Howitt and Fison Papers

OverviewStatisticsSubjects

Search for "Port Albert" PortAlbert*

XM702_ICDMS_lowres

20

20

Gringai Mr I.W.Boydell Gressford. Division of Farm In the Gringai Tribe game taken in hunting is usually divided equally. (1) The [?] chooses the camping ground. I have heard of infanticide being practised but cannot give any information on thr subject. (2) When my father came here (Gressford) 50,ueasr ago this tribe were cannibals but not heard of since. One of the old blacks told my father that they did eat the shepherds and there is a very old man here who is said to have frequently tasted human flesh and to have pronounced it ‘budgery’especially the hand which was considered the epicurean special morsel. [.] by smoke were used and understood years ago and sticks were stuck in the ground pointing in a certain direction immediately the course taken by the tribe [?] friends (1) Dawson says ‘and the natives in wet seasons run down old men Kangaroos who are very large their weight causing them to suck into the ground and to become tired. p139. (2) Mr Scott writes: Infanticide was certainly practised by the Port Stephens tribe, I have heard my father mention an???. Tavis? (goals) were form and it was decided that the meat ? killed, the brother a boy if 6 or 7 was called to chose which one shold be kept. He looked at them for a little, when of there commencing to cry he decided that it his the meat I have killed- "Kill that there he said and he did"?????. there was one old woman who has said to be the person whose duty it has to displine of any children who were not needed. She was a hideous old creature. The other blacks said she choked the babies with hand.

Last edit 6 months ago by Kurnai

XM760_ICDMS_lowres

30

30

Dec - [?Report?] Omeo - +c +c

Jany - Walhalla + Bdale [??]

Feb - Omeo Walh Bdale

Mch - Wal Bdl Port

Apl - Omeo Wal Bdale

May - Walh Bdale

June - Omeo Bdale - Bendoc Walhalla

July - Wal Bdale Foster

Aug

Last edit almost 2 years ago by ALourie

XM461_ICDMS_lowres

10

10

6A (9)As connected with magic, or rather with the supernatural, [the - crossed out][following song may serve- crossed out] Kurburu song serves as an example. It brings into view acurious belief in some supernatural connection [supernaturally - crossed out] between beastsand man which is found in so many Australian [beliefs] legends and tales.

It was composed and sung by a bard named Kurburu who livedmany years ago in the early days of the settlement of the countyby the whites, near where the town of Berwick now stands [in the - crossed out][Western Port District - crossed out]. He was supposed to have killed a "nativebear" [(Note) Phascolarctos cinereus- crossed out] and being possessedby its spirit (murup) henceforth chaunted its song.

Kurburu's Song

Enaguroa nung ngalourma

There now cut-a-cross

barein gurukba murnein

track blood ?

burunbai nganungba

hurt myself

lilira muringa

[chipped tomahawk(with). (Note_ - crossed out] I was notable to obtain a satisfactory verbatim translation of this song.

The singer, Berak, gave me the following free translation, "Youacross my track, you spilled my blood, and broke your toma-hawk on me.The time with two short sticks, while an appreciative ring audience stood round

Umbara's Song

Galagala binja buninga ngali

Capsizing me striking me

winbelow jena ngarauan udja

(the) wind blows hard (the) sea long stretched

kandubai buninga melinthi buninga

between striking hard hitting striking

ngali mulari binja buninga

me dashing up me striking

Last edit 4 days ago by ALourie

XM521_ICDMS_lowres

1

1

[Upside down at top of page]- 205 - 9 Sunday - White Sunday - 160

As a comparison with the [Legend- crossed out] beliefs in the Mura-mura[of the Lake Eyre tribe - crossed out]. I know of no better example than thoseof the [Kurnai - crossed out] Kulin and Kurnai tribes of Victoria.A numbers legends [sic] have been published by different authors takenfrom their folk lore (1) [and of the - crossed out] of which I note [versions which - crossed out] several different versions (1)[I collected myself and which have been from - crossed out] from Woeworung + Kurnai narrators collected originally myselfAs the Kurnai were an offshoot from the Kulin stock, theexplanation which I am able to suggest as to the legends of the

[Upside down]- 806 - 8 Saturday - 169

former may be applied to the analagous legends of the latter.

[I have - crossed out] legends [relating to- crossed out] [I have not been able to learn of the ceremonies suppose to be - crossed out] [few - crossed out], I am [??] of any beliefs or legends relating to theinitiation ceremonies of the Kulin, and the reason may be thatthose ceremonies [were many that- crossed out] did not have the sand or [??] characterof the Bora at the Kuringal. But with the Kurnai there wasan legend [sic] relating to the Jeraeil. As to [the number - crossed out] legends recording[the - crossed out] wanderings they also are few, those relating to the sky-countryare more numerous, but in most of these [relate to the actions - crossed out]the actors are [anoth - crossed out] beings who combine the human andthe animal element.

A few instances will illustrate these several classes.of which I have quoted from the work of my daughter in the Folkloreand legends of some Victorian Tribes (1) - [The other instances are - crossed out]The Wotjoballuk legend - see reverse ofThe Kurnai legend relating to the [Init- crossed out] Jeraeil ceremony is the

(quote here)

The Woeworung legend of Lohän is that he when he was [baking eels- crossed out] cooking eelsat the Yarra River a Swan's feather was carried by the south [wind - crossed out] breezeand fell on his breast. Walking in that direction he at length reached[the sea the - crossed out] Westernport Bay where the Swan [was - crossed out] lived. There he remained until they migrated Eastward, when he followed them, and at last came to Corner Inletwhere he made his home in the mountains of Wilsons promontory, watching overthe welfare of the people who followed him south to the country he had found (2)Another legend relates to the [early - crossed out] wanderings of the [ancestors - crossed out]Kurnai predecessors. Bunjil Borun the first Kurnai marched acrossapproched from the north west until he reached the sea at the Inletswhere Port Albert now is. On his head he carried his canoe in which washis wife Tūk. Bunjil Borun is the Pelican & Tūk the musk duck.

Upside down 206 - 6 Saturday - 157(see over)

[written at top of page]and the Alcharinga ancestorsof the Arunta

[written in left margin]1. ThomasBrough SmythDawsonLangloh Parker

A legend of the Wotjo tribe gives an account of the wanderings of the two Brambramgals [who were the - crossed out] in search of their sister's son Doän(the flying squirrel) who had been killed and eaten by Wembulin (tarantula); [afterwards they - crossed out] and [went - crossed out] afterwards further meeting with various adventures and naming these places where theyoccurred, until the younger of the brothers died. [The elder brother + their mother sought for him - crossed out] Theere was elder 'shaped' part of a tree [??] the form of a man and by his magic it became alive + called him elder brother United once more the Brambramgals travelled far to the west where they lived in a cavern, but no one knows where they have gone (p. )

Last edit 2 days ago by ALourie

XM689_ICDMS_lowres

56

56

The following account of one of the ordeals in expiation wasgiven to me by Berak who was present at it. It was so far as I am able tofix the time somewhere about the year 1840 and the locality was theMerri Creek near Melbourne.

It arose out of the belief by the WesternPort tribeBunwurung, that a man from Echuca on the Murray River had found apiece of opossum bone from (?) remembered that he which one of their tribe had been eating and then thrown away. Taking this bone up between two pieces of wood, aman had put the piece of opossum bone into its hollow and tieing it tothe end of his spear thrower set this up in the ground and roasted itbefore the fire. He and others then sang the name of the Bunwurung man

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie
59

59

30

for a long time over it, until the spear thrower fell down into the fireand the majic complete. Some one brought this news down to the Bunwurungans some time after the man died. His friends did not say any-thing, but waited till a young man of the Echuca tribe came down to theWestern Port district and they then killed him. News of this passed fromone to the other till it reached his tribe, who sent down a mess-age to the Bunwurung saying that they would have to meet them at a place nearMelbourne. This was arranged and the old men said to the men who had killedthe Echuca man, "Now don't you run away, you must go and stand out andwe will see that they do notuse you unfairly." This messagehad been given by the Meymet (1), to the Nira-balluk (2), who sent it on bythe Wurrunjeri to the Bunwurung. It was sent in the interim,so as to give plenty of time for the meeting, which took place on theMelbourne side of Merri Creek. The people present were the Meymet,whose headman had not come down with them, The Bunwurung, with theirHeadman Benbu, the Mount Macedon men with their Headman Ningulabul, the Werribeepeople, with the Headman of the Bunwurung (of the coast Benbow) (crossed out), finally,there were the Wurunjeri with their Headman Bili-bileri.

All these people except the Meymet and the Bunwurung, were onlookers, and each lot camped on the side of the meeting groundnearest to their own country, and all the camps as was usual looked to-wards the morning sun.

When the meeting took place the women left in the campsand the men went a little way off. The Bunwurung manstood out in front of his people armed with a shield. Facinghim were the kindred of the dead Meymet man, some nine or ten in number,who threw so many spears and boomerangs at him that you could not countthem. At last a (?) spear went through his side. Just then a Headman

(1) the Woeworung called the natives by the Murray River about the junctionof the Goulburn Campaspe (??) Meymet, as they called the Gippsland nativesBerbira, thus distinguishing both from the Kulin tribes who were their friends.(2) The Nira-balluk were the tribe about Kilmore. Nira = a deep gully, balik =people, and of (?) and probably adjoining the (?) tribe at Echuca.

Last edit 5 days ago by ALourie

XM690_ICDMS_lowres

2

2

2Ngarego of the Maneroo Tablelandand the Coast Murring [beyon - crossed out] of Twofold Bay and the South coast of New South Wales.

Their neighbours living in the Western Port District were called [Thuring?] or snakes as they put it because they came snaking about to kill us.

The Australians as a whole are [crossed out - therefore] thus divided into tribes and these tribes are organized in certain lines in two independent directions. One [2 words crossed out] I have termed the local [underlined] and the other the social [underlined] organization.

As this is a matter of great importance in my investigation I shall devote some special consideration to it. The Dieri and Kurnai [crossed out - tribes] are [crossed out - respectively] two of the best examples with which I am acquainted. The former of the [?] most backward [crossed out - and] standing and the latter of the most forward standing Australian tribe. I shall therefore take them as my examples of the organization which I have inferred, leaving it to another place to enter into further explanation as to the nature and extent of the advance made by the Kurnai beyond the States in which the Dieri even now are

Left hand margin note](1) The Dieri cultureHorde. A and & 7 doc 2I - A -dnow - 1884 - be XIV p 143-

(1) As I shall more fully explain later in an entire community-nation tribe or which ever else itmay be called - of Australian blacks is divided socially inot the principal exogamous intermarrying section which may for shorten designate as A and B. In some parts of Austrlaia these principal sections or classes have been divided each into two supclasses [or subclasses?], and whether there the two principal classes only, or those with the four subclasses or the latter only without the former there are also a number of lesser groups attached, let us say, to A and

[Lower left hand margin not - cannot read]

Last edit 30 days ago by ALourie
6

6

A arrow at p6

Yorke Peninsula in South Australia between the Spencer's Spencers Gulf & the Vincents Gulfs Vincent's Gulf was once occupied by a tribe which called chief Adja-dūra meaning

[?] with many of the coast tribes its organization differed considerably [crossed out - in] from that of the [crossed out - two class] tribes of which the Dieri is the type and [crossed out - which] where two classes Materi and Kararu extended southwards from Lake Eyre following the [crossed out - hill] [crossed out - country to] Flinders Range to the head of Spencers Gulf and thence following the western shore of the Gulf of the Vincent. to Port Lincoln (1). The adjadūra had four classes which [(1) quote]in fact were major totems [crossed out - Kari] each with a group of [?] totems and each major totem inhabited one of the four [word crossed out] districts into which Yorke Peninsula was initially divided. The only restriction upon marriage depended upon nearness of Kinship [according?] to their (classification) system. Nor was there any restriction based upon locality as was the case with the Kurnai who [prevent?] mentioned. This remarkable exceptionto the almost universal primitive tribes of [?] tribes was insisted upon firmly by the old men any whom were two who [two words crossed out] were probably [word crossed out] looked over 70 years of age in 18 - ? and who it was spoke of times being before the advent of white people in their country. [three words crossed out] The exceptional development of the class system was also connected with the descent of the totem names in the male line. [Six words crossed out] It seems to be the case as explained in # - that the social organization of coast tribes has been in very many instances peculiar and much frequent [tending?] totems [?] [?] ultimate result namely the breaking down of the class system, [2 words crossed out] and of group marriage, the establishment of individual marriage and male descent and when the [Crossed out totem] class or totems have survived the localization of these in [crossed out - themarrriage in which they ? ?] separate [?]. The [subject?] tribe [crossed out - briefly] [?] shows the [crossed out - class] [?] organization of this tribe

[Table with 3 columns][Column headings] Classes; Totems; DistrictsColumn Class: Kari = Emu; Column 2 Totems: [Miduaga?] = Swallow, Lark - Waldaru; Polára = mullet; Waltha = [?] turtles; Mŭrtū = Magpie Kŭdli; [wiuta?] = mopoke [doj?]Column 3 Districts: Kŭrnara; the northern part of the Peninsular south of Wallaroo, Kadina & [?]

Column 1 Classes: Waui = Red Kangaroo Column 2 Totems: All the totems - togetherwith the major totem are coastal

Column 1 Classes: [Wiltu?] = Eaglehawk:Column 2 Totems: Wortu = wombats; [Wueda?] = wallaby; [Nantri?] = Kangaroo; [Mūlta?] = Seal; Gūa = crowColumn 3 Districts: Wari; Western half of coastal part of peninsular

Column 1 Classes: [Wilithiethu?] = sharkColumn 2 Totems: [Snai?] = wild goose; [Willi?] = Pelican; [Kangbŭra?] = Butter fish; [Manditu?] = Stingray; [Walaltu?] = WhitingColumn 3 Districts: Dilpa The extreme southern part of the peninsular

Last edit 9 days ago by ALourie
9

9

5C

MūlgūnKa būl tū - occupying thr Pimpama DistrictMūna dali - the head of the Albert River Kŭte-būl - the head of the Logan River [Yŭn-gūr-pau? or -paw?] - Coomera and NerangBir-in - the Tweed River Būr-gin-meri - Cleveland District Cher-man-pŭra - Coast District

These names are derived from localities, for instance Chepara means the coast, MūlgūnKa būl tū means the neighbourhood of the mountains. The other names are derived from natural objects such as scrubs, trees &c.

The Chepara had a tradition that at one time the tribe was not divided into the above clans but that in consequence of interna; wars fighting quarrels [one above the other and underlined] it became split up into clans of which the Chepara was considered to be the first.

The clans were divided up into lesser groups each with a distinctive name and a definitie tract of country.

[Above text has line under it]

The country within a radius of 50 miles from Maryborough in Queenslandis/was occupied by [crossed out - a] tribes [crossed out - which were] which were comprised of groups of related people occupying certain tracts of country. The smaller groups are little more than an undivided family comprised of several levels in a generation, for [?] grand parents, parents and children; [crossed out - such occupying a piece of country] [crossed out - of some ten miles radius]. A number of such family related to each other hunt over [underlined] and occupy [underlined] a tract of country of some 10 miles radius. The whole of the community [crossed out - thus occupying] which occupy the tribal country in this manner, and attend the Bora ceremonies, covers the tract of the coast country above mentioned.

[Left hand margin note - Bóra]

Last edit 14 days ago by Christine
13

13

6B[Table]

The Kurnai Tribes (continued)Row 1Column 1 - Clans(4) Bra-taua-lŭng claimed all their country from the Latrobe River to near Cape Lip Trap (where it joined the country of the Būnworung tribe of the Western Port district & also from the Southern watershed of the Latrobe River to the sea coast.

Column 2 - Lesser divsions(o) Kŭt-wŭt - the [Tynes?] River flowing into the Corner Inlet.(p) Yau-ŭng - Warrigal Creek South Gippsland(q) Orelin - Merrim [aus? oreid?] South gippsland

Row 1 Column 3 Wives from(o) - m(p) - n(q) - p.i.tRow 1Column 4 Wives to(o) m(p) - n.q(q) p

Row 2Column 1 - Clans(5) Jatŭn-galŭng from Jat - Southaln = Sea. All the country west of the Krauatun Kurnai (1) and east of the Bratana [or Bralana?] Kurnai (4) and lying between the Gippsland Lakes, excepting Flannagan Island which belonged to the Bit-Brita division of the Kraualungalung clan.-

Row 2Column 2 - Lesser divsions(r) Yūnttrŭr - adjoining and east of (q)(s) Ngara wŭt [Ngara wŭt?], the south side of Lake Victoria(t) Bina-jera - the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland Lakes & the sea (Baulbaul) as far as the Entrance to the Lakes -

Row 2Column 3 - Wives from(r) - m(s) - e.m.q.t(t) - d.e.f.g

Row 2Column 4 - Wives to(r) - m(s) - e.m.t(t) - d.g

This information might have been made far more complete so far as relates to the lesser divisions, that is the smaller groups of Kurnai which formes any one of the lesser divisions of the clans.

Last edit 4 months ago by Christine
27

27

18

[Two words crossed out] This system of which the Dieri [crossed out - is represented by the]classes and totems + are an example extends over an immense area and only surrounding Lake Eyre butalso extending up the Barcoo River probably at least as far as ? [crossed out - Mt ?ilt] in the N. west of Lake Eyre to [no name recorded] where as [?] Spencer tells us (2) it is replaced by the four class system of the - [no name recorded] tribes. A from p 18A To the southward it extended down the Flinders Ranges [crossed out - and back] to near Port Augusta and has been recorded at Port Lincoln (3). [crossed out - overall these ext] Then the clan names Materi and Kararu cover an area -[no area given] miles - [no area given] miles. In table Appendix A are given the [identitie?] and variation in the totems of each class name for a number of tribes.

To the South East the Kararu and Materi do not extend beyond the range of the [Yantru wunta?] tribe whose limits [?] may be simply definded by the Grey/Grey Range and Barrier Ranges.

To the Eastward of the limit there is a similar great area occupied by allied tribes having a two clan organization, the classes being Muthwara and Kilpara with assorted totems.

This area [crossed out - carved by] may be defned as extendiing to the Warrego River to some distance East of the River Darling and for some distance both above and below the Junction of the Darling/Darling River & Murray/Murray River (4).

The class and totem system of these tribes are illustrated by the following [crossed out - taken from] which [?] in the Wily (1) a tribe occupying the counry about the Grey Range, Kingsgaite (2) occupying the country N & S of Cadell Ranges Būlali (5) (3) Boolati occupying the Barrier Range country, and (4) TongarauKa (6) occupyingte country about Momba, Tarella, Wonominta & [Yandarlo?] including the Dunbury Range.

[Left margin notes]+ Were it not that the word totem has been so long established in the English language and that it has a meaning wuite apropriate to the Australian facts, I [ful?]temped to introduce the Dieri word "murdu" as correct.

(2) quote this work(3)sent to [Mehelmi?](4) See as to local organization of these tribes p 14.(5) From Būlali - a hill(6) Tongarauka = Hillside or "under a hill"

[Table][Column 1] Class divisionsMūKwara[Column 2] TotemsBilyara - EaglehawkTirlta - KangarooBūrKūma - BandicootKultapa - DuckKarni - Frilled lizardYaranga - opossumKurli - dog

[Column 1] Class divisionsKilpara[Column 2] TotemsKulthi - EmuTūrū - carpet snakenamba - bonefishBauanyal - PadymelonWongarū - wallaby

Last edit 4 months ago by Christine
28

28

18A

The country of the Dieri tribe ends about Blanchewater [crossed out - where] where the Flinders Range of mountains and [crossed out - in the Freeling heights] [?] abruptly in the Freeling Heights. In these mountains were a series of tribes commencing with the [Murdilari?] or "Red people" in mountain areas, following the Kūyani --------- the country of the the latter ending [crossed out - west ? from Port Augusta] at Mt Eyre all these tribes were of the same great [st? ?ulients?]. had spread over the Lake eyre Basin having apparently migrated from [crossed out - the] N Eastern Australia following the course of the Barcoo natives and [?] those of the [?mantion?] also. At any rate I have traced the same organization and and class system on the Upper Barcoo at Mt Howitt in the [Rūnan dalrui?] tribe and the great ceremonies of the Dieri connected with the "mura mura" beliefs extend up to Birdsville and thus connect the tribes of the Everard/Everard River & Diamantina/Diamantina River with these as far south as the Dieri and [Murdula?] at the least.

The class system with the names Materi and Kararu not only extended from the Dieri to the most [crossed out - to Spencer Gul the surrounding ? extent of the tribes] [crossed out - But they also were in the [?] [Riveolin?] tribe.]tribes situated between [Piri?] and the Head of the Bight all of which had the classes Materi and Kararu in some dialectic form as for instance Mŭteri and kararu of the Witūrū and Hileri tribes at the head of the Bight. These class names cease for this [crossed out - any rate they did not extend beyond the boundaries] of the Mēning tribe settles about Eucla which [crossed out - must be ?] [crossed out - to be] is [?] of the West Australian State.

The class name Materi and Kararu as I have said extended down the western side of Spencers Gulf.

On the Eastern side: Yorke Peninsula separates Spencers Gulf from the Gulf of St Vincent. Here I may now [?] a long series of coast tribes which are remarkable as having in many [crossed out - ways] respects an organization which departs [crossed out - in] more or less strongly from the types which are found within the Australian continent.

The first of such tribes is that which occupied [?] and whose remnant state [?] therein.

[Left margin note]The [Augala?] tribe was [?] the Kūyani of Port Ausgusta. Thence in the extensive tract of whose bounds are approximately fixed by Pot Lincoln Head of the Australian Bight, Lake Gauwner & and the Gawler were two tribes whose common boundaries the coast at [Point Brom?]. The one east of the point Wilūrū and [the?] the west of the point the Hillerie tribe.

Last edit 9 days ago by ALourie
32

32

18D{Look up the tribes from Port Carpenter down to Adelaide}

[Line across page]

The Narrinyeri tribe lived around [crossed out - the great land?] [crossed out - great] Lake Alexandrina & Lake Albert which form the termination of the River Murray and which open into the Sea by the Murray mouth, the boundaries of their country [?] from Cape Jervis to Mannum and thence by by a line some distance back from the coast round to Lacipede Bay . At p. I have given the local organization of the tribe into 18 clans ([?]) each with a definite tract of country and [ford?] ground. I now [crossed out - purpose] speak of the totems which are attached to each local clan.

[Left margin note](1) Mr Taplin called these "tribes" - [?] order to bring this information [into?] live with this work [crossed out - I have [?] depend of them as clansof the Narrinyeri tribe.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Title] Narrinyeri clans and totems. (2)[Columns] Clan - Totems(1) Rasninyeri - Wirrŭlde [crossed out - or Tangeri] = Wattle gum(2) Janganarin - Manguritpuri = Pelican(3) Kōndalinyeri - Kandali = whale(4) Lungundaōrn - [Taidityeki ? or Taieltyeri?] = Tern(5) Turarorn - Turi = Coot(6) Pankinyeri - Kŭnguldi = butterfish(7) Kanmeraiorn - Kanmeri = Mullet (8) Kaikala binyeri - Ngulgarinyeri = Bullant, Pingai = Water weed(9) Mungulin yeri - Wanye = chocolate sheldrake(10) Rengulinyeri - Turi-it-pazni = Dark coloured dingo(11) Karatinyeri - Turi-it-parni = Light coloured dingo(12) Piltinyeri - maninki = leach, [Pomeri?] = catfish, Kēdkali = IguanaYalkinyeri - ditto - ditto - Tiyanwi = IguanaWŭloke - ditto - ditto - Warangŭmbi = Iguana(13) Korowali - Waiye = Whip snake(14) Pŭngūratpūla - Peldi = Musk duck(15) Welinyeri - Nakari = Black duck, Ngumundi = Black snake red belly(16) Lathin yeri or Kalabunyeri - Kŭngari = Black Swan, Ngaraki - seal, Kikinŭmi = Black snake grey belly(17) WŭnyaKŭlki - Nakari = Black duck(18) ngrangatari or Gŭrang wari - Waukaw[crossed out ayai]iyi [Waukawiyi] = Kangaroo rat

[Left margin note}(2) Native tribes of South Australia [J D Hood?] added c 1899The Nariū yeri p 2.(quote Taplin's original answer) ----also from communication by Taplins [?].

Last edit 14 days ago by Christine
45

45

29

[crossed out - to] as far as the Ovens River above Wangaratta, the source of the Goulburn/Goulburn River, and Yarra/Yarra River Rivers and the Western Port district to the boundary of Gippsland.

[Left margin note] This Nation may be [further?] spoken of as the Kuli in Kulin for the word communityused for "man"[underlined]

But little has been recorded as to the classes and totems of these tribes and it has only been possible for me to obtain information from the survivors of those of the [?] tribe, namely the Woeworung of the River [Yarra?] watershed, the Thagŭn worŭng of the ---- and the Galgal Bullluk of the Avon River.

A list is given of [crossed out - these] tribes with their loations and other particulars at p - . I now subjoin the class system [crossed out - as] of the Woeworung and Thagun worung which appears also to have been that of the Bunworung and other neighbours of the two former. As to the other tribes of this nation all [??] I can say is that they had [word crossed out -?] the classes Bunjil and Waang/Waa and that no totems were known by my informants other than the ones given below.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Column 1 title] Classes - [Column 2 title] Totem[underlined]Bunjil Eaglehawk - Thara = [??] Hawk Waang/Waa crow - None [underlined]

According to Mr Cameron the Mortlake tribe in the Western district know that their class Krokaje was the equivalent of the class Bunjil and that Kubith was the equivalent of the class Waang. Similarly one of the Gaigal Bulluk told me that in his tribe he was Waang and therefore also [crossed out - ??] [crossed out - the] was Gamutch in the next adjoining tribe to the west and that Bunjil was the same as Krokitch.

This the approximate western booundary of the "Kulin" Nation is fixed. In the north it extended to within a certain

Last edit about 5 hours ago by Christine

XM188_ICDMS_lowres Hagenauer to Howitt 1 May 1880

1

1

Ramahyuck May 1st 1880

Dear Mr. HowittI received your note of the 26thultimo in due time and called yesterdayat your office at Sale, but didnot find you,so I give you the information about the nameof the tribes mentioned, andhope when I seeyou to have a longer talk about it, for youseem not to have had any informationon the subject.

I Tarrawarracka Tribe, or news ofthe Tarra family.lived at Port Albert, Tarraville, Alberton;in 1862 I found 17 still alive, but now there isonly Jimmy Fetched and old Lamfrie's wife

Bellum Bellum - Woodside, Prospect and alongthe seacoast along Reeves Lake.Only alive now: Tommy Arnott and AlbertDarby others are all dead.This was the tribe or family of oldMorgan in 1862.

Woollum Wullum, Hilltop along the Latrobe asfar as Rosedale; still aliveColeman, Lily - was old King Jimmycountry.

Moona and Ngattbau - from Stratford downto Lake Victoria old Ngary's country.

Last edit 26 days ago by ALourie

XM759_ICDMS_lowres

9

9

one man had 3 wives" " " " 2 wivesmost got one wife. -

would lend wives to friendswife go to deceased husbandbrother [if has children- crossed out]

[Twofold Bay blacks from- crossed out][Twofold Bay - crossed out]

when some one stealing (wives)women would senda messenger wirrigirrito call up to fight - women with woman & yamstick - men with menwith wunkim spearKūjerŭng.-

[next page]

ngŭrrŭn-gaeta - head men

[too faint to read][too faint to read] and[too faint to read] - they all call him ngŭrrŭn-gaeta.Ngŭrrŭn-gaeta is like agovernor. __________[not every - crossed out] Billy Bellarythe father belonging to my cousin, was ngŭrrŭn-gaeta.Another headman wasCapt. Turnbull atMt Macedon others atWestern Port - Billy LonsdaleNative Police was de Villiers

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie
11

11

Wang -Kūm

Wang -Kūm [at - crossed out] nearAlexandra ______________from WangarrattaBenalla, KilmoreMt Macedon - WerribeeWestern Port - [not?]from Geelong

Head man for Western Port+ Melbourne - Mt MacedonKilmore - Seymourand Devils River. BenallaWangaratta.___________

[next page]

[drawing]I was not made young manby the

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie
74

74

[Eora?] = black man p354 [Ben-nil-long?] [said?] thatwhen the [Eora?] died they returned to the clouds ([Boo-sen-e? or Boo-ren-e?]). p 355

p353We have mentioned them being divided into families.Each family has a particular place of residence from which is derived its distinguishing name. This is formed by adding the [monosyllable?][gal?] [underlined] for the name of the plain thus the southern shore of Botany Bay is called [Gwea?] and the people

[next page]

who inhabit it style themselves [Gweagal?] those who live on the North shore of Port Jackson are called [Cam-mer-ray-gal?] that part of the harbour being distinguished from others by the name of [Cam-mer-ray?].

If the tribe of [Cammerray?] all belonged the exclusive and extraordinary [?] of extracting a [tribe? or title?] from the nation of the other tribes inhabiting the sea coast - or of allsuch as have [?] theirauthority. p353

Last edit about 1 year ago by Christine

XM61_ICDMS_lowres

1

1

Walsh River N.M. P. Barracks Oct 12th 1882

Sir,

Reading your letter in the Queenslander and thinking I may be of some service to you in obtaining the information that you desire I beg you will send me any questions you like and I will endeavour to obtain the desired information Formerly I was Protector of Aborigines in the Mackay district and it may seen strange to you that I should npw be in the Native Mounted Police but I find it that be being so I am better able to protect them and I consider it my duty to both protect and punish them with fairness

[next page]

About Port Mackay the blacks are divided into two classes Yungaroo and Wotaroo and the children take the name of the mother's class If the mother is Yungaroo the children are Yangaroo but the father is Wootaroo At the Bora or yearly festival They give the young men a new name drill a hole through the cartlilage of the nose knock out two front teeth and mark him to let all blacks know that he has undergone the ceremony or ordeal. The young men are not allowed to eat for a certain period and only water is given than by the old men who name them If the name given is Yougalijo the men repeat it dancing round the youth who is covered up in a Possum Rug

Last edit over 1 year ago by J Gibson

tip70-10-5-1 Fison to Frazer 29/8/01

3

3

actually thanked me for it. So youwill doubtless receive copies of the "Leader"with the illustrated articles in them.May I suggest that when you get them youwrite a line of acknowledgement to himdirect? It will make him amiable, + wemay want to get something more outof him. (David Syme Esq. "Age Office, Collins St., Melbourne)

I have no recollection of the parts ofyour Golden Bough (new Edn) on which I sent you afew notes. I have marked a number of places,but cannot remember which of them I annotated in myletter. If you will send it back to me, I will try to send you something more.

I had a letter from Spencer dated July 15They were then at Barrow Creek + on the eve of going farhternorth. He gives his new address as PowellCreek via Port Darwin, + a letter fromyou would give him great pleasure. But I daresay you also have heard from himlately.

My sister, Mrs Potts, after a year of wandering among out Kinsfolk, has settledagain in rooms at Cambridge - 52 TrumpingtonSt. opposite the Fitzwilliam. I am sureshe would be glad if Mrs Frazer would callupon her. Her late husband gave £1000 toTrinity.Yours very sincerelyLorimer Fison

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-24-1 Taplin to Fison 5/9/1872

3

3

Memorandum of degrees of Kinshipand other information respecting thetribe of Aborigines calledNarrinyeri and inhabiting acountry included in a trianglethe lines of which should bedrawn from Cape Jervis to a point about 20 miles above where theMurray debouches into Lake Alexandrina and from thereto Kingston, Lacepede Bay; andhaving the coast for its base.1 The nation is divided into tentribesRangulinyeri Point Malcolm tribeKondolinyeri Point Macleay [ditto](The above two tribes united are called Yarildethungur)[?Pungurat?ular] Milang tribeMungulinyeri Lake Albert [ditto] Piltinyeri River Murray [ditto]Kaikalabinyeri Lower Coorong [ditto]Kammerarorn MacGraths flat or upper Coorong [ditto - tribe]Turarorn Lake Islands tribeTanganarin Goolwa [ditto]Raminyeri Encounter Bay [ditto]The meaning of the national nameNarrinyeri is "belonging to men":other [rossed out - tribes] nations are not worthy of thedesignation, they are Merkani, wild.I can't give the translation of the names of the tribes except thesecond which means children of the second wife. But I believemost of the names refer toplaces. The word "inyeri" means"belonging to". Piltinyeri, belonging to Poltong. Raminyeri belonging toRamong.

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

tip70-10-24-3 Taplin to Fison and Smithsonian Schedule

5

5

Our Governor Sir JamesFerguson sent it. Inmaking up this table Inoticed that the languagesmight be classified bythe characteristics of their pronouns. One class such asours here having mono-syllabic pronouns while another class of which the Port Phillip blacks wouldbe representatives havepollysyllabic [sic] pronouns.Murrumbeek. I & so on.I think that in thisdifference of pronouns wehave an evidence of difference in race.Some tribes are pureof the one race, and somepure of the other, andothers formed of amixture of the two races.Any one who has residedlong with natives willhave noticed the strikingdifference there is inthe contour of face

Last edit about 1 year ago by ALourie

tip70-10-24-4 Taplin to Fison 7/1/1873

2

2

I afterwards saw a statement in the Home News that a paper had beenread upon my documents at ameeting of the Anthropological Society,and I noticed that some of the speakerssaid things which I should ahvebeen very pleased to have had anopportunity to controvert. But thereI supposed the affair would end, and my health became bad, and I was unfit for mental laboutso I thought little more uponthe subject. I have been trying ever since I got your letter to geta copy of the Periodical which yousay it appeared in, but [crossed out - until][crossed out - now] without success. I do not hopeto get it in Adelaide. If you could get me a copy in Melbourneand send it to me I should bevery grateful, and would willinglypay the cost.Your theory of a barbaric family amongthe natives composed of brothers holdingwomen in common is singularlycorroborated by Schurmann on thePamkalla (Port Lincoln) Tribes. x He says"As for near relatives, such as brothers,it may almost be said that theyhave their wives in common. It is a recognised custom about which notthe least shame is felt. A peculiar nomenclature has arisen from thesesingular connexions; a woman honoursx Date 1846

Last edit about 1 year ago by ALourie

tip70-10-24-6 Taplin to Fison 22/9/1873

2

2

2as far as Western Australia. The PortLincoln word for it is Kapi. King GeorgesSound Kypi, (also yemat + Kowin) and Swan River, Kypbi gabbi and djanDo you know if there is any record of the language of the Tasmanian Aborigines? I wish I could get alist of words.The Anthropological Instituteof Great Britain have been kindenough to send me a few copiesof that paper on Native Languagewhich they printed. I do not knowwhether you have a copy of thePublication in which it appearedif however you have not perhaosyou might like to have a cpyso I will risk it and send you onewith this. If you should have an opportunity of getting a listof Aboriginal Words to fit this table at any time I should be gratefulfor them. I am so anxious to seeif I can trace the lines of migrationor immigration by the languages,also the points where lines crossed each other or united. We havean instance of migration inSir T Mitchells case. In hisexploration of the Bogan and upperDarling he found a tribe which wasvery hostile and afterwards hemet the same tribe when he wentacross to the Darling junction by

Last edit 9 days ago by ALourie
4

4

4them as Shemitic and I see that GoldwinSmith is coming to this conclusion.I ws led to it by reading the worksof that profound Hebraist ProfessorWilson of Brighton. (But don't takeme for a Hebrew scholar, I do not know the language). It would beinteresting to find three systemsof kinship in the Biblical divisionsof the race of mankind. Do youknow if the Chinese have any peculiar system?I intend (D.V.) to write to theProtector of Aborigines at PortDarwin and see if I can get a list of words and your circularfilled up. I am also trying toget the Port Lincoln and West Australian systems of kinshipfor you.Our tribe here, the Narrinyeri, areevidently what Mr Morgan wouldcall more advanced, or perhapsreally less degraded, than theKamilaroi. That is the questionwith me. Is the Kamilaroi systeman advance from a lower status, oris it the result of the moral sense makingarrangements to fight againstthe [crossed out - results] consequences of degradation?Believe me,My dear Sir,Yours faithfullyGeo Taplin P. S. I called onMr Homan in Adelaide buthe was absentfrom Home. I will write to him.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-24-8 Taplin Notes 19/10/1874

3

3

7. The Narrinyeri have a tradition thatthey come down the Darling, and then across the Desert from the Junction to the head of Lake Albert.They say they brought a languageof their own with them, but thatthey became mixed with clansalready dwelling on the lakes,and their language merged in theirs,and their customs becamemixed. Now it can easily beseen that where the intruding racewere few the Tamilian systemof the first comers would onlybe slightly altered. But where, as inthe case of the Marauras, the intruding tribe was numerous,they would merge many of the customs of any tribes alreadypossessing the country in theirown. Hence, while the systemof Kinship of the Marauras hasnot been much affected by contactwith the Tamilian, the Narrinyeranhas. The Narrinyeri found powerfultribes of the Tamilian race alreadyoccupying part of the countrywhere they intruded.

Last edit 29 days ago by ALourie
4

4

Notes. 1. It is evident that the PortLincoln Tribes are Tamilian in theirsystem. They are very low in the scale of humanity. Lower than theRiver Murray Tribes.2. I obtained all these particularsby direct enquiry from nativesof the Meru Maraura and Port Lincoln Tribes. I am sorry thatI could not get more completelists. Only those who have triedknow how difficult it is topursue such enquiries amongsavages. I think however thatthese lists prove that theTamilian system of kinshipextensively prevails amongstthe Aborigines. I think it isalso proved that there has been an intruding people witha different system.Geo TaplinPoint Macleay Superintendent19th October 1874

Last edit 29 days ago by ALourie

tip70-10-37-3 Rev Stahle

3

3

In war all spoils were brought to him, who dividedthem among his men after having reserved thebest for himself. The men of the tribe were underan obligation to provide the head man with foodand to make all kinds of presents to him suchas Kangaroo and opossum rugs, stone tomahawksspears, flint knives +c.The Gournditch Mera did not in war eat anypart of the slain.Although there was no individual property in landsuch things as were left by the deceased were dividedamong his nearest relatives.Game killed in the chase was divided amongstthose present. [crossed out - The hunter gave] Supposing a Kangarooto have been killed, the hunter gave one hindleg and the breast to his most esteemed friendand kept the other hind leg himself. Theremainder was divided among the other companions.There was however no rule as to the distributionof cooked food in the camp, for all eat together - that is each family did so. Each wifewas however obliged to sit beside her own husbandnor near any other man unless her husbandsate between them. Each family camped byitself.The Gournditch Mera believed that the spiritsof the deceased father or grandfather occasionallyvisited the male descendants in dreamsand imparted to them charms (songs) againstdisease or against witchcraft.There were also among them persons who

[in side margin]Buckley the man who lived 32 years with the blacks at Port Phillip says in his narrative: p 57They have a notion that theworld is supported byprops, which are in the charge of a man who livesat the farthest end of the earth. They were dreadfullyalarmed on one occasionby news passed from tribeto tribe, that unless theycould send him a supplyof tomahawks for cuttingsome more props with,and some more rope to tie them with, the earthwould go by the sunand all kinds be smothered.

Have the Mera any knowledge of this?Their[crossed out - head m] chief might itseems to me have been such a man as wouldsend the message - callingfor tribute.

Last edit 29 days ago by ALourie

tip70-10-41-5 Gould to Fison

2

2

Port Walcott W A1st Octr 1873

Dear Sir

I must apologise for not answering your lettersof the 25th April + 5th May inst before now but youwill not be surprised when I tell you that I onlyreceived them on the 17th July last + after thevessel I received them by returned to Fremantle onthe 22nd Augt I was unfortunately away + unable towrite + since then we have had no communicationwith the rest of the world so that you willperceive that the means of communication inWest Australia are considerably behind what they are with you in Victoria

Situated as I am I am not able to havemuch constant intercourse with the Natives besidesI have not the intimate acquaintance with theirlanguage which many longer residents in thecountry have. I have therefore given two of yourschedules to two of the squatters in this districtto get filled up + will return them to you assoon as possible after I receive them.

It is rather unfortunate that as a rule here thosebest acquainted with the language + customs of the Aborigines are uneducated + illiterate persons + whowould of themselves take no interest in the subjectof your researches or even know the meaning of theterm Ethnology.

Last edit 9 days ago by ALourie
4

4

28th OctrI am rather unexpectedly on the point ofleaving here for Fremantle immediately. I have thoughwritten Mr A. McRae + Mr Viveash to whom I gavetwo of your schedules to forward them eitherdirect to you or to myself at the Revd GeoBastocks The Parsonage, Fremantle + Mr Harperwill probably write you with the one I have sent him as soon after he gets it as he can get itaccurately filled up.

I will endeavour whilst in Slacks Bay onmy to [sic] Fremantle to gather some informationas to the Natives of that locality.

All the Natives about here have more or less beencannabalistic in their habits until the Districtwas settled by whites about nine years agoI have heard men + even quite small boysfrom Exemouth Gulf admit having eaten humanflesh.

As you go inland up the rivers from the coast you find the Natives all circumcised but afteryou get past the De Grey the coast tribe isso also beyond that little or nothing in Personof the Natives either inland or on the coastthe next settlement beign Port Darwin

Regretting that I should be unable to forward your Schedules this mail

I remain Dear SirVery truly yoursLionel H L Gould

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie
Records 1 – 30 of 104