaji B [ditto] Akamara A - Ungerai AApongardi B [ditto] Ampajona A - Apenonga A

The son of Opala is Ampajona. Akamara + AmpajonaThe son of Ungerai is Apongardi. Kabaji + ApongardiThe son of Tungeli is Akamara. Ampajona + Akamara

Last edit about 1 year ago by ALourie

tip70-10-41-8 Alexander to Fison 13/10/1874

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Tribe Bookamba "Warrego River Blacks"Queensland10/10/74

No 1 (M) Tom[ditto] 2 F wife Kitty[ditto]3 (M) BillyNo 4 (F) Kitty

No 1 Marries No 2 their issue are Nos 3 and 4

"Class name" and "Totems" of above

Class names TotemsNo 1 Kumbo KangarooNo 2 Matha (Murri) opossumNo 3 Kubo doNo 4 Kubotha do

The children takes the "Totems" of their Mothers andtheir mother's class names regulates that of its ownthe child of an Ipai mother would take her "Totem"and its class name would be Kumbo. The child ofa Matha (Murri) mother its class name would be Kubi and so on. As far as I can understand the childrenare of the mother Tribe and the "Totems" regulates themarriages and is the only restriction of intersexual selectionP.T.O

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie
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Tribe "Bookamba" "Warrego River Blacks"Queensland10/10/74

No 1 (M) Jacky[ditto] 2 (F) wife Jenny[ditto] 3 (M) Tommy[ditto] 4 (F) Malj x x from Brisbane[ditto] 5 (M) Billy[ditto] 6 (M) Jacky[ditto] 7 (F) Mary[ditto] 8 (M) Willie[ditto] 9 (M) Johny [ditto] 10 (F) Minie

No 1 Marries No 2 their issue are Nos 3, 6, 7, and 10No 3 marries No 4 their issue is 5 No 7 marries No 8 their issueis No 9. No 8 calls No 1 "Kunahgilla" (uncle) No 8 calls No 2"Tombero" (aunt) (intended for Father + Mother in Law)

Classnames and Totems of aboveClassnames Totems Classnames TotemsNo 1 Kubo Snake 6 Kumbo KangarooNo 2 Ipai Kangaroo 7 do doNo 3 Kumbo do 8 Murri opossumNo 4 Matha Murri scrub turkey (wogoon) 9 Ipai KangarooNo 5 Kubo do do do 10 Kumbo do

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-41-10 Cameron Queensland Aborigines

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I could respecting their laws [?etc?]I find the law of marriageis almost identical in VictoriaQueensland and N S Wales; thereis however some difference, asin a letter in the Australasianby Mr Lorimer Fison it isasserted that in some instancesIpai marries Ipatha; now, inQueensland, or at any rate,in any the districts [sic] where Ihave been, Ipai marries Cubatha and no other, andyet there are the same sub-divisions into classes, suchas Emu Kangaroo snake etc.The names used in the Unghitongue aare as followsIpai - OargillaCubby - AberoCombo - [?g'Anbay?]Murri - Woongoo

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-41-14 Salvado's Tree

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[top half of page as per previous page]

[diagram] Hence the diagram mayneed a diferent arrange-ment

v. Tirarop + Jirajiok are "clean"

Can this be an amalgamation of a Kamilaroiarranged tribe consisting of Pal. Mon. Ton. + Nok - with a Dieriarranged one consisting of Tir. + Jiraj?Or have we here another instance of the exceptional marriagesof Ipai + Ipatha? Can a Palarop - e.g. - marry any Nokongok?Or is it that (say) Palarop - Emu marries Nokongok - Blacksnake?In this case we should have a tribe divided into two primary classes each with 3 subclasses which are again divided into totems. And thetotem overrides the class law as to two of the sub classes in each primary class.If this be so, I suspect Palarop + Nokongok were formerly one subclass - + so with Mondorop + Tondorop. In this case Dr. Salvado's system

[written in lower left of page in purple pencil]Doubtful

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie
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resolves itself into a 4 class system.Take X = Palarop + NokongokY = Tondorop + Mondorop

and the 4 classes are A = X + JirajiokB = Y + Tirarop

though, of course, the marriages are "mixed".[diagram]Jiraj. marries Tira +YTirarop marries Jirajiok + X

This won't work throughout. But it seemsclear that [the tribe - crossed out]1. The tribe is divided into two primary classes2. Each p.c. has 3 subclasses.3. In each p. c. two of the sub classes intermarrywith one another as well as with the [other p.c. - crossed out] sub classesof the other p.c. (Ten to one on the Totem's work here.)

The descents are wanted to work this out.The marriage of Ipai + Ipatha does not affect descent[because] the children take the usual names of Ipathai childrenIf this is so in the marriage of Palarop + Nokongok thewhole thing will be cleaar

[written next to diagram in purple pencil]Won't do

[written sideways at bottom of page]may marryMondorop, Tondorop, Tirarop, NokongokMondorop, Tirarop, Tondorop, PalaropMondorop, Tirarop, TondoropPolarop, Jirajiok, (Nokongok), MondoropPalarop, Jirajiok, Nokongok, TondoropPalarop, Jirajiok, Nokongok, TondoropPalarop, Jirajiok, Nokongok

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie

hw0153 Precis of information as to the tribe of Aborigjnes inhabiting the country between Mallagoota Inlet Victoria + Shoalhaven NSW

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3 Kamilaroi classes

[table]

Two classes four sub classes with family names totems)Ipai Kangaroo, opossum, Bandicoot,Dilbi Kŭmbo Paddy melon, Iguana, Black DuckEaglehawk, Scrub turkey, yellow fishHoney fish, Bream

Mŭri Emu, Carpet snake, Black snakeKŭpathin Red kangaroo, Honey, WallerooKŭbi Frog, Cod fish.

Thus supposing a man were "Kangaroo" - then he would beeither "Ipai" or Kŭmbo - but in either case he would beDilbi - also supposing him to be on the other hand "Emu"he would be either "Mŭri" or "Kŭbi" but in eithercase he would be Kŭpathin.

My informant told me that he was Kaualgor = Kangaroo- that his father was also Kaualgor - that he did not know what his mothers name was, but that his three sisterswere Mŭnyŭnga = Eaglehawk. This suggests to methat in the Yūin the descent is [??] for boysthrough the father and for the girls through themother - in other words that the boys take their fathers names while the girls take their mothers name.Now please to observe on the otherhand the laws of marriage and descent of the above Kamilaroi

[table]male marries children areIpai - Kŭbitha - mŭri + mathaDiebi Kŭmbo - Matha - Kubi + Kubitha Kŭpathin

Mŭri - Būtha (Kŭmbūtha Ipai + IpathaKŭpathin Kŭbi - Ipatha - Kŭmbo + Būtha Diebi

Note that after all in the above the rule is "Diebi" marriesKŭpathin and the children are Kupathink + vice versa.

[written in left side margin alongside top table]Female name is formedby adding "tha"e.g. Ipai - Ipatha

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

hw0150 Notes on the Guyangal and Kurial

6

6

4 This tribe had class names, or more properlyspeaking totem names merely. My informantproferred to know that the "Maneroo Bimeringal"had "two names" while the "Yūin had only onename." He stated that there were very numerous[crossed out - being here names] of which the following areexamples:-Kau-al-gar Kangaroo[Ng - crossed out] Emuwŭng-ali Bushratgūr-a-gūr Kangaroo ratmerigongKong-wari Wild doggūnimbeelMŭn-yŭng-a - Eaglehawkwa-gu-ra -crowgŭr-ŭng-gaba - PelicanPenguinBir-im-bar-min - Whitebreasted CormorantBŭrnaga - IguanaMŭr rumbŭl - Brown snakeBŭr-im-i - Silver breamgŭmbera - Black snake

[crossed out - My in] Ienbin was not clear as to the law ofdescent but the following instances showwhat it probably was. It will be seen hereafterthat in this tribe the [crossed out - class] totemic names[crossed out - have] play a far [crossed out - more subordinate] less important part in the social structure than in all but verylimited number of tribes.

Ienbin is Kaualgar as was his father.His three sisters MūnyūngarOne of Ienbin's comrads [sic] was Mŭrwŭnbŭl like his father[crossed out - a sister] this man's mother Birimbarminone of his sisters was BŭrumiIt seems certain that the boys took the fathersclass name - the probability is that the daughter took the mothers class name.

[written in left side margin]Ienbin callsHalf sisters- differentmother

[written on right side margin]Ipai mirKumbi Kubi

The totems were scatteredover the whole tribal territoryand the aggregated totem atany one placeobeyed the local Gommera

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
68

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17two Kilpara totems, the Wild duck + theKangaroo, + two Mukwara totems, the Emu+ (say) the Snake, + we have the four classes aswe have them in the subdivisions of the QueenslandYungaru + Wutaru. Mr Stewart, however, whohas been for nearly 30 years in close inter-course with the Mt Gambier tribe, assuresus that the numerous totems used by thatpeople do not in any way restrict matri-monial selection. A Kunnite can take any Krokiegor, a Krokee any Kumibegor", hewrote in reply to a specific inquiry as towhether the totems affect the marriage regul-tions. *

The Kamilaroi totems are peculiar.At least, they have a peculiarity attacked to themwhich calls for special attention. Unlike theDarling totems, at first sight they appear toaffect "the main division by legalising to acertain limited extent marriage with thehalf sister by the father's side. This is marriagewithin the class [though not wit - crossed out] an utterabomination to all, or nearly all, the othertribes. It will be seen, however, that thetotems are not answerable for this. It is aninnovation + an overriding of their rules.

The Kamilaroi totems will be mosteasily understood by reverting to the twoprimary divisions, which have been shownto be Ipai- Kumbu + Muri-Kubi. In onegeneration - the order is reversed in the next -Ipai- Kumbu divides into Kangaroo, Opossum + IguanaMuri- Kubi divides into Emu, Bandicoot + Black snakeAnd, as each of the four class names takes allthe totems proper to the primary divisionto which it belongs, each of the four classes.

[written in left side margin]19

*Note No 1

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie
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