Howitt and Fison Papers

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trying to explain to me. I donot think they are very strictnow in their marriage lawsand it is only the very old peoplethat remember any of theirtraditions. The x will showthey marry.

Combo x Martha Butha x MurriBrother to Butha

M Kubbi Kubotha F can marry Ipai Ipatha F x Kubbican marry

M Murri Martha F can marry M Combo Butha Fcan marry

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie
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E) "Conho?" to a "Kublitha?", is a "Buttiang?" (father) F) " to an "Ipai?" is a "Kuthie?" (Uncle) G) " to a Martha is a [.......] (Husband)

The Martha woman who is grand- daughter to the head "Conho?" man must not marry that line of "Conho?" man, because they are of the same blood. They must be of different blood, which is called [.........] [........]. So the matter of this Martha woman when she is [.......] gives her to a "Conho?" man, who need not necessarily be of another tribe, but not of the same blood. Therefore a [Boo.....] man cannot marry woman of the [Booni.....] blood but must marry of the [..........] blood. The old "gin?" who is talking to me is an "Ipatha?" herself. This is so as not to confuse things. She says

Last edit over 2 years ago by nburgess
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they were "originally?" decended from different animals. The Kangaroo, "Emu?", Iguana, Opossum, "Paddymelon?", Snake and others. Their law "means?" that "two big?" [.....] [....] not marry; like Kangaroo and "Iguana?" So she having an "Ipatha?", she is a Kangaroo gin, there- fore she marries an Iguana blackfellow. They go under this heading, as she gave them to me.

"Conho?" = Kangaroo "Kublai?" = Iguana "Ipai?" = Kangeroo Murri = Iguana

these being some of the tribal forefathers.

Last edit over 2 years ago by nburgess

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quite correct.The Ipitha woman is of theMargoolah blood.

Answers to letter of June 22/1907

I While Ipitha was small shewas given by her parents to a Kubbi man. She being of theMargoolah blood, the Kubbimust belong to the Boombera

II In reference to your diagramof the two sisters and brothersbeing given each in exchange.She says it is frequently doneKubbi 4, wants to marry Ipitha8, and says to Ipai "I take your sister, and you can have mineKubbitha" 2.

Last edit 5 months ago by Helen Gardner

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[table]

M Ipai brother brother Kubbi2f Kubbutha sister sister 4f Ipatha 3f Matha sister in law 7f Butha 4m Kubbi f Ipatha(Kubbi 4 calls Ipatha 8) (Ipatha 8 calls Kubbi)(Nuhar = wife) (Gecking= husband)

Kubbi 4 is given to Ipatha 8 byMatha 3 who is "goondie goondie" == mother in law to Ipatha 8.Also Kubbitha 2 who is calledNubbo-nubbo = gran mother byKubbi 4The same ceremony is gonethrough in reference to Ipatha 8.

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

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Draught letter

(9)

10/7/06

"Clovelly" - Metung10 July 1906

Dear Miss Benson

I have to thank you for so kindly and promptly givingyour assistance in my enquiries and as I feel that they alsoare interesting to you I gladly avail my self of it.

I have gone through the [Guamo] relationship terms andnow make a few remarks on them.

[(1) The term Mungunna is applied to the Husband's Sister + also to the husband's - crossed out][brother's wife. But the latter should be another bubba - crossed out] (1) (5 + 2, 5 + 3) Is it correct toapply the terms Bubba and Mungunna (younger sister) to the Husband's sister?[The- crossed out] (5 + 8) Husband's brothers wife - this seems correct because 5+8 should besister's "own or tribal". (2) the term quealira = wife (1+5). Is it correctfor [the - crossed out] this term to apply to (F) brother's wife (2 + 5)? (3) Is dorgoona correctlyapplied to (F) husband's sister's husband (5 + 2)? [should it not be It seems to - crossed out][me that - crossed out] (4) [Is - crossed out] are not 11 + 7, and 13+6 - both yub-boo (father)? [(5) I see too you give - crossed out][two terms for "mother's brother" - yubboo moorang (11+1) and (5) Is not "mother's - crossed out][Sister's husband's yubboo? - crossed out] (5) What is the term for "father's sister's husband"? (9 + 6, 9 + 710 + 6, 10 + 7)? (6) I note in the filial terms that the term (1 + 9) deerger = (M) son and (1 + 10)deergeau = (M) daughter. As in some other Queensland tribes I take it that the termination in"au" in the latter is the feminine suffix, analogoris to the Kamilaroi suffix "tha" as in(M) Ipai + (F) Ipatha. If so should not it be applied through all the filial terms? It seemsthat while a man calls his son "deergee", a woman calls her son "tooarna".Is this the same throughout all the filial relationships, and should not"daughter" where spoken of by a mother be "tooarnan"?

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

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your satisfaction. If I can someday find a perfect Murowarritalker I will write out anotherpaper and do it over. Becauseafter your explanation of thesub classes I can see the oldwoman was sadly mixedthough perhaps you will be able to manage after youreceive your papers with theDiagrams on.

Yes they have the subclass& it is exactly as you say; thereare natural Mothers + fathers &also titular ones: which theyrecognise & it makes all thedifference in the world to theirtalk.

Does it makes a difference in your papers as to the headed yourtrees with an Ipai and I havereceived all my talk from aas Combo + Martha, therefore I haveused them as the head of yourtree in finding out thingsto me, as far as I can see it, itmakes no difference

Maogee-Maogee is wrong I find out it means aunt. 1 + 11 I Gundill& one calls 12 Dunigi 11 + 8 Maogee-Maogeethis being Murowarri.

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

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Questions - where did Murray Jacks wife come from -

Ask Braidwood boy what his Joeah nurra means

Charley AlexanderHow did he get [?salmon?] name - were there other salmon people or only his father - was his father birth-salmon - to watch the Kuringal all tell me all

Gesture languageHow do they fix the messengers days of travel?

[next page]

Murray Jack gave the following as his namesFather - Waralang Brown snake - of YuckembruckMother - Tchuteba Rabbit Rat - of Yuckembruck

Murray Jack - Ebai owl - of Malianwife - Maralang Brown snake - YuckembruckBoy & Girl - both Ebai Malian

It seems evident from the above that descent in the totems followed the father. Murray Jack was not clear on these totem names except in so far that he said persisting that it would not be right [?in?] man to marry a woman of his own name and that his name came from his father and that he gave it to both his children girl [?or? could be and] boy.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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[Crossed out 36] 37

[Left margin note]Bidwel [Biduel?]-mitŭng

The class divisions of the Wolgal tribe were obtained from this old man who was one of the singers or bards and [crossed out - who] had joined the Ngarejo/Ngarego/Ngarigo of Maneroo.

[Table of 2 columns]

Class system of the Wolgal tribe

[Row 1][Column 1 heading] Class divisions[Maliaro?] - Eaglehawk

[Column 2 heading] Totems1 Banda - Kangaroo2 Nūron - Emu3 [crossed out - Yubai] Ebai - Hawk4 [Niari? or Mari?] - Dingo5 Wūthering - Flying Squirrel 6 Belit-belit - Lyre bird

[Line under row]

[Row 2][Column 1 heading] Class divisionsŪmbe - crow

[Column 2 heading] Totems1 Megindang - Wombat 2 Natjauajau - Bat 3 [Maralang?] [crossed out - Wajnalang] - Brown snake 4 Bringal - Star (Venus) 5 Waniyūk - Bandicoot 6 Wandeli - Porcupine

[Line under table]

The law of the class divisions the ususal one. But that of the totems was said to be that the totems would marry as placed in the above lists. For instance another Wolgal man Maliau-Ebai (3) [crossed out - would marry] married Umbe-marakang [crossed out - Wearalang? and to] (3) and the children take the class and totem names of their mother. This I give with reserve. yet this old man - [Mr Agula?] - was so far as I knew him a trustworthy informant, and a perfect mine of songs both festive and ceremonial (Bora) of this tribe.

At any rate the Wolgal as thus defined would touch upon if not include some of the Wirajuri speaking people when class system differs materially from the above, being of the familiar being Kind to us under its Kamilaroi Form.

Before proceeding further into New South Wales it is necessaryto say something of the coast tribes beginning with the Biduell/Bidwel-mitŭngwho have have just mentioned. This small tribe was not counted among the Kurnai although the Krautŭn clan of that tribe occupied the sea frontage from the Snowy River mouth to Cape Everard thus cutting off the Biduell/Bidwel from the [sea - crossed out] actual coast frontage.

Their country is one of high mountain ridges descending from the coast range, which is the edge of the great Maneroo table land, and of lower usually sandy country extending to the coast. The whole country was covered with forests and most with dense scrub which were made

Last edit 11 days ago by Christine

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Ya! Ya! Ya! Orr Orr [unable to read this line] [at side of the above three lines] - scratching song at end of [??] +c

Song of Ebai = Malian [?Eaglehawk?] = [?? - could be Daramulun] [?? - could be Bermagui]

[?Burrn?] [?burrn?] - the [??] Burin bun = [??]

[unable to read this line] prevent rain coming - which would [??] [??] fall

[?Burandong?] ck Mt Nelson Lake

Brumberimbelli Hill (Flat [??])

new page

Buran = stem

Within mile of camp on hill top of spur boys [?painted?] (see below) then all men assembled in group and one [?calls?] a [?? - looks like shren] T-r-r-r All then [?shout?] [??] Yan - yan - yan - yan

Last edit about 2 years ago by ALourie

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Notes

p. 2. (a) Have you got the arrangement of the class names right? It isBulkoin Baring = Ipai KumboBunda Therwain Muri KubiIs not the order Bulkoin - Therwain, Bunda - Baring?It cannot be as you arrange it, or we should have father& son in the same primary class.(b) Note the diversity of spelling Baring & Parung. One ofthese shd be adopted. Baring seems the most likely, as itoccurs twice to the other's once.(c) "In most cases... takes her by violence." Is this becauseof a real objection on the woman's part?p. 3. (a) "The married girls... + widows make a camp apart"Does not this demand the existence of unappropriatedwidows, who seem to be on the same footing with unmarriedgirls? Is this likely? Not likely, I think, unless there isfully developed individual marriage with nothing like aLevir right to the widow(b) the young man + the unmarried girl. This seemsimportant. Should not careful inquiry be made as towhether the class laws regulate this intercourse?p. 4 (a) Hospitable treatment of stranger from a distance.This is worth noting for Curr's benefit. It is especiallyvaluable because it shows the possibility of a man travellingafar, if he has anybody to answer for him, + yes that thecustoms of hospitality may be used as a lure to entrap.The progressive stages of possible travel are mostvaluable. This is to be treasured up against theday of wrath.p. 6 (a) The open council. But did not the old menhold exclusive councils also?(b) Is it not likely that the old men have an undertakingamong themselves before one of these sees the Blurang?

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

hw0258 Cameron to Howitt 20/08/1884

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had heard of the Ipai classes +he said "I bin hearem that fellow" I think it most likelyhe had heard of them fromthe black police.

With regard to the classes KrugillaKarbaroo and Kurgira= Krukillathey certainly do look as if theyhad been transposed. I haven't my note book in town but I am pretty certain I made nomistake in writing them out.If you write to my brotherChas J Cameron Penola Downs WintonI am sure he would answer any question in his power but hedoesn't understand much about theblacks. Mr McGilvray EddingtonCloncurry might also assist butI am not personally acquaintedwith him beyond staying a night

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

hw0139 John Fraser to Howitt 26/4/1882

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Kubi Ipai MuriKubuh Kumbi KubiKumbo

From J FraserW Maitland

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie

hw0146 Howitt notes of the Gringai

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The Gringai tribeJ W Boydell Gresford

Tribe boundariesA This tribe occupied country bounded by Ecclestonin the north, Paterson in the south, Dungog in theEast and Singleton in the west.Most of the Gringai were named Kumbo butthere were some Ipai among them. Thereis one family of the Kubbi class who take B their name Kubbi from the father andnot from their mother. (on Saturday I had avisit from two of the Port Stephens blacks a man andhis gin. They are part of the Gringai tribe to which Mr Boydell's blacks belong and yet the man is Ipai and his wife Kulbitha and sheknows of the Matha class and that implies the existence of the Muri class - Mr Fraser 5/6/82)One man told me that a Kubbi must marry aKubbitha and that their children are of theKumbo class and there is a family herebearing the name of Kumbo whose fatheris a Kubbi and mother a Kubbitha.Totems C There are totem families in thistribe. 4 totem families - Black snake, Black crow, EaglehawkStingaree J.F.Marriage2 The woman about to be married makes a fireand a camp when the man is led to the spotD by his Father or any old man of the tribe. Aftercamping together the the ceremony is completeand considered final. The woman ischosen if possible from a neighbouring tribeNo relations are allowed to marry, not evencousins.

There are many instances of marriage by elopementand capture.

[written in left side margin]I think that the boundaries will befound much moreextensive that this J.F.

Class names

See note at end

One gin call herself"Stingaree sucking Meg"

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie
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2(Gringai tribe)The chief3 The tribe is governed by a chief calledE Nūrajaine who must be an aged manbefore he is thought much of. This officethey hold by descent. The doctors orWizards (Kŭr-achi) do not holdauthority over this tribe.

The Royal FamilyThe descendants of the Royal familyare always looked up to - they were calledKumbo or Ipai according to their descent

Tribal council 4 The tribal council consists of the oldestand as a rule most intelligent men of the tribe. I once came suddenly on a groupof these old fellows sitting in a circle indeep deliberation and was told by one of them in a whisper not to tell the otherblacks who I had seen. These menare thought a great deal of by the membersof the tribe.

MessengersF There is a messenger attached to every tribe whois a sort of "flag of trubce" and can go safely fromone tribe to another. The red net worn as a band round the forehead is used as an emblem for calling the tribe together. Nothing is known hereso far as I can learn of message sticks. Whena messenger appears in sight a peculiarcooee is given when all in hearing assembleto hear what he has to say, but not a wordis spoken to the messenger till he thinks properto unburden his message and some times hesits quite silent for a long time - but when"the spirit moves him" his eloquence iswonderful and listened to with the greatest attention.

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie
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This is a Table

Note: The free Kamilari class system as it seems in the Gwydin Rni is this:

in the Table there sre three columns and three rows including a title row

two primary classes. four sub-classes Wtern names

Kūpathin { Ipai Kūmbo Emu Carpet snake Black snake Red Kangaroo Walleroo Honey Codfish Frog Dilbi{Mūri Kūbbi Kangaroo Opossum Bandicoot Paddymelon Iguana Black Duck Eagle Hawk Scrub Turkey Yellow. Fish Bream Honey fish [sic]

Last edit 7 months ago by Margaret T. Newman

hw0179 Cameron to Howitt 21/8/1886

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MurrumbonyConoble MonjielAug 21st 1886A W Howitt EsqSaleMy dear Sir,I enclose you atable relating to theWarradhuri Tribe whichI obtained from thehalf caste Paddy Smithwhom I think I mentionedto you before. It showssome difference in theclass and totemic divisionsand I think throws somelight on the intermarryingclasses of the Wonghi whoif you remember havedifferent rules Ipaimarrying Mallia and Kubbi marrying Buthawhile Murry marriesIpatha and Kubbi marries Butha. Youwill notice that the

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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fact of Ipai bearingthe Willi totem makeshim rank as a Kumboand Kumbo bearing thesame totem makes him rank as Ipai. In likemanner a murri gurungranks as a Kubbi and a Kubbi gurung as a Murri. My informantcould not explain thereason for this peculiarityand he said that theprobable reason whythe Wonghi blacks gave the rule that Ipai marriedmatha was that in thattribe the preponderatingtotems were Willi and gurung or equivalents tothem. The totem Budthurungis distinct from the primaryclass Budthurung.

I tried to find outsomething about gesturelanguage and message

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie
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Wirradhuri or Warrajury Tribe[table]Primary classes Sub classes Totems[?Mikulo or Nukulo?] Ipai Yunghi (Mallee hengunarr (Padymelon)Willi (oppossum(relating to dry) Kumbo Yunghi (mallee henUroini (Emu)Willi [of -crossed out] (opossum)

Budthurung Murri Murri (Red KangarooBudthurung (Brown duckThuringhi (snakegūrūng (Bandicoot)(Relating to wet) Kubbi Murri (Red KangarooBudthurung (Brown DuckDthuline (Iguanagūrūng Bandicoot

Table of marriageIpai= yunghi marries Kubbitha=Budthurunggunarr Dthuline(and also mathā gurung)Ipai = Willi marries Matha BudthurungMurriThuringhi(and also Kubbitha gurung)Kumbo = Yunghi marries Matha murriuroine BudthurungThuringhi(and also [matha- crossed out] Kubbitha gurung)Kimbo=Willi marries Kubbitha BudthurungMurriDthulineand also matha gurungover

[written in pencil on Table of marriage]A a (1) Mallee henBd II BandicootPadymelon (3) I BdLace Lizard BoA (a) (2) Bc III BandicootBrown snakesnakeBandicootAb a(1) b(4) Brown ducksnakeBandicootBrown DuckLace LizardBandicoot

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0180 Cameron to Howitt 18/11/1886

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Murrumbong MossgielNSW Nov 18th 1886A. W. Howitt EsqSaleMy dear SirSome months ago I wrote to you inreference to some further information Ihad obtained about the class + totem systemof the Waradhuri and have not heardany reply as to what you thought of it

I am also uncertain as to whether youreceived my letter. Briefly this informationwas that the two primary classes wereMukulu=Ipai-KumboBudthurung=Murri-Kubbi

The former embraced everything on theuniverse connected with dry and the lattereverything connected with wet - thus Malleeand all trees that grow away fromwater were Mukula as also were birdsand animals, while those whose habitatwas in the vicinity of water wereBudthurung.

The Ipai totems were yūnghi (Mallee hengunarr (padymelon) willi (oppossum)Kumbu were Yunghi Mallee hen)Uroine (Emu) Willi (oppossum)Murri totems were Murri (Red Kangaroo)Budthurung (Brown Duck) gurung ([snake - crossed out] Bandicoot) and

[written on top left of page]Replied tosending Fisonremarks26/11/86

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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[?Kinringhi?] (snake)Kubbi totem Murri, Badthurung, gurungand Dthuline (Iguanna [sic])Ipai yunghi or gunarr marries KubithaBudthurung murri or Dthuline and also mutha gurungIpai Willi marries Mutha Budthurung marriesor Thurunghi and also Kubitha gurung

Kumbo yunghi or uroine marries mutha murriBudthurung or Thuringhi or Kubbitha gurungKumbu Willi marries Kubbitha BudthurungMurri or Dthuline and also muthagurung

Murri Budthurung murri Thuringhi marriesButha yunghi or uronie also Ipatha williMurri gurung marries Ipatha gunarr + yunghialso Butha willi

Kubbi Murri Budthurung or Dthuline marriesIpatha gunarr or yunghi also Butha williKubbi gurung marries Butha yunghi or uronieand also Ipatha Willi

You will remember that the Wonghi gavethe marrying classes as Ipai married MuthaKumbu married Kubbitha murri Ipathaand Kubbi Butha and my informant's explanation was that the great majorityof the Wonghi were either Willi orgurung and the actions of these two

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie
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totems is to make the bearers changetheir class in a manner of speaking thus Ipai Willi ranks on a KumbuKumbu Willi as IpaiMurri gurung as Kubbi andKubbi gurung as MurriI could not ascertain the reason

There is to be a Boorpung heldon the Willandra creek within twoor three miles of Whillingham BrosWillandra station, they say there areseven or eight boys to be initiated. I havebeen trying to get permission to attendbut am afraid I will not be allowedI wish you could be present. It is to beheld in a fortnight or three weeksand the ring is now being prepared.

I suppose you have heard nothingmore of the mining papers.

Willandra is 30 miles from hereand I will make another effort tobe present.Yours sincerelyALP Cameron

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie

hw0181 Cameron to Howitt 12/12/1899

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what the children of each marriage are inthe paper you send me, but meantime Imay say that the child always takes thesub class of the mother but takes herown totem, thus when Ipai (of any totem) that[marries Kubbitha Buthurung - crossed out] is permittedto do so) marries Kubbutha BudthurungThe child is murri or matha Budthurung.When Kumbo marries matha Budthurungthe child is Kubbi or Kubbutha Budthurungand so on.With all complements of the seasonBelieve meYours faithfullyALP Cameron

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie

hw0185 Howitt notes on the Wolgal

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Information collected from MrangullaSinging Johnny

Maneroo Blacks are divided as follows

Hawk CrowMalian ?Yibai=Ipai oombe ?= KŭmbBandar Kangaroo Megindang WombatNooron Emu Nutjare Nutjun Rat Bat?Ebi (malian) Hawk Werralang Brown snakeMaree Dog Birringal Star (Venus)Woothering [Squirrel Warralang Brown SnakeBandar Kangaroo Maniyook BandicootBalil Balil Lyre Bird Wandale PorcupineI find that though they have only two granddivisions, yet they place some importanceupon the subdivisions. For instance a Bandar or Kangaroo would marry a woman who was aWombat and others would take wives according[torn] list above. I was not aware of this beforebut I had not made much enquiry. I foundthe Murray Blacks were divided according toyour list but thought the mere fact of a womanbeing a Kilparra was sufficient to allow themto marry, but now I find that certain animalsgo in pairs. The Kangaroo goes with the Wombatthe Emu with the Rat + the Hawk with the Snake+ so on. I find also that the children havethe same totem as their mother. I think thatmay be taken as a rule among all the Aborigines on the other side the dividing range [sic].The Gippsland Blacks seem to have no regulardivision. They tell me the men are Yarang and the women Djetgang, does it not seem

[written at top of page over Maneroo Blacks]Wolgal

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

hw0155 Draft letter Howitt to Bucknell

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F. N. Bucknell - Burrende-on NSWI have read with much interest your valuable notes of "MarriageRites + Relationships" in the Kamilaroi tribe. [I have - crossed out] which Iassume has been elicited by my memorandum on [last issue of - crossed out]"Science". I think that some years ago I received some interestingparticulars as to native custom from you through [the - crossed out] Dr J Frazer;which I have embodied in my book with due acknowledgement.I trust that you will permit me to make some remarks on yourpaper and that you will kindly reply to the queries which havesuggested themselves in its perusal.

(1) In "Second Paragraph [??] 29" under no condition can relatives marry +c"In the third paragraph you note that Kubbi-mooli may marryKubbullia-Dooli. Now so far as I know from other tribes a Kubbi of the samelevel in a generation would address a Kubbillia of the same level as"Sister" [that is "class-sister" - crossed out] In my work I have distinguished between"own relatives" and "tribal relatives" - thus the children of two brothersor two sisters are "own" brothers and sisters" - because their respective fathers [or mothers - crossed out] in the one case + mothers in the other caseare their ["group fa- crossed out] father collectively; while the Kubis and Kubbullias I havespoken of above would be "tribal brother + sisters". Now on this viewKubbi-mooti in marrying Kubbillia-dooli would be marryinghis "tribal" (or class sister) - This question was answered by Dr Fison + me[??] referred to as "Halfsister marriage" in our work Kamilaroi + Kurnai in1880. Kindly consider this.

(2) Third paragraph - I have noted the totem names given by you andgive below a table showing the classes, subclasses, and totems. I mayexplain that Ipai and Kumbo are the subdivision of [??] Kupallunand Muri + Kubbi of another called Dilbi. These occur in North NSW+ South Queensland. They represent the two intermarrying moieties of the tribes as I do not know whether they still exist in the Kamilaroi tribeyou write of. I have called them A and B

[table]classes subslasses totemMoiety A Ipai Dinewan-EmuBilba - BandicootNoori - Black snake +Kumbo Dinewan - EmuNoori - Black snake +Moeity B Mury Dooli - IguanaNoori - Black snake +Murri-ara - PademelonKubbi Dooli - iguanaMirruarra - PademelonMooti - opossum

(3) Line 22 of middle column from [?Melbourne?]. I do not quite follow this passage.[Do you mean to say th- crossed out] Do the words "either in his fathers or mothers side" refer toall the relationships mentioned, or only to first cousin?

[written in left side margin]I see that you include Noori in both moieties. [Is - crossed out] Are these for instance Murri-Noori men + women?Are these not Kumbo-Bilbas - for the children of Ipatha- Bilba should be Kumbo + [?Bull?] Bilba.Similarly are these not Murri + Marha Mooti?I trust that you will not find it too troublesome to reply to my queries. I am now completing my book andthe Kamilaroi marriage rules are so important that I am desirous of working them out completely. I can only do soby the aid of those who [sic] knowledge of the subject - and when opportunities for further enquiry [??] [??] then to assist me in doing so.All the aid you can give will be duly acknowledged.

[written at top of page]posted10/6/02

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0159 Draft letter from Howitt to Langloh Parker

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Mrs K. Langloh ParkerI have to thank you much for your kindness in forwarding to me a slip [of the - crossed out]from "Science" with your remarks on Kamilaroi marriage. I am not quite sure thatI have fully seen the tenor of your remark in the interesting notes which you haveappended to it. I therefore summarise them and add some queries which I shall feelmuch indebted to you for further replies.(1) The terms gwai-gullah and gwai-mudthu are new to me although I can [??] similarones occur in the Wiradjuri tribe. As the tribe is divided by them into twointermarrying moieties, with descent in the female line, they correspond with thetwo primary classes Kupathui and Dilbi of northern NSW and southern Qld.Therefore the class and totemic system of the Kamilaroi tribe to which yourefer can be thus tabulated.

[table]classes sub-classes totemsA Kupathui=Gwai-mudthi Ipai (a) [Kangaroo - crossed out] 1 EmuKumbo (b) +c +cB Dilbi=Gwai-gullah Murri (c) [Iguana Black snake - crossed out] 2 KangarooKubbi (d) +c +c

Kindly fill in the totems of each class: also give the totemicmarriages thus;

[table]male marries children aremurri-Kangaroo - Bootha - Iguana - Ipai and Ipatha - Iguana+c for the three otehr sub-classes - giving all the totems for each

(2) You say "ergo a man could not marry the daughter of his mother's brother"for that brother would be the same blood as (I regret I am unable to read thelast words of this sentence, but assume they may be "as his sister" -No doubt he is of the same blood as his Sister - but his wife and therefore hisdaughter would be of the other "blood" e.g. other "moiety", class division +cPlease consider the following diagram in which I substitute letters and numbersfor the class, subclass + totem; m. means male + f. means female. I take yourinstance gwai-gullah-murri- Kangaroo who is B.C.2[m.A 1- crossed out][f. B - crossed out]

[diagram] mB.c.2f.A.b.1m.A.a.1 - fA.a1+c

Please observe that thechildren are KupathuiKumbo + Bootha - Wau Their class (your blood [??]) andtheir totem is that of their brother,and their subclass is thatwhich with their mother's subclass[??] represent her class (blood [??])of which they are [??]

[written in left side margin](3) your last sentence is not clear to meas I read it it runs thus: a personal totem gained by themdoes not act in marriage restrictions only in food taboos"Kindly enlarge this as I do not follow your meaning.

gwai-murri-Kangaroo own or tribe B + S Gwai mudthi - Kumbo - EmuGwai-mudthi- Bootha - Emu Gwai-gullah - matha - KangarooGwai - mudthi - Ipai - Emu Gwai gullah - Kubbitha - Kangaroo+c +cbelow as ※

[written at top of page]Address appears to beBellwren Homevia Ipswich Q'landCOnclusionI trust that you willpardon the lengthof my queries, butthe subject is so importantas to aboriginal marriagethat I feel quite certain that you will not grudge [me your - crossed out]me the assistance whichyour great knowledge ofnative customs will enable you to give.I have read yourlegends with verygreat interestand pleasure.

[written at bottom right hand side of page and up right margin]The following diagram thus the marriage + descentsreferred to in my paper anda [woman - crossed out] man who is [Dilbi- Kapathui- Ipatha-Emu - crossed out] Kubathui-[Dilbi - Kubbi - crossed out] Ipai - Emumight marry a [man who - crossed out] woman whois Dilbi-Kubbitha- Kangaroounless there is any prohibition againstthe marriage of a Brothers-sistersdaughter. Thus the question I have asked - You areI am sure aware that[which - crossed out] this is I have called in my writing [blood - crossed out] "own relationship" and also "tribal relationships" - e.g. The children of two "own" brothers or two "own" sisters arebrother + sister - but [two - crossed out] murri and amatha of the same [??] is a [??]are far distant "tribal brother +sister"

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

hw0197 Draft Howitt to Cameron

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A L P Cameron Mossgiel NSW 9/4/00

I am much obliged for the trouble which you have taken. Thetable of marriages which you have given me goes back muchfurther than I should have imagined possible for blackto carry the memories of the ancestors. However as youhave been so successful you may now be able withoutmuch trouble to fill in the following table which willgive me the information which I am so much in wantof namely "is it lawful for a man to marry thedaughter of his mother's brother, or of his mother's sister".This taking the last name as nearest to thepresent time and therefore most likely to bewithin the knowledge of the living Wonghi people

[Robert Ipai - Harry Murri Bandicoot - crossed out]

(3) Maria Kubbitha Bandicoot here 3 and 4 father of (2) (4)own (or tribal) brotherand sister

(1) Harry Murri Bandicoot husband + wife Annie Bootha Mallee Hen (2)

I am now working out the totemic marraiges + descents and will writesoon and tell you what I make out.

[You ask about Bunjil + Waang. I have made one the - crossed out]

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0195 Cameron to Howitt 11/06/1902

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"Gowrie" Milton StAshfield SydneyJune 11th 1902

Dear Mr HowittI am not sure whether I ever sent youthe enclosed diagram showing thedistribution of the totems of the Wonghibonand how they influenced marriage.You will remember that I said informer days that Ipai married MathaKumbo, Kubbitha and so on and as amatter of fact nearly every Ipai aboutwhere I lived was married to Mathaand nearly every Murri to Ipatha butyou will see by the Diagram thatin principle intermarriages between Ipaiand Kubbitha could take place andin fact as I explained in a paper to theScience of Man I stated thatIpai mallee hen could marry 2 Mathas 1 KubbithaIpai Emu [ditto] [ditto] 2 Kubbitha 1 MathaIpai opossum [ditto] [ditto] 2 Mathas 1 Kubbitha

Kumbo mallee hen could marry 2 Kubbitha 1 MathaKumbo Emu [ditto] [ditto] 2 Mathas 1 KubbithaKumbo oppossum [ditto] [ditto] 2 Kubbitha 1 Matha

Of course the same rule prevailed inthe Murri Kubbi class. From this it

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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will be seen that the combined totems of Ipai could marry 5 Mathas and 4 Kubbithawhile Kumbo could marry 5 Kubbithas and4 Mathas and so on.

From my own observation in theMossgiel district far and away moreIpais were married to Mathas thanto Kubbithas though the table wouldseem to show that the proportionshould only be as 5 to 4.

However, I suppose the names donot so much matter if you get at the principle regulating marriage.

I was out in the Darling Riverdistrict this time last year and procured a portion of a window's capand saw one complete they weremade of a gypsum kneaded into a pasteand fitted to the head of a woman whohad lost her husband. The cap was worn a few months then buried in or near her husband's grave.I amYours SincerelyALP Cameron

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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Marriages

[left side of the page]I John Ipai Aa Mallee hen 1marriesII Mary Kubbitha Bd Black duck 4the child isIII James Murri Bc Black duck 4who marriesIV Jane Butha Ab Emu 2and the child isV Jack [Kubbi - crossed out] Ipai Aa Emu 2who marriesIV Matha Bc Kangaroo 6and the child isIIV Tom Kubbi Bd Kangaroo 6who marriesEllen Ipatha Aa oppossum 3the child isIX Dick Kumbo Ab oppossum 3who marries X Maria Kubbitha Bd Bandicoot 5the child isHarry Murri Bc Bandicoot 5who marriesAnne Butha Ab mallee hen 1the child isRobert [Kubbi- crossed out] Ipai Aa mallee hen 1and so on

[right side of page]NotesThe child always takesthe totem of the motherand complementary partof her class thusthe child of Ipatha Emuis always Kumbo EmuThe child of Butha Emuis always Ipai Emu

The child of Matha Kangaroois always Kubbi KangarooThe child of Kubbitha Kangaroois always Murri Kangaroo(Presuming of course the abovechildren to be males)

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie
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