Search for Prospect* "Prospect - Seaspray" prospect*
This place [it was - crossed out] is called Walma-jeri becauseonce where three women were fishing theirBrewin threw a Kangaroo rib bone into thewater which then with the mud from the bottomflew up so high that the women were engulfed in+ never again seen.At Yeruk there are stones, where were oncethe two Tunduns, the large one, the [man to- crossed out]Weintwin [father/male] and the smaller one the Rukut [mother/female].These belonged to the old Muk Kurnai wholeft them there.
XM188_ICDMS_lowres Hagenauer to Howitt 1 May 1880
Dear Mr. HowittI received your note of the 26thultimo in due time and called yesterdayat your office at Sale, but didnot find you,so I give you the information about the nameof the tribes mentioned, andhope when I seeyou to have a longer talk about it, for youseem not to have had any informationon the subject.
XM161_ICDMS_lowres Notes on Attic Tribes in the case of Neaira
8The Eupatrids +c are what may be calledfor the sake of convenience "caste" divisionsthough the term is dangerous + had betterbe avoided in publication.
The Trittys naucraria + deme all belongto the "local organization" though I haveno evidence that the first two werearranged according to locality - probablythey were but I find no proof.
The festival of Apaturia must be lookedup. It was a religious festival of the Kinnot of the citizens.
[Greek script] - its coincidence with [Greek script] inthat species sense seems to confirm my view previously expressed. As far as I can seeat present the [Greek script] were men who hada vote in the [Greek script]. Children + youthswere [Greek script] only in prospectus. They belongedto the [Greek script] but were not [Greek script].
hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages
4 21This is one of the Gweraale Kŭrnai - oneof the Bruthen mrarts. Old Morganand Bruthen Munjie and Keŭng[would - crossed out] it might be now. Then the mrartsclimb through - the Biraark last.As he goes through they put a rug over hishead all but the eyes. He can seeall the people there - a lot of womenall beating their rugs and the men dancing. But the Biraark mustnot laugh. They try to make him buthe must not. Once Brewin ([Harry - crosssed out] Billy [?Browns?] father) was up there and twomrarts caught him by the sides to make him dance and it made him laugh and he had to stop there a wholeday before he could get back again.
A Biraark cannot eat anypart of a Kangaroo that has blood on it. Norcarry home a Kangaroo that he has killed.Others must do it for him and they give himsome of it that is free from blood. Neither canhe kill any man. If he did either of thesethings the Mrarts would not take him upany more.
If I could dream about Kangaroos ([Māran -crossed out] Māngan Jirowa) themrarts would take me up. I could then hear them drumming. I [?shined?] like it.
BaukanBaukan is the mother of Būllūmdūt. This Būllūmdutis a tall man - he has a wife [Bullum = [??] aūt = [??] - crossed out]
How the Kurnai nearly losttheir fireOnce the old Kurnai were camped at Wolmŭnjerŭnear the Straits. They were catching little fish withthe small net (Low-ŭn). While they were awayfrom their camp two Baukan came andscratched out the fires and poured water on them,and took the last bit of fire away in a piece of Bān (He oak). When the old Kurnai came backall their fire was gone. The crows were all roundtrying to make the fires burn. The two Baukan hadgone toward Prospect (Buckleys) with the fire in theHe oak wood. The crows (ngarūgŭl) went and told
[written in the left side margin]The greatest maartcounts them as they come up thenhe sees the last one.[The Gweraelmrart - crossed out] he saysHallo!Birraark!
[written in left side margin next to second paragraph] Mundnuan
The human spiritEach person has a Yambo inside him whichcan go out when he sleeps and walk aboutand go up to the sky and see his fatherand mother.But animals have no Yambo.
Kangaroos in dreamsYet in dreams Kangaroos, & Emus can givewarning. For instance if a man in a dreamsaw a number of kangaroos sitting round himhe would know that some Kŭrnai or someBrajerak were coming after him to kill him.
The Mina bird warningThe "Miner" [a Minah = Millphega ganula - written above Miner] (a bird) gives warning to the Kangaroosof danger and it also warns the Kŭrnaito look out for themselves. It is callednŭna-wŭn
The story of BaukanOnce Baŭkan and her son Būlūmdūt livedon the earth near [Prospect - crossed out] Port Albert.While Būlūmdūt was out hunting KangaroosBaŭkan went out to where a lot of black womenwere catching little fish with their nets "Law-ŭn"As they caught them they put them in their bags andgave Baukan none. Then Baŭkan continued to ask for some fish the women gave her somemud. Then Baukan went home and lookingin Būlūmdūt's bag found some Kangaroo eyeswhich she took. When Būlūmdūt returnednot having been able to kill any game he found hisKangaroo eyes gone. He said "who has been to my bag"Baukan said "I did - those women would notgive me any fish" Then Būlūmdūt said "allright we will not stay down here any more.
Mŭlla MŭllungMy fathers name was Dūlŭng-ngŭrrŭngfrom a place near Prospect. He was also calledBunjil Bátalūk (Iguana) from his carryinga live Iguana about with him. When he travelledhe used to carry it on his head. It was aboutthis length (he here measured about 4 feet in length)He kept this Iguana in his camp with himbut my mother and I lived in a camp of ourown closely. He could send this Iguanain the night into people's camp to hurt themand when girls ran off (Yenjin) he usedto send his Iguana into the bush to [walk - crossed out]run before him and to point out where theywere hidden. He told me that he got thisIguana because he dreamed once thathe was an Iguana himself, so that this Batalukand he were like the same person.
He marked his possum rugs by cuttingthis dream upon them in this way - as ifon his head. He also marked possums onhis rugs, these were his marks (norrie-brŭk)
hw0174 Press cuttings on Wampangee tribe
The subject of this paper is one that not onlyinterests us as a people, but it appeals to oursympathies as individuals, since we cannot butadmit that our happy prosperous lot in thesebright colonies is purchased at the cost of thewelfare, nay, even the lives of the possessorsof the soil. It is pathetic to be thrown amongthe aboriginals and note how they wither awaywhen brought into contact with the people ofour race. It seems to make little differencehow kindly they are treated, how well clothedor fed, they cannot breathe the same air as thewhite man and live. As they are evidentlydoomed to a rapid extinction it is of impor-tance to posterity that before it is too latereliable information shold be obtained oftheir manners, customs, and lives.
A few years ago the aboriginals of the UpperDarling were comparatively numerous; nowthey, in common with other tribes whereverthe European has settled, have nearly passedaway. This has been brought about by noepidemic, nor the use of intoxicants or cold, orhunger. None of these have had much to dowith it. I can vouch for their being well fedand clothed, and for years spirits were almostentirely kept from them, yet they died off, theold and young, the strong and weaky alike,sometimes with startling suddenness, at othersby a wasting sickness of a few days,weeks, or months. On the Upper Darlingthe blacks, though divided into tribes,spoke the same language and were friendly.They call the river the Parka, and themselvesthe Parkengees. The tribal name of those Ishall particularly treat of was Wampangee.The back country natives to the east of theriver were the Barrengees, at enmity with theWampangees. They spoke a different languageto the Darling blacks, but the same as those ofthe Lachlan, with whom they were friendly.In some respects their habits were different.They had a separate camp fire foreach family and I think more fre-quently practised polygamy, one wifeoften being a mere child. The tribe to thewest of the Darling, up the Paroo to theQueensland border, spoke the language of theParkengees, and intermarried with them. Justover the twenty-ninth parallel, being the boun-dary line between New South Wales andQueensland, was a rival tribe with a distinctlanguage. At one time they struggled hardfor their country alike against white orblack who crossed the boundary line. Furtherto the south again was another tribe at warwith all three last mentioned people, andknow to them as Pernowries; these practisedthe rite of circumcision, or something of asimilar nature. All these aboriginals used thesame weapons and hunted in the same way,though the inhabitants of the Darling weremuch the finer race and more expert in thewater, while some of the back country nativescould not swim at all. I have now given ageneral sketch of the aboriginal inhabitants ofthe country, but it is with those living on theRiver Darling itself I have to treat on thisoccasion.
The Wampangees were divided into twofamilies or sects, named Keelparras and Muck-warras, which intermarried, but a Keelparracould not marry a Keelparra, or a Muckwarraa Muckwarra. A brother had the right ofgiving away his sister, which he usually didwith a view to his own matrimonial interests.They were in this way promised when quitechildren, and in the event of the death of theclaimant his nearest of kin became posessed ofhis rights. A brother had also a right to hisdeceased brother's wife. I knew a rather re-markable case of this kind which stronglyproved that "love will still be lord of all."One of the two brothers had died, leavinga fine young widow, who was claimed by thesuvivor, known as "Old Manum," in accor-dance with tribal custom. His claim wasallowed by the tribe, but the young womanhad bestowed her affections upon a youngfellow and would have nought of "Manum."In vain was the by no means gentle persuasionof the waddy tried, her constancy was un-shaken. As a general arbiter the dispute wasfrequently submitted to me, and, I mustacknowledge, on one occasion my sense of thejustice of the old man's claim, according tothe aboriginal law, outweighted my sympathyfor the cause of true love, and I consented to hisadministering a little mild correction, whichthe old villain assured me would be quitesufficient. A sight of the victim after wasenough. I made "Manum" relinquish hiscourtship and title to the young woman, butthis result was not brought about until after yearsof persistence on the part of the claimant, andquarrels among the members of the family andtribe. No doubt prior to the possession of thecountry by the whites the matter would havebeen promptly settled by the death of theyoung lover.
The blessings of civilisation to them mustalways have appeared a questionable benefit.Before the advent of the "Boree" (a termsignifying whitemen [rest of line obscured]pressing their opinion of us) they were nume-rous and happy. The river supplied abundanceof fish and water fowl, as well as immensequantities of "parper" of the low lands afterthe subsidence of floods. The sandhill countrywas equally prolific after rain, and from boththe roots of the wild geranium and other plantswere collected, cooked, and after beingtrampled into a pulp in their coolamans (awooden basin made out of the elbows of hollowbox limbs) were kneaded into large balls andkept for future use. "Parper" is a termapplied to many kinds of grass or herbseed. It was collected by the lubras andchildren, put into bags or skins, and groundbetween two stones when required. One largeflat stone was laid on the ground, some seedput upon it, and a smaller stone worked roundwith the hands upon it, water occasionallybeing added; when finished it had much theappearance of our gruel. They have alwaysrepresented themselves to me as comparativelyfree from disease; they emphatically denyhaving known some of the most loathsomecomplaints common to civilised nations, suchas syphilis. To me their life for a peoplehaving no ambition, no aspiration for anythinghigher, appears rational and happy. Barkcanoes stripped from the box or gum treesserved as an easy mode of transport. Theirnets, made of a kind of flax or rush, enabledthem to catch large quantities of ducks.These are streched across streams, or even theriver itself when sufficiently low, from con-venient trees on each side, or failing them,from forked poles.
A rope run through the meshes on one edgeof the net supported it, after the fashion of atennis net. One end of the rope was made faston tone side the stream, then passed over thebough of a tree or pole about 12 feet high, andacross the water to another similar tree or pole,and then tied to a stick lightly thrust in theground, the net thus being suspended im-mediately over the centre of the stream. Ifthere was no cover, a few bushes were stuck upin the soil and one or two blacks stationedbehind them, while others beat down or up thestream, unless the ducks were flying of theirown accord, as is usually the case morning andevening. As the birds approach the net thewatchers there fling high in the air above thempieces of bark, at the same time uttering a shrillwhistle, in imitation of the cry of the hawk.The flight of ducks, possibly flying above thehanging net, dart down to escape their sup-posed enemy, and their momentum being toogreat to turn, strike it with sufficient force todraw the stick, and the falling net envelopesthem. One of the natives immediately rushesin, and, wringling their necks one by one, flingsthem on shore. This is quickly done, and thenet drawn up ready for the next flightof the birds. In the old days bronze-wingedpigeons and other birds were caught in asimilar way by the net being stretched acrossa narrow glade in thick timber, down which theywere in the habit of flying to water. Theemu is caught by the Riverine blacks insomewhat the same way as wild animals aretrapped in other countries, only, instead of apit at the end of the lane, a noose is used. Inthe river districts of New South Wales thereused to be great numbers of V-shaped en-closures - if that term can be applied where thelarge end is open. At the narrow end a lanewas made, where the nooses were hung. Thefences of these erections were of the mostflimsy character, formed of sticks and bushes,over or through which the birds could easilyhave escaped; but the silly creatures, whenonce driven in the funnel shaped entrance bythe blacks, always followed the fences to theapex and the fatal noose. Another mode is,taking advantage of their curiosity to enticethem sufficiently near for killing by spear,waddy, or boomerang. They can be broughtquite close up by sitting or lying downand making peculiar sounds, or flutteringa rag or ribbon. I have not onlyfrequently seen it done, but have done it my-self; and occasionally known them come up toa camp without any effort being made toattract them. On the Finke the aboriginalsused to practise another method of capturingthem - by poisoning small waterholes. Duringmy late visit to the north a blackfellow showedme a bush the leaves of which they used for thepurpose; it was the only one of the kind I sawin my travels, or, indeed, have ever seen. Imay add I brought a specimen down, and it isnow, with many others, in the posession ofthe secretary to the Transcontinental RailwayCommission. I believe a few bullocks werepoisoned by drinking on one occasion from awaterhole prepared in this way for emus bythe aboriginals. On the Darling waterhens(kerkalees) are caught in small nets at theoutlet of a funnel-shaped enclosure, similar inshape to that used for emus, but made of smallbushes or grass.
For catching fish a smaller net than thatused for birds was stretched across a smallcreek emptying a lake or billabong. As theriver falls a consideracle current is created,down which the fish are forced into the net.In this way great numbers were caught.When the water back from the river becamelow large quantities were obtained by drivingthem into shallow pens made of mud. Therewere also permanent stone pens formed onreefs across the Darling, now known as the"Fisheries;" these were an obstacle to navi-gation when the river was low, and have beendestroyed by the captains and owners of thesteamboats. In the old days, while the streamcontinued low, great camps of blacks collectedat these places for the purpose of obtaining fish.When first seen by the whites there were quiteelaborate systems of pens, opening one intoanother, so that once in there was little chanceof the fish escaping before they were caught orspeared. Another common and highly interest-ing mode of taking fish was spearing them;not the same way as that we are so familiarwith, as illustrated by the figure in the canoe[of?] the Exhibition, but by diving. Before thiscan be successfully carried on the watermust be clear. The "muddy" Darling,as it is sometimes called, has a milkyappearance until it is tolerably low, when itbecomes quite clear, and later somewhatbrackish. The black men then assemble onthe bank of a deep hole with spears madeof light rod-iron; before they had iron theyweighted wood, so as notto be buoyant in thewater. A fire is kindled, and, if the timeis winter, the operators rub themselves fromhead to foot with grease to keep out the cold.Then with spear in hand they glide into thewater and swim noiselessly into the deep part;then turning with his feet down and handsheld above his head the swimmer sinks down,looking up at the light, and when he sees a fishhe rarely fails to transfix it. The first thing theobserver then beholds is a fish on the end of aperpendicular spear, then a black poll followedby its attendant form, but scarcely a ripple onthe water and certainly no splash. The fish isthrown or taken on shore, and the sport goneon with, apparently without a sign of fatiguein those engaged in it.
The builder rats are killed in a verysimple but ingenious manner. The rats buildhouses, or rather large heaps of sticks, inwhich they live. Sometimes they are five orsix feet high, and from one of these colonies(for many rats may inhabit a single heap)several paths radiate in different directions.I was once with a number of blacks out hunt-ing when a colony was discovered. Immedi-ately every spare garment was in request, ablanket was laid across one path, a coatanother, a hat or a waistcoat, anything oreverything (until most of the party stood innature's simple garb) where placed over the rest,each having a kind of opening left on theside facing the rats' house. With waddy orstick in hand one or two of the hunters wasstationed at each garment, with instructions tostrike the instant a rat entered the openingleft for him. I was told he would only lingerfor a moment, and that prompt action was im-perative. The dwelling was then fired, andjust when I had come to the conclusion thatthere was not a rat in it, or else he preferredcertain death by cremation to a fair prospect ofescape from at least one waddy, out came astreak of lightning along the path to my hat,followed by another and another. Thestate of that hat attested how I struck,there could be no doubt of that;even my aboriginal censors did not questionit, they only complained of the promptness ofthe blows. Anyhow there were no rats undermy pile, but several under those of the others.For promptness of action under such circum-stances I have ever since believed the aborigi-nal excels the European. Their power oftracking is simply marvellous; they will tellyou the track of each hourse on the station.They can follow a snake or a rat, and it haseven been said the most skilful can track amosquito. I have often known them to followa small mob of lost sheep through the tracks ofothers, when to my eyes one as closely re-sembled the other as grains of wheat.But I remember seeing a blackboy oncepuzzled; every track he had previouslyseen he knew the creature that madeit. We were on our return to theriver from an excursion out back, when wecame across the trail of a one-legged man witha crutch. For miles he followed silently won-dering, and then asked me if it was made by a"debble debble." Nor could he be quite re-assured until he saw the man and the crutch.
Among the tribes I have mentioned, thecustom of making a youth into a young manis performed with some ceremony. The actorsmust be decked out with ochre, and feathers,opossum fur string, &c. A front tooth isliterally knocked out in the following way: -The hero or the victim, whichever he maybe considered, is laid flat on his back andheld so. The operator then holds theedge of a boomerang or similar instrument tothe tooth, and strikes it with stone or waddyuntil it comes out. The youth must bear thepain without a sign, or be considered "too-lucha" - cowardly. When the rites are overthe young man would round with the opossumfur cord is started off by himself unless someother has been initiated, in which case theycan go together, away from the sight of women.They may be fed sometimes by the men, but sofar as I know they have to depend on them-selves. At any rate they frequently appealedto me during the night for food. In about afortnight they returned to the tribe with-out any particular notice. At the age ofof puberty the girls were kept from the sightof the men for a few days, during which timetheir bodies were wound about with coils ofopossum fur repeatedly crossed over thebreasts. They, however, were merely kept ina "yapra" (wurley), near with some femalerelatives, and not sent away as the young menwere.
"Making rain" is a secret performance,neither the women nor strangers being allowedto be present. A particular kind of stone isrequired, a lot of grey hair from an old man'sbeard, some blood drawn from their own veins,and they frequently take a great deal. It iscaught in a coolaman, a wooden vessel aspreviously described, and the whole, stone,hair, and blood mixed together and wrappedup, is sunk in a deep waterhole in theriver with many signs, much palaver andgesticulation. I have never seen the cere-mony, but it has frequently been described tome. During severe droughts I used to protestthat the Wampangees were no good at makingrain, ut their faith never wavered. It wassimply a question of time. If it came beforethey had gone through the ceremony theywould declare it had been made by otherblacks. According to them it never fell with-out the exercise of aboriginal power, and butfor them the whiteman, his cattle and hissheep, wold perish miserably. I am in-clined to believe that this was in-tended during some of the great droughts,when they made no attempts to bringrain, but their object was, in their opinion,defeated by the rival tribes making it. Theywere always acute enough to wriggle round aquestion. I remember once an old fellow,who afterwards assumed royal authority, beingimportuned to make rain by a drover waitingfor a downpour before starting with fat stockto market. A £1-note was offered for rainwithin a given time. It must have been agreat temptation for the old savage, as he cer-tainly never had so much money in his abori-ginal life; but he was equal to the occasion,and pushing it aside with a gesture of con-tempt, he exclamed, "Bale mine wantumyour money, Mr. Newland givem mine plenty,"which, by-the-bye, he did not ordinarily con-sider the case, for a more insatiable old villainI never knew.
XM207 James to Howitt 3/10/1881
Replies to questions in first list(attached) Re: Blanchewater (S.A.)blacks:-1. Deyerie2. Yes, but I am not acquainted with theproper sub divisions, names were from locality.3. I do not know for certain, but I think from about the foot of the ranges on the N. and N.W. end of the mountains beginning at Prospect Hill, thence via MtsFreeling, Gardiner & distance westerly to Lake Harry and the Clayton, down that to Lake Eyre and by its E. shore N. to the Warburton and thence easterly till about north of Innaminca and thence southerly to Mulligan and back, via Hamilton Creek to Prospect Hill (skirting the rangesProspect Hill is at Jacob's Station, Petamora 4. Yes, each class has a name, but I never learnt any. I know that the
tip70-10-33-24 Howitt to Fison 18 March 1879
[Written at top of page]19/3/1879Your letter27th Feby to handI congratulate youon your successes+ wish I could seea similar prospectfor my work. Myshare will becompleted by the Greek [??]Fortunately I havesomething of the bulldogin me and don't let go a thing I havetaken hold of - andwould throw it up indespair.I note in your charttwo [??] [??]Herbert River andDieri tribes. I have[?told?] them and sent messages.Your chart I enclose a tracing.Yours faithfullyAWH
My dear Mr FisonMy wife sent me your letter of date unknownfrom Bua which I had been looking out for. I nowbegin by answering points in it requiring attention.Where I do not refer to your remarks I thereby assent.1. I am under immenst obligation to you for yourpatient emendation of my inscrutable calligraphy - Iam truly grateful to you. I am always conscious of havingdone that work in the pressure of our work and onlywonder that it was not untterly imperfect2. Table C I think you have placed it in the proper spot.I will write Morgan assenting to your arrangement.3. These words were as follows "were colonies in the"4. I sent to Morgan your sketch map withthe localities marked - but no boundaries of districtsand had nonesuch. The Herbert River [is in- crossed out]] rises in20ᵒ SL 138ᵒEL on the boundary between Queenslandand Northern Territory runs north and forms theO'Shannassay which is a tributary of the AlbertI give this as I had much difficulty in finding it out.I have told my wife to send one to you at once avery good skeleton map of Australia which mylittle girls use in their school lessons. You can fillthe places in and send it to Morgan.5. Entozoa - These parasites are found universallywherever there is a vacant place in nature. They infectall creatures - what is the quotation about "big fleaswith little fleas to bite 'em". My point was notclearly brought out - the entozoa affecting the kangarooseem to be Flake (Distomi hepaticum) andHydatids (cysterecese +c - Echinicoccus +c) which[are - crossed out] belong to the European domesticated herbivoreanimals. My point is that these Entozoa have beenThe Rev Lorimer FisonNavuloa
tip70-10-34-2 Howitt to Fison 26 January 1880
[Written in the upper margin]I shall send your manuscript in a day or two when I have noted a few points I want to draw your attention to.Yours faithfullyA.W. Howitt
My Dear Mr FisonYour letter of the 6th arrived the otherday and was welcome. I had been waiting for itanxiously. I have not used the draft or ratheryour order and acceptance and have nowdestroyed them. I will advise you of the amountrequired as soon as I know myself. I think the 500 will be enough for first edition but at anyrate I will not print more than a proportionatenumber - I say proportionate as regards thenumber the Royal Society may require for theirissue. I fancy that would be 260 - in that casewe should not gain much by having themin halves. I shall therefore carry a "stiff upper lip"as Sam Slick and insist upon myterms with them. I expect directly tohear from Elley who was so busy the matterbefore the monthly council meeting. So soonas I can feel that my arrangements arecompleted I shall take the field by issuingannouncements of the new work and perhapsshall issue a short prospectus. I havethought it might be well to addressthe Rev Lorimer FisonNavuloaFiji
prospectus to each public Libraryin the colonies - their name is legionin Victoria and I think many copieswould thus be sold. You might send me your idea of the prospectus - adoptingyour titles - the matter need not exceedthe page of this note paper printed.As soon as I know finally I would also sendsuch a prospectus to America (say 25) and to England. My friends might at [some-crossed out] information inserted in time of the magazines,So might Morgan. I want to thoroughly occupythe field to the exclusion of Curr and co.
I had already considered the probabilityof the Smith publishing earlier than anticipatedand this confirmed my intention to waitfor my manuscript from Morgan andmean while [sic] to arrange my new matter. Asthe affair now stands strictly we should whether the Smith publishes or not, stay foryour rewritten matter and for the secondpart off the summary of which anon.
I am pleased you like my notes- that paragraph as to Lubbock havingan unconscious survival of the "individual"theory - I did it "a' puppose" - the temptationwas really too strong. I expect he will
tip70-10-34-13 Howitt to Fison August 1880
As soon as they know what to do they will move. Two influential men have offered to see McMillan - W Sonnenschein - one ofthem is E.D. Tyler! (I have now written - [?McLeod] I had writtenbefore I got your letter - to Robertson on the subject and alsoasking him about Holt in America. I shall most likelyhave to go to Melbourne and see him about this. I lookforward to your paper on change of descent with great interest.I am quite with you as to the necessity of being "pegs in." Ihave been thinking about something of the kind but I didnot feel that I had sufficient further data. - The prospectahead is immense - but I for one feel almost like a manon a precipice looking over the land of promise - how amI to make that land my own - how to get down from the summit of the precipice to the level country. I supposehe must go in fishing - but the amount of bait that Iloose [sic] without even a nibble is distressing. Finally - last butnot least - I haven't congratulated you upon your M.A. there can be no doubt you have earned it and I shall be placed upon the title page after your name. The title page is to be the last thingprinted.
I think by the bye that you had better send me your notes on thepapers I send you as I shall then have all the threads in my hands - otherwise I might be ["?fogged] with my correspondents replies. I amgoing next Saturday to "squeeze" a man fropm the Wimmera and a womanfrom the Lodden with whom I gave arranged a meeting - you should then have the results.
Yours faithfullyAW Howitt
hw0058 J. G. Frazer to Howitt 23 January 1907
and interesting style.
My wife and I are gratefulto you for so kindly exertingyourself on her behalf in regardto the phonograph.
I owe Spencer more thanone letter and hope soon topay the debt. His last twowelcome letters gave me muchpleasure, for I had begun to fearhe had cut me dead. Tellhim, if you see him, notto think the same about me.
Any prospect of Spencer + Gillenmaking an expedition to WesternAustralia? I should die happierif we had a book by them onthe native tribes of WesternAustralia to match their masterpieceson the Central tribes.
XM189_ICDMS_lowres Newspaper article about Rev Hagenauer's visit to Queensland 30 September 1885
V.The Bloomfield Waterfall.Perhaps it is just as well to state here that few days later we were accompanied in the large boat belonging to the Vilele estate by some young gentlemen from the plantations of Messrs Bauer and Co., and Messrs Hislop and Co. to the first great waterfall of the Bloomfield about six or eight miles up the river from the entrance into Weary Bay. The river is from 300 to 400 feet wide, and in some places very deep. The banks on both sides are a con-tinuation of mountains rising at some places very high and reach at a distance (Mount Peter Botte) the height of 3,300 feet. The most charming aspects meet the eye every turn of the river, for the whole ground up to the mountain tops is covered wit hthe most beautifal tropical trees, shrubs, and creepers, many of them in full bloom. The river seems well sup-plied with fish, bu the horrible alligator has his habitation there also, and is really a terror to man and beast. Not long ago Mr F. Bauer shot a large one dead, through the eye, which seems the only spot where a ball can enter. Strange to say the great animal had in the other eye, two sharp spear ends from the weapons of the Aboriginals, thereby showing that the brute had been hunted before. We saw the heavy skin or hide, likely to be made ready for some exhibition or museum in a city of the south. The flesh gave a kind of alligator banquet to the Aboriginies, who enjoyed it very much, for they seem to take great pleaseure in feasting upon the bodies of their enemies. At one very gloomy looking spot several miles up the river, under the overhanging trees, is a great stone, on and under which a great evil spirit dwells, according to the state-ments of the blacks, who are so much frightened that they will not pass the locality, and if it happens that any of them are in the large boat belonging to the plantation, they will stoop down and hide themselves, so that the evil spirit cannot see nor catch them. I have an idea that once upon a time one of these alligator monsters had taken down and devoured one of the Aboriginals near this great stone. The place looks very much like one where this would occur, and when we touched the stone and looked into the clear, green, deep water we naturally did so with great care and caution. Our friends told us that the blacks always cautioned them not to go near the dark stone, and when afterwards "Binny," the son of the late Balebi chief, heard that we had been there, he made many gestures of astonishment. We had a very fine trip up the river, but at the same time were always on the lookout for unex-pected meeting with wild black men, for they are very numerous in this moun-tainous district, especially at places where small rivulets flow into the main stream. On the following evening, I observed from the top of one of the hills along the moun-tains, a number of fires, proving that the blacks are there, but near the river we saw none. A good many tribes on the Vilele side of the river are on friendly terms with the white settlers, and are to to [sic] all appearances quiet, Amajins and the Tyangatjins, on the opposite side as far as Mount Peter Botte are, under no circumstances, to be trusted. It is not many years ago that two miners from the Palmer diggings, on their way to the tinmines at Peter Botte, somewhere near the great waterfall, disappeared just at the time when many of those blacks were in the neighbourhood, and it was generally believed that the two travellers had been killed and eaten. Of course this horrible act could not be proved, for the wild blacks are still in the dense scrub as wild as ever, and no white man had seen the occur-
[next column]rence, but all conjectures point in the direction indicated. At a distance of about two miles from the waterfall, the river becomes narrower, being hemmed in on both sides my the mountains, which seem to be much higher here than lowerdown the river. The last mile, or some-thing like it, we had to walk along the stony or rocky bank, all the while hearingthe thundering noise of the rushing water, until we came suddenly in sight of the fall itself. As the river above the fall flows between high mountains until it tumbles over an almost perpendicular pre-cipice of about 200 feet from its rocky bed above into a large basin below, it has a most majestic appearance, and fills the admirer of nature's beauty with a feeling of solemn awe. I took a seat on a rock under the shade of an old chestnut tree to enjoy the sight, and silently adore the Lord, who has made such wonderful works upon earth to give pleasure to his people. Mr Wauer, together with our young companions, climbed up the moun-tain side to see the river and its downfall from above. On the way up they sawa native plum tree, laden with fine large blue fruit, the size of small fowls' eggs. Of course they helped themselves to a quantity of the plums, and I brought several with me to Ramahyuck as a kind of memento of the waterfall. Our friends, however, had to pay dearly for their plea-sure, for whilst they had been busy with the plums they had come too near one of the stinging nettles, generally called stinging tree (urtica gigas), and without wishing to touch it, they had to feel that they had already done so. The burning sensation caused by a touch with the finger or the hand on this awful urtica gigas, swells and stiffens the whole arm, inflames the shoulder, and sometimes creates strong pain down the whole side of the body. The worst of it however, is that it always increases very much when the hand is put into cold water, and that the pain returns again and again for several months. In order to try the force of the waterfall, our young friends rolled a cedar log into the stream above, and it broke into endless splinters during its passage over the precipice into the gulf below. About three miles higher up is anotherstill larger waterfall of about 400 feet deep, but we were quite satisfied with what we we [sic] had seen, and returned well pleased to Balebi landing, and from there by tram cars to the Vilele plantation, where we received a hearty welcome from our hospitable friends, Mr and Mrs Bauer and their kind-hearted and clever sons and daughters.
Meeting with Large Numbers of Savages.To read and speak at a comfortable distance about "the noble savage," who reposes under the blue canopy of heaven or roams his native forest in full vigour and strength, unfettered by the forms and fashions of so called civilisation is one thing. It is what a learned friend of mine would call "a conglomeration of falla-cious imagination," but it is quite another thing to go and meet large numbers ofthem face to face in their wild state of nature, to hear their howling voices and to know perfectly well that in the cruel, treacherous way hitherto pursued by them, they are always ready to shed blood, and if convenient, to feast upon the body of their victim. I wonder where the noble savage may be found? The bare and stern reality of seeing yourself in the midst of hundreds of such people will soon drive away the romancing idea of the noble savage. We had the privilege of spending a week at Vilele, and during that time we met everyday large num-bers of wild black who had come in from the surrounding mountains, the very people of whom we had been told atCooktown, that they were very wild, andthat we should not go to that place to meet them without a strong police pro-tection. Setting aside all fear of danger, but knowing that, in a friendly way, you are surrounded by one or two or three hundred of such poor and degraded human beings, who have not a sign of clothing about them, with no hope nor prospect in themselves for the better, but to live and die in misery like the beast of the field, what Christian heart will not be filled with intense pity and compassion for these our fellowmen? Yes, truly one's heart bleeds for the poor creatures; you stand in their midst, for-getting all danger, and your thoughts