Howitt and Fison Papers

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tip70-10-49-1-1 Fison to Frazer 29/08/1901

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actually thanked me for it. So you will doubtless receive copies of the "Leader"with the illustrated articles in them.May I suggest that when you get them youwrite a line of acknowledgement to him direct? It will make him amiable, + onemay want to get something more outof him. (David Syme Esq. "Age" Office, Collins St., Melbourne)

I have no recollection of the parts ofyour Golden Bough (new Edn) on which I sent you afew notes. I have marked a number of placesbut cannot remember which of them I annotated in myletter. If you will send it back tome, I will try to send you something more.

I had a letter from Spencer dated July 15.They were then at Barrow Creek + on the eve of going farthernorth. He gives his new address as PowellCreek via Port Darwin, + a letter fromyou would give him great pleasure. But Idaresay you also have heard from him lately.

My sister, Mrs Potts, after a year ofwandering among our Kinsfolk, has settledagain in rooms at Cambridge - 52 TrumpingtonSt., opposite the Fitzwilliams. I am sure she would be glad if Mrs Frazer would callupon her. Her late husband gave £1000 for Trinity. Yours very sincerelyLorimer Fison

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XM719_ICDMS_lowres

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round him at which he must not show theleast fear, in pain of death, after this theytake the boy to a large waterhole when allis wll as the boys jump into the watyerwashing off the red paint [??] as they come out of the water one painted white. This goes on amidst much shouting. The gins nowmale a very large fire round which theylie down with their faces covered. When this is done the old men who first took the boyout of the ring bring him ar a [??] to needthe fire all the rest following, clattering boomerangs but not speaking or shouting.They thenform a ring round the fire holdingeach others hands; one old man running frominsoide the ring beating a "heelaman" The boys mother(or some other woman if she is not there) comes now out of the companyof women and takes the boy under thearms and lifts him up once andgoes away again. The fire has by this timeburned away to red coals. All the blacksthe boy included now jump into the fire until the coals are quite extinguished.The boy then goes away and camps in sight of the gins who are now allowed to lookup. He then gets every good thing to eatand is allowed to enjoy himself for a time.He may now eat kangaroo, snake etcwhich before he was not allowed. He is not supposed to take a wife for three years afterthe ceremony. the instrument with whichthey frighten the gins is Tirricote (1)(1) [?] Augusta [?] visitng of the Port Stephens blacks sayThe lad after the ceremony is called Boombat. The place to break out one of the Boombats teeth is

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10 A(footnote continued)that one of the old fellows places his bottom toothagainst the Boombats upper tooth giving a sudden jerk in such a way that is snaps the lads tooth.On one occassion when one of the Black boyswasmade Boombat I noticed that his teeth or toothwas not broken. He said "Too crook (much strong)Old Boney nearly broke his own Thirrar (teeth) in trying - he only tried three times) letter 4/4/82Mr McRae writing from Barrington says:"A young man is called Goromit before being made a young man and Keepara after ebingmade".A wooden instument notched at the edgesis used at the ceremonies of making young men.Mr Scott writing to me about the Port Stephens blacks saysI once saw something in connection with one of theirceremonial gatherings that appeared muchlike Idol worship. A number of the blacks wereencamped at the foot of a hill. The encampmentwas in the form of a half circle round an ovalshaped cleared space say 30 to 40 ft. The adges of this space were varied about 9 [??]This cleared space was connected with the top of the hill and another space by anarrow path. the women were not allowed to go up this path or appraoch the top of the hillat all. When going to the creek for waterthey were careful to look away from the hilltopfor fear of offending the men. On more thanone occassion when riding past the campI heard the most extraoirdinary criesproceeding from the summit of the hill; akind of bellowing or booming sound continuedfor a very long time, [?] away at times(footnote contined at next page)

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(footnote continued)10Fpresents at the celebration if the rites [?] mayshe even appraoch within several hundredyards of the spot; and any attemot on the part of one to witness the ceremonies would bepunished by instant death. The Kabbarahalways includes several tribes, some ofwhom come from a distance of 80 or 100 milesand probably much farther (as a preliminaryto the meeting two messengers are dispatchedfrom each tribe (intending to be present) andthree men together witjh the leading men of thePort Macquarie natives form a council by whenceauthority [?] are proclaimed, boundaries aresettled and the tribes prevented from interferring with or encroaching on one another. XX It isnot unlikely that the tribe may be one of some consequence otherwise the natives of theCorborn Comberoy would scarcely travel so farmerely to be present at the meeting. While it tasks all the blacks all on the most friendlyterms". p 282

The "Kabara" of the

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hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages

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The Kurnai tribe

The [??] [??] [??] [??] 3 1 - Bukan 1 - Set fight 1. 52 A The Kurnai language 2 - 7.8.15.39.4976.82 55.56.59.60.68Nme of birds 2.73.80 82.83.89 names of trees 2.73.83.84 Loän 3 [??] [??] [??]3Jerail 4.18/19 - 39. 87. 97. [88-crossed out] Elopement - 5.27.45 [??] 5.6.7.12/13.27.60Direction N.S.E.W +c 7 Rainmaker 41 Marks on Possum rugs +c 45. - Legends 46.Food rules Jerail 9./11-24.28.48 77.79.81 Messengers 14/16.18.51 Biraark - 14.18.20.36.38.86Dreams Omens 3 14.24.25.51.56.72.59 Aurora 14.15.58. Thunder 14.15 Sky 14.15.24 69Moon + stars 15.32.56.58.68 Head men 17.18.32.39 Wild tribes 17. The old blacks 28.47[??] ball as message 17. Mrarts 19.50.69 [??] 21.25 Burial 47.59.89Legends Brewin + the moon 22.63 Yambo 25.69 [??] Supernatural Beings 50[??] [??] Magic 29.39.48.61.33.50 Doctors +c 29.40.41.34.37.59. Nungy nungit - 30/32.33. [?Varura?] +c 48.51.53A 70.73.[58.63 - crossed out] 54.67 76.82.84.86.86A 97.Imported corroboree 55. Katūngal 56. Dress ornaments weapons 57.59. Visitors 62.63.66.68[?crow?] 59.63.72 Clasns+c 64.-65- Kurnai ancestors 66. Widows 71.-Legends 74.75 76. Muk Kurnai 74A - Drawings of [?Bulerwieng?] + Tūtnŭrring. 91.names of [?bats?], plant. [?water?] +c 73[Kulu - crossed out] Kurnai ancestors p. 22

Batman + Port Philip blacks - 57.Wimmera - magic. the bone 67.Būnwurūng in 1841 not more than 500 - p 90 - Rain maker 90.Kūlin Gesture Language - 91

Tūta-warra-wara division of [Malaua?] - p 90

[written in left side margin][?Kup?] - boraE. [?Rignans?]p 75

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16KurnaiBilly Wambat

Head menThe gwerael Kurnai were the old men.People always listened to an old manbut they would listen to any man whocould fight well and was strong and alsoif he could talk well.

Brūthen mŭnji was an old man and could talk well - Billy Tūlaba has histalk from him - Bruthen Mŭnji wasvery strong and could fight well. He usedto run after Brajerak and catch them withhis hands and then Bembrukil his brotherwould come up and knock them onthe head.

Bŭnbra at Swan Reach (King Fern)was much listened to but he wasquite a young man; he had not anywhite in his beard when he died.

Billy the Bull would be a Headmanand was much listended to years ago even-it was because he was so strong and could fight and talk.

I do not know abour Old Morganhe belonged to Port Albert.

In the olden time Lewin was sent by wordonly. The Baiaur carried the words butdid not carry any think [sic] like a stick.I think the Kurnai learned from the Brajerakto send Boomerangs and spears.When a Baiaur brought word that some one was deadhe would say when coming into the camp "Father, (as thecase might be) of that one (pointing to some mother) is"Tŭrde-gatū būlū lūndū. Tŭrdegatū = Deadbūlūt = above - lūndū= there or he might

[written in left side margin]an [?? - unable to read this section] might sit down nearthe camp tell his friend next to him - took him tohis camp and gave him food. Then all beingassembled the Baiain sometimes told his message to all - sometimes to persons to whomhe was sent who in a loud voice repeated it to all.

Billy Tūlebar

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5 22the swamp hawk (ngarang) to go after themand get back the fire. The swamp hawkflew off about three miles and then soaredand swooped down at them. - he knockedsome fire out of their tree and set the grasson fire. Baukan then put it out. The Swamp Hawk soared up and while hewas rising to make another swoop, Baukanthrew up some Kangaroo sinew up to thesky and tried to climb up but it broke.They then threw up Emu sinew, [then - crossed out] but it brokethen the sinew of the little red wallaby. -Justthen down came the swamp hawk and knocked out the fire. - All the grass began toburn but Baukan climbed up into the sky with the burning He oak log.This was how the Kŭrnai nearly lost theirfire.

Brewin and the moonOnce the moon (narrŭn) was a young manHe went out hunting and found an Emuon the other side of a creek. When he wantedto cross over a log to get at his game Brewin twisted the loground so that Narrŭn fell into the water.Each time narrŭn tried to walk overBrewin turned him over. The Emu iswhat you call the Southern Cross.

The Kurnai ancestor.Old Morgan the Gwera-ale Kŭrnai(Gweraale = great) told me that long agothe old Kŭrnai walked across the Sale plainsto the [?Heart?]. He crossed the river there andwalked down to Port Albert. He carried acanoe on his head. As he walked alonghe heard a tapping on the canoe - helooked up at one side then at the otherbut could not see any one. The fact [one - crossed out]

[written in left side margin at bottom of page]and Someone put woman into the canoe

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was some one had put a woman intothe canoe. When he got down to PortAlbert he found deep water - then heput his canoe down and lo - there was his wife in it. He was very pleasedindeed to get a wife. This old Kŭrnai'sname was Būnjil [Boron - crossed out] Bor-ŭn(Pelican) and his wife was Bŭn(musk duck)

How the Gippsland Lakes became full of waterOnce the Great [Bull - crossed out] frog (Tidde-lek)drank up all the water so that therewas none left. All the people were gettingvery dry - the sea birds had none either.They all collected round Tidde lekand tried to make him laugh but theycould not. By and Bye however theGang gang cockatoos ([?Kali Kephaler jaleatum?])came and coroboreed before him. Their[?red?] heads looked so funny that he burst out laughing and thewater all ran out. All the Lakesand all the sea got to be fullof water and the Yeerung andDjeetgŭn flew all about the country.

[wrtten in left side margin next to first paragraph]Old totems probably

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25KurnaiBilly Wood a Kŭtbŭntaura= Braiaka

The human spiritEach person has a Yambo inside him whichcan go out when he sleeps and walk aboutand go up to the sky and see his fatherand mother.But animals have no Yambo.

Kangaroos in dreamsYet in dreams Kangaroos, & Emus can givewarning. For instance if a man in a dreamsaw a number of kangaroos sitting round himhe would know that some Kŭrnai or someBrajerak were coming after him to kill him.

The Mina bird warningThe "Miner" [a Minah = Millphega ganula - written above Miner] (a bird) gives warning to the Kangaroosof danger and it also warns the Kŭrnaito look out for themselves. It is callednŭna-wŭn

The story of BaukanOnce Baŭkan and her son Būlūmdūt livedon the earth near [Prospect - crossed out] Port Albert.While Būlūmdūt was out hunting KangaroosBaŭkan went out to where a lot of black womenwere catching little fish with their nets "Law-ŭn"As they caught them they put them in their bags andgave Baukan none. Then Baŭkan continued to ask for some fish the women gave her somemud. Then Baukan went home and lookingin Būlūmdūt's bag found some Kangaroo eyeswhich she took. When Būlūmdūt returnednot having been able to kill any game he found hisKangaroo eyes gone. He said "who has been to my bag"Baukan said "I did - those women would notgive me any fish" Then Būlūmdūt said "allright we will not stay down here any more.

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42Kurnai

Tommy Hoddinot says:-

Doctors Mulla MullungWhen I was a boy I was camping at Albertonin the Police Paddock with Old Morgan, Darbyand others. I dreamed three times aboutthe same thing. The first time I [thought - crossed out] dreamedthat [I was - crossed out] my old father, his brother and a number of old men came and dressed me up with Lyrebirdfeathers round my head. The second time [they - crossed out] Idreamed that they came they were rubbed all over from head to foot with [naial - crossed out] red ochreand each one had a budda brillda on.The third time they came they tied a ropemade of fish sinews round my waist and roundmy neck and swung me by it and carried mein the air to [Yertŭng (Wilson - crossed out] Yirŭk(Wilsons promontory). There I saw a wall of rock and something like an opening betweentwo rocks. My father held me by the armand took me inside. It was quitedark and the rocks shut to behind me,I heard them knock together. My father ledme further on to where it was quite lightand he then said "take one of these [Kīn - crossed out] "thing".There were bright things like glass on the side ofthe wall. I took one and held it tightin my hand. My father then said to theother men "I am going to take him back."He led me out and carried me by therope to the camp and put me in the limb[top - crossed out] of [the - crossed out] a tree. He said "You must shout outnow to let them know you are come back."When I woke up I was lying on the limb of the tree above the ground and I then did

[written in left side margin]Whales?

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57Australian Aborigines

Corroboree songmŭlla-mŭllé Kūrūitba tára-irá tára-iráPlatypus big rock river bend

gūialtūra nanga ebermernanbig water hold

[Murry - crossed out] Mŭri Jack could not rememberthe remainder of the song.

KurnaiThe Kaiŭng or bridda briada was made ofpossum fir string (15 ft long) and two kiltsone in front = nit-tŭn and one behind =nit-gwannŭng.The Kaiung of the women hung down to the knees in front.

EelsConger eel = noyangSilver eel - lana-yak

Batman and Port Phillip Blacks"one of my natives went to a tree out of sight of thewomen, who were not permitted to know their freemasonarysigns - and made the Sydney natives mark. Afterthis was done I took with me two or three of my nativesto the principal chief, and showed him the markon the tree. This he knew immediately and pointed to the knocking out of the teeth. Themark is always made when the ceremony ofknocking out the teeth in front is done. Hetook the tomahawk and cut out in theback of the tree his mark which is attached to the deed and is the signature of the country and tribe."This is said to be part of Batman's despatchto Governor of Tasmania - Look itup and verify if possible.[??] did the Geelong blacks knockout

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61Brataua Kurnai

Taking the “fat” of an enemy

Mr McAlpine remembers that when hewas a boy – (he went to Port Albert in 1845)A man from East Gippsland came therenamed [?Polatie?] Johnny. Morgan and Darby were the head men at that timeat Woodside and Tarra respectively.[?Polatie?] Johnny showed to Mr McAlpine acut in his side just below the ribs andstated that Morgan and Darby hadknocked him down and taken outhis fat. Mr McAlpine saw Morganat his camp heating some fat- [?caul?] fat it seemed to be – not kidney fatover his fire and Darby rubbing somefat over his face. Morgan said“It was from [?Politic?] Johnny who was no good;but [??] Johnny would not now bestrong any more and that Darby wouldbe very strong”. [?Politie?] Johnny didnot die but was killed by his own tribeafter he returned home.

When a [fl – crossed out] blackfellow hurt himself saywith a tomahawk or something hewould say Kŭlla-warrŭng – orKŭlla-airŭng – but did not like thatother blacks should hear him

What is the meaning of táileh-atáwy

[written in left side margin]Ask Tommy Hoddinot

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62The Westernport Blacks + Brataūa

When Mr McAlpine first went to Port Albertthere were constantly Western Port Blacksthere. He has seen half a dozen young menarrive. All but one would sit down at a distancefrom the camp – the other one would walk up tothe young men’s camp and sit down with hisback turned to the inmates. After sitting perhapsa quarter of an hour the old man of the Camp would go over and speak withhim. Then the messenger would go andbring the others in to the young men’s campthe old men joining the [??] place.Yet the Bratau + Western Port blackswere always killing each other.

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63Kurnaiper J. C. Macleod

Mallabar native of the Old Port.Said that at first the blacks were poor creaturesshivering without fire but that the crow wentsomewhere and brought back to them firein the beak.

J. C. Mc says that the blacks would not on any accountkill or injure a crow.

They would not on any account let the dogseat a bone of an Iguanaand that when he cut off the head of a fishthey raised a tremendous outcry sayingthat the fish would all leave the lakes.

[written in left side margin]gold watchat Martin’sat Alberton

taken from Jamiesons

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66Migration of the Kurnai AncestorsMr McAlpineWhen Mr McAlpine first went toPort Albert in the year -.There was a man older than Morgan” who described himselfas the “father” of all the blackfellowswest of the Albert River. He was theheadman of the Kut-wut Kurnai.He stated that the black fellowcame from the west from acountry where there were greatnumbers of blacks. This old man’sname was Mŭl-a-ba.When the Port Albert and Tarraville+ Alberton Blacks were frightened at being attacked by those fromthe Lake or about Sale theyused to take refuge in WilsonsPromontory

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so that a piece of fire fell down to the earth. Bibbrew(the robin) seeing it carefully blew the spark up intoa flame and taking some of the fire spread it overhis breast where one can see it now. Thus it was that the Kurnai got back their fire.

The frog + NoyangLong ago all the water was drying upand the little that was left Tidelek (the bullfrog)swallowed and kept inside himself. All the peoplewere in danger of dying of thirst and some tickled the sides of Tedelek while others danced (corroboreed)before him to make him laugh so that the water would run out of him. Ngarugal (the crow),gula ([??]) [?Jun?] (Kangaroo), Narūt (wambat)and all the other Muk Kurnai [corr - crossed out] dancedto make him laugh but in vain. At lastNoyang (the conger eel) began to dance and hehad sea weed hanging over his head as he dancedand he looked so funny that Tidelek burst outlaughing and all the water ran out of him. All the rivers, and creeks and lakes and waterholes got full and there was no more scarcity.The Tideleks (frogs) are always now singingabout water.

Insert here about Muk Kurnai

Būrŭn + his wifeBūrŭn (Pelican) walked from the Lakes Entranceto Port Albert carrying a canoe on his head. As he walkedalong some one put the leg of a kangaroo [into - crossed out] (Djerene-Djiraua)into his canoe and it became a woman. Thus itwas that Būrŭn got a wife.

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89[transcription of article from the Argus newspaper, 12/12/1881, p. 5]

Burial at [Mordialluk?] [Heading underlined]

A few days ago when the sailing labourers were cleaning away a sandhill near the site of the [Mordialluk?] railway station they uncovered the skeletons of three aboriginals, who had been buried there. Each of the skeletons was in a sitting posture. One was that of a warrior, who had his spear buried with him; the others appeared appeared to be the remains of women. From the circumstance that a clay pipe was found beside one of the smaller skeletons, the last burial must have taken place since the colonization of the Port Philip district. The remains are in the of Mr [J.P.?] Madden, district Engineer of the line who if they should be considered of any value to the natural museum, will hand them over to the director of the institutions. The teeth in in the skull of the male aboriginalwere all perfect, but there was a central tooth missing from the upper jaw belonging to each of the other skeletons. The three figures were in a row about 6 ft apart and the heads had depth of 2 ft of sand over them.

The Argus. Monday Dec 12. 1881.

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90Western Port Tribe

Mr Connor J.P. says that when he cameinto Western Port district in 1841 the blacks didnot number 500 all told.

Rain makersHe remembers during a very wet time thatan old man endeavored to produce fineweather and to send the rain away by"muttering words to himself as he sate by hisfire and at the same time throwingany ashes from the edge of the fire againstthe direction from which the rain was coming."

Bundanāl says At [th- crossed out] Yanakie and the left hand side of Andersons Inlet+ up the Tarwin therein - then in the Tūlā-warra-warradivision of the Brataūalang clan, on the opposite side ofAndersons inlet there was then ofthe Bunorung tribe,Old Darby was at Foster and was also in the head man of the Kut-wut-divisionthe Bunjil gworun of Port Albert, Alberton, Taraville - Yarram.The Tūlā-warra-warra spoke a "little nūlet".-see p. 48 - when the Yanakie people are called Nanjet.

The Port Albert, Taraville people used to goacross to Wilsons promontory at times for mutton Birds.

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hw0417 Notes from Bonwick's Book

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Port Phillip SettlementJames BonwickLondon 1883

"as we went out of the boat eleven natives met us; they were very civil I gave one of them a biscuit: he looked at it. I did it again ate of it, when he didthe same; whatever he said they said it after us. There was one who appeared to be their chief.

They handed us their spears to look at; one of them was barbed and one with two prongs. x x x two of them appeared to be marked with small [pix?]. p 5. James Flemming journal of Grimes exploits round Port Phillip Bay in 1803. - p 15

"The country in general is newly burnt" (ie, about where Melbourne now stands) p 17

Quoting from Tuckey's who wrote an account of the [attempted?] voyage to establish a colony at Port Phillip" he says as other blacks at Port Phillip Heads (Sorrento). He says that a number of the blacks assembled apparently with the intention of plundering the boat; they were [?] upon with [?] and [retreated?] away [the?] [trees?]. A large party was then seen assembling behind a hill: they advanced in a compact body to the [?] of the [tribe?] every individual armed with a spear and some who appeared to be the attendants of others carrying bundles of them. When within a hundred yards the - chief with one attendant came down to the trees and spoke with great vehemence holding a very large war spear in a position for throwing. [?] [/?] [?] approach they now put on with [ball?] and one man [?].

They then ran off.

when the chief was first seen approaching the boat he was seen to be carried on th shoulders of two men and surrounded by the whole pack. Shouting and clapping their hands. Beside his cloak he wore a reed necklace and several strings of human hair over his breast. He had a coronet of 2 [swan?] feathers round his head.

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2.the faces of several were painted with red, white and yellow clays and others had a reed or bone run through the nose. That of the chief must have measured at least two feet.

Ornamental scars were common on the shoulders, and one was deeply pitted as if from small pox.

Their possum rugs were marked on the skin sides by parallel lines forming [?], [?] to and [?] with human figures dancing.

The arms were spears with throwing sticks; shields neatly carved; war spears barbed with white "spar" or sharks teeth. The fish spears were pointed with the bone of the Kangaroo.

He says Food is; shellfish, wild fowl caught in traps, lizards, gnats, [etc?] They chewed the green leaves of various plants, several of which had a slight astringent taste and an aromatic smell p 28 et seq.

When huts were constructed of branches of trees [?licity?] and the open side to [lee wind?]. Sometimes coarse grass is interwoven with the branches. Fires at every entrance of huts. They carried fire brands with them. p 28 et seq.

A straw basket made with 'tolerable neatness' was observed.

The native of Port Phillip different from those of [?] S.W. in [?] hairs a front tooth knocked out but "hairy then [?] perfect."p 30.

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Batman's journal as published in the "Yeoman" Aug 30/62 At Gilebrand Harbour he landed to meet the natives who were at seven large huts. His natives stripped and went up naked to the huts. The blacks were gone - He followed them for 10 miles when they found an old woman and the remainer of tribe (women & children) a mile off. He says that his natives could partially understand them. The women all of small size & each with a child at [breast or back?], [ex?] by any woman. Every woman had a load of 60 - 70 lbs on her back: Baskets, net bags, native tomahawks bones etc. He found in one bag a piece of cartwheel tire ground down and put in a handle for a tomahawk. Since iron [?]. Since wooden

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hw0416 Notes from Shillinglaw's book

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Port Phillip AboriginesHead Man

Head manSunday 23rd Oct 1803"Early in the afternoon they returned with a greatmany of them (x): and at 2 pm they in the boatcoming back observed 70 in a body x x x thechief at this time seized Mr G (x) who called out toMr T x to fire on them x x Mr T fired over them, theyran away a small distance, but soon approachedagain with the King (who wore a very elegant truban - crown)and was always carried upon the shouldersof the men. Whenever he desired them to haltor to apporach they did it immediately x x

Journal of the Revd Robert Knopswoom A MinHistorical Records of Port Phillip J J Shillinglaw FRSSp. 92 Government Printer Melbourne1870

Note In the entry Saturday 22nd he says thatMr Tuckey + two boats went to survey the N.W. pointof the Bay - it is left uncertain whether the N.W.point of Port Phillip Bay is intended or whether the oppositeshores of the Bay - N.w. from the settlement (Sorrento) are intended - for it is said subsequently Friday 21st"at 50 past 7 the cutter + launch returned from Surveying the harborhaving last night arrived from surveying the Harborhaving last night arrived in the N.W. point of the baywhere they have discovered a straight an apparentpassage towards the sea, which the first Lieut Mr Tuckeyintended to have explored but was driven to

[written in left side margin](x) the blacks AWH

(x) Gammon a masters mate of theH. M. Ship Calcutta

x Tuckey 1st LieutH.M.S Calcutta

(2) footnotesee Buckley's life +cp. 72

[??] strait?

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3Considering the short distance fromthe main Camp (Sorrento as it is nowcalled) - and that from the NE pointof the Bay Mr Tucker went 5 or 6 milesacross the bay - his position can scarcely have been at the NW ifPort Phillip nor can the Freshwaterriver in the "NE point of the bay"be the Cananook creek as suggestedby Mr Shillinglaw in a footnote p 92-the locality must have beenSwan Bay and the Freshwater river the - the "straight" mentioned must havebeen the southern channelout of Swan Bay

The blacks seen carrying a headmanmust have been of the Geelong sideand not those of Westernport district

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hw0391 Notes by Howitt on Kulin from Barak

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The Kulin TribeInformant Berūk (white grub in gum tree)otherwise King William of the Yarra tribe.

Mr Cameron learns fromKing David thatKubitche = WaaKroki = Bunjil

[Margin Note:] Avoka – or Boka Dick

The men of this tribe are all called Kūlin in distinction from those of alien tribes who are regarded as wild men and named as follows: -Gippsland blacks beyond Tarwin River = Bér-bira or Méy-metBeyond Geelong = B Warrije = Far off - Bek = countryat Echuca = Méy-metThe bounds of the country occupied by the Kulin were these: from the Tarwin River in Westernport round the spurs of the Australian alps to beyond the Broken River; and extending westward to beyond Geelong – to Mt Macedon, Kilmore Murchison and probably Wangaratta. ——[Margin note:]1 – W2 – W3 – B5 – W6 - BEach tribe has its particular locality which they consider a sort of inheritance - Buckley p. ?7]The Jajowurong tribe adjoining the Kūlin on the North west was regarded as friendly; The Mey met […] Ber-bira were not so regarded.The Kulin tribe was divided into Hordes of which the following […] the principal; of […][Marginal text:ballŭk = a number of peopleūrŭn = white gumjerrirŭk = mourning birdngarŭk = stonesKūrūng jang = red ground[?]Neera = a deep gullyalso the Nir-ballŭkfrom Nir = cavespoke Thagun wūrŭng fromThagun = No - lived on watershed of Campaspe down to [...] ]Hordes Class Wives to Wives from1. ūrŭndjeri ballŭk Kew waa wöe 6.3.4.8.10.1113.14.15 3.4.6.8.10.13.142. Būlūk willŭmCranbourne waa wöe woey wūrŭng language3. Ngárŭk willŭmDandenong būnjil wöe woey wūrŭng language4. Būnwūrŭng Mordiallok būnjil wöe boon-wūrŭng5. Kūrūng jang ballŭkWerribee waa woey wūrŭng6. gūnŭng willŭm ballŭk

Mt Macedon būnjil wöe woey wūrŭng7. Nira ballŭkKilmore Waa thagūng wūrŭng8. Būthera ballŭk Seymour būnjil thagūng wurung9. Yowŭng illŭm ballŭkAlexander waa thagūng wurung10. Waaring illŭm ballŭkMuddy Ck būnjil thagūng wurung11. Yeerŭn illŭm ballŭkBenalla būnjil thagūng wurung12. Būn mūrŭng ballŭk

Cape Schank Waa boon-wūrŭng12 13. Ballŭng Kara-mittŭng-būlaWangaratta būnjil (does not know) 13 14. Wŭdthowrŭng ballŭkGeelong bunjil Wadtha-wurung14 15. Ngūralŭng būlaMurchison Same Būnjil Ngur-ai- illŭm Ngūrai ilŭm wrūrung

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie
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55 The Tribe was governed by the old men and there were head men called Ngŭrŭngaeta. [These head men beam - corssed out] If a man was "sensible and spoke straight and did no wrong to any one the people would call him “ngŭrŭng-gaeta” and listen to him and obey him. Billy Billarythe father of my cousin was a Ngŭrŭngaeta. So was also Capt. Turnbull at Mt Macedon and Billy Lonsdale and Mr DeVilliers in Western Port.”

It was the Head man who summoned assemblies for ceremonial, or for arranged fights or for war. The messenger carried certain articles which were appropriate to each kind of message as his credentials and he carried the message in his mouth. As an example maybe taken a message sent by a ngŭrŭng-gaeta to assemble the people to a [ceremonial an - crossed out] festive gathering at which there would be corroborees and ball playing. The messenger would then carry the [following - crossed out] yarŭk = message stick + The message itself was called “Pai-ara”. The meaning of the Yarŭk is “to bring up every man in the bush – even if a man were living with a settler he mustcome. If I sent such a Yarŭk I should say to the Wirigiri – take this and give it to the Ngŭrŭngaeta at such a place and tell him my Paiara. – that Ngŭrŭngaeta would then show it to his [people - crossed out] men and then send it on”. In company with the Yarŭk would be sent also the Mangūrt which is a ball of about 2½ to 3 inches diameter made of opossum skin with fur outside sown up tightly. This ball is used in the favourite game of Ball play at which the different totems take different sides. With the KūlinBūnjil and Waa took opposite sides. The Mangūrt is also used to send to a friend as a token of regard. It was pointed out to me by William[that - crossed out] when I expressed a wish to send by him a small present in money to an Omeo black of my acquaintance who lived in thesame hut with him; that my present ought to be accompanied by a “Mangūrt” in order to make “Charley's heart glad”. This was accordingly done. Together with Yarŭk and Mangūrt the messenger

[written in left side margin] 6"The messenger was called Wir-i-gir-i and would be a young man, “the ngŭrŭng gaeta would say to him go to [such - crossed out] that mob and take the word to meet us over there”

The Headman makes the Yarŭk

Note here McAlpine's account of howOld Darby sent offa messenger

This word Yarŭk[??] [wrong?]Yarūk is magic -message stick is mūngū kalk orbarndana

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie
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25Kulin

A blood feud

The Echuca blackfellows were very bad people. About the time when the whitefellows came to Melbourne when I was a boy without any [thick - crossed out] beard [they some - crossed out] one of them found a piece of 'possum bone which a Westernportman had thrown away when he was eating a 'possum. [They - crossed out] He took this bone up between two pieces of stick and put it aside carefully. Then he got the leg bone of a Kangaroo and put the 'possum bone in the hollow of it and then tied it to his end of his Murriwun and stuck it up in front of the fire and roasted it. He and others then sang [along - crossed out] a long time round it – they sang the name of the man who had eaten the 'possum. [By and Bye - crossed out] The Murriwun by and bye fell down into the fire. Some one brought word of this down to Westernport and not long after the poor fellow died. His friends did not say anything – but kept quiet till one of the Echuca young men came down into Westernport with a white fellow anda bullock dray. Then they killed him. One person told this to another until after a time the news got up to the Echucablacks. These send word down to the Westernport blacks that theywouldhave to meet them at Melbourne. The old men said to the man who hadkilled the Echuca [man - crossed out] black – “nowdon't you run away – you must go and stand out and we will see that they do not use you badly".

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie
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26ageBlood feud 2

The Echuca men had sent word to the Yarra men that they were coming down so that [they - crossed out] all had plenty of time in the winter to meet. The meeting was [between - crossed out] near the Merri creek on the Melbourne side. The Yarra men used to stop about Melbourne till they were tired of it and then go up the Yarra, and when they were tired of the Yarra go back to Melbourne. The people present at the meeting were [the E - crossed out] from Echuca who however had no head man with them – he having remained behind; the Western Port men with their headman; the Mt Macedon and Geelong men under their Headman Capt. Turnbull, the Werribee people under their head man Benbow, and ourselves with our Headman(Ngŭrŭng-eit) Billibellary who was my “Mameik”. We were all there to look on. Each lot camped at the side [from which - crossed out] of the meeting ground and not far off - in the direction from what it had come. All the camps as usual with us looked towards the morning sun.

The Echuca men were on the ground nearest to their country - the Westernport men facing them nearest to theirs. The Yarra people were on the Kew side and facing them the Geelong lot and Benbow and his men,were at the corner between them and the Westernport men. Benbow was the ngurungeit of Sandridge people but he came with the Werribee lot. [The Westernport man - crossed out] The women were left at the camps not far off. The Westernport man stood out in front of his [people - crossed out] friends armed with a shield.

[written in left side margin]The message was sent by the Echuca people to the [??] blacks who told the Melbourne blacks who sent word to the Westernport blacks.

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie
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33

The Headmen The greatest man of all the country was the Ngurungeit of the Kūrnŭng willum tribe at Gisborne called bythe whites Capt. Turnbull. He was a great singer and maker of songs which made people very glad and happy when they heard them. His grandfather before him and His father before him was also a great singer. Both were equallygreat. It was this that made these men such great Ngurungeits.

[Besides Capt Turnbull there were- crossed out]There were three [two other - crossed out] Headmen of the Ūrŭndjeritribe. My father Bebejern in the country about the Plenty River and the Yarra Rv [and - crossed out] Billbillary at Mt Macedon & Melbourne (? the stone place)BingerimMt Macedon. These were the Headmen of the Ūrŭnjeri. The other tribes had also headmen. For instance Benbow was the Ngurungeit of the Yallūkit- willŭm at Sandridge and St Kilda.Mr De Villiers of the Ngarū willum Būlūk willum [about the South and west side of the Dandenong Mt round by Berwick and - crossed out] about Cranbourne and Westernport Bay +c +c (fill in this)

Of all these Capt. Turnbull was the greatest. He could [tell - crossed out] say to my father “You go up into the mountains and make 'possum rugs and by and bye come back with them”. Some of the men would go with my father and others would stay behind. Captain Turnbull made my father and Billbillary Ngurungaets. [My fa- crossed out] Bill Billary made Bingarim ngurungeitā and I am Ngurunjeitā from my father. When I go I shall leave the word that my sister's son shall be Ngurungaet with with him two others

[written in left side margin]

look up theirlocalities

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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43The origin of a great Feud [with - crossed out] between the Westernport Blacks and Gippsland blacksA long time ago – long before the white man came to Melbourne – a number of Mordiallock peoplewent down to the Tarwin to feast on native cabbage. When they [cam - crossed out] got there they found everything eaten up – for a lot of [Gi - crossed out] Port Albert blacks had been there and devoured everything eatable. They were very angry and having sent back their women to [Da - crossed out] Berwick – this country belonged to the blacks from BerwickBunyip down to the Tarwin they followed the Gippslandblacks and killed several. Then the Gippsland blacks retaliated by making a party and going into WesternportSeveral of their parties went to and froand [??] Gippsland & Westernport blacks were never friends after. One of these raids was when the Gippsland blacksgot [?into?] Jamieson house by the roof and threw out the flour and tookthe bags away - and took a [?rabbit?] with them

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie
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44The stars [Bunjil Fomalhaut - crossed out] Allair is Bunjil andγ and ε Piscis Australis are his wives .His six sons are as followsα centauri = Tharaβ. centauri = Djŭrl Djürl These two have all red color and are theones that burned all the country from Gippslandto beyond the Murray. Thara is being carried by Djŭrt Djŭrt.[Β cru - crossed out] α crucis = Yukope green parakeetΒ crucis = Dan tun - Blue Mountain parrot[A - crossed out] Achemar =Tadjeri – Phascolgale penicillata ?Star in a line with Achemar & Seretis = Turnŭng Tadjeri and Turnŭng overlook the whole world and watch it.[?Canopus?] = a companion of Loh-an which is Sirius. Loh-an is like a blackfellow and lives on an island off Wilson’s Promontory. He belongs to the “Bad country”. This Bad country extends from Gardiners Creek & Nunnawadding[round - crossed out] all over Westernport – and into Gippsland beyond Sale. A Blackfellow going there may be injured if he is touched by the people living in it or receives food directly from their hands. For instance when William first went to Gippsland Old Morgan who belongs to the “Bad Country” gave him some 'possumat the end of a stick in order that he might not injure him. This is the way that Loh-an gives [?possum?]to the blacks of the “Bad Country”.

[written in the left side margin]

When Bunjil

?

See the note about Lohan

See the notes about the Bad Country

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie
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Called by Braika and Bratra Wea-wuk the Bad countryThe Bad country called by the Woerwurung language Marine Bek-Bek country the flush of game men Marine-qui-alp? (ji-ak of Kunan .The native men Marine barn (yarn of Kamai)

All the country between the Yarra River[from about Lilyd - crossed out] up as far as Gardner Ck - then by Gardner Ck up to Dandenong then by source of Dandenong Ck +c+c up to Latrobe River; thence by right bank of Latrobe to Lake then by Lake to Lakes Entrancethen by sea coast to mouth of Murraywas called “the bad country” ------------It included the Westernport blacks – the Bratawalung the Talungalang (called by Tommy Hoddenot Katungal)This country was regarded as very injurious to strangers. If a strange black came onto it on a visit it was necessary that he should have some one to “look after him”. It was necessary during this first visit that he should never be left alone without some one to see to him; if his guardian went hunting or fishing he deputed some one in his stead. The visitor was fed with [m - crossed out] food from the point of a stick [which - crossed out] and he took it in his teeth and not in his hands; this food of meat was smoked; water that he drank was stirred with a smoked stick; he was not allowed to sit or sleep on the ground except in a raised couch of branches and leaves which were also well smoked, to keep off the evil influence of the country. [This is - crossed out] The care of the visitor extended even to his being asleep and in calls of nature.

[written at top of page]called by [the - crossed out] Braiaka & BrahaWea-wŭk

called in the Woé-wūrŭng languagemárine Bek – (Bek = country)the flesh of game was márine-quiap (ji-ak of [Kulin - crossed out] Kurnai )the water was márine barn (yam of [Kulin - crossed out] Kurnai)

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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