Howitt and Fison Papers


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was [?] under Jakke-jakke living about the Yarra flats and onthe northern slopes of the Dandenong mountains. the third were the "real"Wurrunjeri. who lived on the western side of the Saltwater river, undertheir Headman Bungerin, and extended as far as Mount Macedon.

Immediately adjoining the Wurrunjeri country on the [North crossed out] Westside, was that of the Kurunjang-Wilam (2) who are also Woewurrung , whose Headman was one [Ningulabul], known to thewhitemen as Captain Turnbull.. Ningulabul was a great maker of songs,which as Berak said "made people glad when they heard them". But whenhe sang one of them [?} [?} it had the contraryeffect, for it made him shed tears. Ningulabul came of a family of giftedsingers for his father and grandfather before him had been renowned [?]and this, as well as his own poetical powers, was the cause of his greatauthority as a Ngurung-aeta, not only his own tribe but also in thoseadjoining. the case of Ningulabul shows how headmanship was hereditaryin a family whosemembers were gifted beyond their fellows.

On the north side of Mount Macedon were the Gal-gal-balluk, part ofthe Jajau'rung tribe, whose headman was known to the whitemen as"King Bobby" and who was the "partner" (3) of Ningulabul. If the latter wished tobring people from further north he sent "his word" to "Bobby" who againsent his "word" on bythe next headman. to the westwardof Ningulabulwas [?] the Headman of the [?]????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

Most of those Headmen were related to eachother, by marriage, andthus, where as in a family such as that of Ningulabul, there wastendancy for authority to become hereditary, there was thegerm of a practice which under favorable circumstamces might have


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their occurrence in other more backward standing tribesover a vast extent of Central Australia, but also from the numerous references to certain animals as the "sons of Bunjil" which play a great part in the myths of this tribe (1).

[Left margin note - (1) quote old tales from new lands &c-]

The Woeworung was on of a large related group, or "nation" tribes which occupied the greater part of Central Victoria - from the Sea [crossed out - to] nearly to the banks of the River Murray. [Crossed out - The Woeworung tribe was divided into certain] [crossed out - clans as follows: - the people] The Woeworung language was spoken over the Yarra River watershed, and as far South inland as [crossed out - Dandenong] Cranbourne - western Werribee River and northwards to Mt Macedon: But these people did [?] form all one tribe being divided locally as follows:- giving the names of the Headman [crossed out - who] at the time of settlement of Victoria.


[Title] Wŭrunjeri (Wŭru = white gum tree)[Column 1](3) The Real Wurunjeri [underlined] The Upper Yarra [crossed out - from]including Yarra Flats - Northern slope of Dandenong Mtns.Southern [?]

[Column 2](a) [Kurnage-belung?] [underlined]Yarra River from Yarra Flat down - the Plenty River (b) Bebejan [underlined] Saltwater River up to Mt Macedon [willibilleri?] [underlined]

[Column 3]Boiberit [underlined]Part of Sunbury and Werribee.Bŭng-erim

All the [Werunijeri?] spoke the Woeworung language excepting the Berberits who spoke a dialect called [thŭri-wurung?] - But all were of the Waaug clans (crow).

The clan law which which required them as waaug crows to obtain wives from people who were Bunjil (Eaglehawk), the [separation?] of the two clan names severally into localities [crossed out - also] [?] about a law which was local in its application.

Thus [crossed out - taking] the men of that subdivision of the [crossed out - tribes] Werungeri [crossed out - also] [crossed out - of the Woeworung for speaking people] who lived in the Yarra about where Kew and the eastern the suburbs now are, [crossed out - the] were being crow[underlined] obliged to take wives from the Ngarūk Willŭm living about Dandenong who although also speaking Woeworūng were Eaglehawk [underlined], from the Gūnŭng [crossed out - willum] Ballŭk who were Eaglehawk lived near Mt Macedon but spoke Būnwurung Campaspe, from the Būthera balluk who were Eaglehawk lived near Seymour on the Goulburn River [crossed out - and spoke ?] from the Waring (cave) illŭm ballŭk who were Eaglehawk and lived on the Yea River, from the BalŭungKara Muttŭng who were

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A [contra?]

Some of these are [crossed out - evidently] probably many clans [crossed out - many for] instance others represent tribes and as to theis the language will perhaps be the best guide in the absence of some [?] date which are [?] [Nauabel? or Wauable?]

[Left hand margin note - work these out][3 columns]

Column 1Woeworung [underlined]Dandenong[crossed out - Kew] Yarra RiverWerribeeCranbourneMt Macedon

Column 2Thap?worung [underlined]BendigoHeathcoteKilmore to MtMacedon[crossed out - Yea R]Yea RiverSeymourBenalla

Column 3Bunworung [underlined] Cape SchankMordialloc

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Eaglehawk and lived in the Ovens River near Wangaratta and from the Wŭdthau-worŭng speaking people who lived at Geelong. While [crossed out - they] women camefrom these places as wives, their sisters went to their places as wives also.

[left margin note - Faira? Creek]

(or tabulated-thus)Table showing the intermarriage of the [Kulin] clans and tribes

Name of the tribe - (1) Urŭnjeri Ballŭk Locality - KewClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (2) Būllŭk-wilŭmLocality - CranbourneClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (3) Nira BallŭkLocality - Kilmore, BendigoClass - WaangLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (4) Kūr-ŭng-jang BallŭkLocality - WerribeeClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (5) Yau-ŭng-ilŭm BallŭkLocality - Between Mt Macedon, Kilmore, HeathcoteClass - WaangLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (6) Būn-worŭng BallŭkLocality - Cape SchankClass - WaangLanguage - Būn-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (7) Ngarūk-ilumLocality - DandenongClass - BunjilLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (8) Būn-worŭng Locality - MordiallocClass - BunjilLanguage - Būn-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (9) Gūnŭng illum balluk Locality - Mt MacedonClass - BunjilLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (10) Būthera balluk Locality - SeymourClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (11) Waring ilum balluk Locality - Yea RiverClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (12) Yiran-ilum-balluk Locality - Goulburn River, Seymour to BenallaClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (13) Ngūr-ai-ilum-balluk Locality - MurchisonClass - BunjilLanguage - ngurai-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (14) Ben-ben-dora-balluk Locality - MorupnaClass - BunjilLanguage - ?

Name of the tribe - (15) Wŭdtha-wurŭng-balluk Locality - GeelongClass - BunjilLanguage - Wudtha-wor-ung

[14 insert here]

Column 5 - Remarks - Urŭn = white gum treeballuk = people a number ofWoë = noWillŭm or ilum = campNira = cave or hole in a bankthagun = noyan-ŭng = stone būn = nongarūk = stones

A My informants stated that the people were either bunjil and waaug as far as the Avoca River [crossed out - where] beyond which the people were [Ganulih?] and [Krokitch?]. To the north eastward along the flanks of the mountains and up the rivers as far as the Buffalo River Bunjil and Waaug also extended. [Similar?] they extended to [crossed out - about] near Colac.

To this I may add that [Gamuch?] & [Krokitch?] extended over the extreme north west of of Victoria [?] Mt [Gambier?] (1) On the upper Ovens, the Kiewa, the Mitta Mitta Rivers I have found that the classes were [Matiau?] (Eaglehawk) and Yuthembrŭk (crow) thus [?] in [law?] confirming the statements of my Kulin informants.

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The laws of marriage in the Kulin tribes were those of the two class system, [crossed out - But are] were formulated in the Bunjil legend which I have recorded at p.-. The classes Bunjil and Waang were exogamous and intermarried, but descent here was comuted in the male line and the children took the class name of their father and not as in the tribes which I have so far mentionedd through their mother, At p 9. I have tabulated a number of the Kulin tribes and it will be seen then from that the class names were local so that certain clans were all Bunjil while other clans were all Waang, [crossed out - In &] this [chapter?] [crossed out - which] proposes mainly to describe the [word crossed out -social] broad features of [crossed out - these] tribal and the social organization and the greater groups of allied tribes which I have designated nation. It would lead me too far away from my present objects were I to enter into a discussion of the causes which may have affected these changes in the clans totems and in the laws of marriage and descent and these interesting points were to be dealt with in the following chapter.

As the classes were thus respectively segregated into defined localities and as Bunjil and Waang men had to send their wives in localities where Waang and Bunjil girls must be found it is not surprising that there were certain definite localities which [80?] boys exchanged women as wives with [easily?] [??]. Such an instance will serve as an example of the whole and I take it from the Wŭrunjeri ballŭk (see table p 9). which is numbered I. According to my Wŭrunjeri informant wives were Married by his tribes men from the tribes living about [Numbud?] in the table; [crossed out - (7) Ngarak-illum,(?)] Ngaruk-illum, Dandenong [crossed out - the Werribe R.], (6) Būnwurrung {//] of [??] [??] [islands?] (6) [crossed out - two words] [??] Gunung ilum [(]?) Seymour Buthero-balluk (10) The Yea River Waring ilum and some others which I have not noted, while in return they obtained wives from those localities.

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Where is track[?] in whichbayles new[?] land

Follow Rail[wa]y from Dandenongturn to left about 6 miles

Redgum - bialwhat is the Wrunjeri treewhite gum

[next page]

Mernda = Mt. St.LeonardsMonulaui Healesvilleside of [Fishers ???] CreekKan

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hw0391 Notes by Howitt on Kulin from Barak



22Būnjil said “all right you can go back for them and when you are at the camp you will see some bags I left there – you can [smash - crossed out] burst them if you like”. The little boy went back and as he did not know any better he burst the bags; then water ran out of them all over the country. The little boy could not find any dry place to camp and ran about everywhere. After a time Būnjil felt sorry for the little boy. “Poor fellow, the water [was - crossed out] will hurt his legs – he is [?three or thin?], he cannot get anything to eat”. Būnjil got a big round [stone - crossed out] rock and stopped the water where it stood as far as where Brighton is. He put the stone down and said to the water “now you stay where you are”. This is the big rock by the seaside near Brighton. The old people used to say that [the - crossed out] it was one of Būnjil's own boys. There were plenty of Kangaroos and Emus there before the water came. —————

Būnjil's law of the class namesThe old people always said the old law was Waa on this side and Būnjil on that side”Some Wirarap – one Waa Wirarap and one Būnjil Wirarap - went up to Būnjil through the hole in the sky and he told them – “you Waa – Wirarap take a Būnjil woman and you - Būnjil Wirarap take a Waa woman”. This was how the old law came to us. ————

Infanticide King William could not remember any cases of deserting infants or of killing them. But he remembered one case of a man near [Dandenong - crossed out] Berwick who eat a child. This man was a Būnjil. ————

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The Headmen The greatest man of all the country was the Ngurungeit of the Kūrnŭng willum tribe at Gisborne called bythe whites Capt. Turnbull. He was a great singer and maker of songs which made people very glad and happy when they heard them. His grandfather before him and His father before him was also a great singer. Both were equallygreat. It was this that made these men such great Ngurungeits.

[Besides Capt Turnbull there were- crossed out]There were three [two other - crossed out] Headmen of the Ūrŭndjeritribe. My father Bebejern in the country about the Plenty River and the Yarra Rv [and - crossed out] Billbillary at Mt Macedon & Melbourne (? the stone place)BingerimMt Macedon. These were the Headmen of the Ūrŭnjeri. The other tribes had also headmen. For instance Benbow was the Ngurungeit of the Yallūkit- willŭm at Sandridge and St Kilda.Mr De Villiers of the Ngarū willum Būlūk willum [about the South and west side of the Dandenong Mt round by Berwick and - crossed out] about Cranbourne and Westernport Bay +c +c (fill in this)

Of all these Capt. Turnbull was the greatest. He could [tell - crossed out] say to my father “You go up into the mountains and make 'possum rugs and by and bye come back with them”. Some of the men would go with my father and others would stay behind. Captain Turnbull made my father and Billbillary Ngurungaets. [My fa- crossed out] Bill Billary made Bingarim ngurungeitā and I am Ngurunjeitā from my father. When I go I shall leave the word that my sister's son shall be Ngurungaet with with him two others

[written in left side margin]

look up theirlocalities

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Stars (3) 46The people do not like to see this bird injured . Karat gūrnin - a lot of menKarat –gūrŭk - a lot of women- gūrŭk - woman or femaleWhen any one kills the naribarm gūrūk (mūlan = shadow of the Karat-gūrŭk) people are very angry. It is buried wrapped up in a little possum rug and the women cry over it.


The Ūrŭnjeri [divi. - crossed out] clan of the Kūlin

There were three “mobs”: (divisions)(1) 2. That of Bebejan at Darebin Ck, Heidelberg, Yan Yeani.e the Plenty country.1. [ditto] Billibillary from Melbourne up the East side of the Saltwater river and western branch up to half of Mt Macedon(2) 3. that of Jackey Jackey Yarra flats and and Northern slope of Dandenong Mts ------------------------------------------------------William’s Mothers Country -

William's mother came from the Nourailŭm ballŭk at Murchison------------------------------------------------------(3) 4. of the Boi-berrit -thŭn-willŭm (language) – who lived near Sunburyunder the headman Bŭng-erim

These mobs were called: -(1) and (2) which belonged to each otherKŭrnáge – berreing – Yanan from Castellas to Saltwater River(3) the Real Urŭnjiri (4) Boiberrit – thŭn willim.N.B These divisions require to be revised with a map.

[written in the left side margin] The constellation of the “Bat” seems to be part of Phoenix * * wife* Balayang* wife

1 + 2 = Kŭrnáje-berre-ing3 = The[Boi berrit - thun-willum (language) who lived near Sunbury make a headman Bung-erim these mobs here are called:-(1) and (2) which belonged to cach? oche?Kurnage her being- Yanan for Caslettes? by salt-water River(3) The real wruujeri? (4) Doiberret-thin willim.No 13 These divisions refere to the ? with a map.crossed out] urunjeri

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54JajowrongOn the N west side of Mt Macedon and about Kyneton were the Gal-gal-Ballŭk – Their [the - crossed out] Ngŭnŭngeit partner of Capt. Turnbull, wasKing Bobby. If Capt Turnbull wanted to bring some people up from further north he would tell King Bobby who would send the word to them. All these people were Kūlin.

Another Jajowrong tribe was the Learga bŭllŭk who lived on the sources of the Campaspe.The Kalk Kalk goondeich [at the - crossed out] near the Gal Gal Bulluk; the Wŭrŭng-hŭra-gerŭng-bŭlluk lived also near the Gal gal bulluk. The Gal Gal būllŭk lived west of Mt Macedon about Kyneton. The Tonembur-laug-gūndeith lived in the upper Loddon River[and the - crossed out] These all spoke the Jajowrong language Williams language is Weyworŭng.

Boundaries of the Urŭndjeri

Up the Salt water river to near Sunbury then to the centre of Mt Macedon, thnce round the sources of the Salt water river, [striking off - crossed out] then along the[Northwards a little beyond Kilmore; then across - crossed out] Dividing Range to [by - crossed out] the source of the Plenty River – round the watershed of the Yarra River; the northern slopes of the Dandenong Mountain, by [??] creek [across between Gardners Creek - crossed out] to the north of Nunawadingto Gardners Creek; then down the Yarra to [Hobsons - crossed out] the Saltwater River.Emerald Hill and Sandridge belonged to the Coast blacks who extended round from Geelong.

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67The Ūurŭnjeri should be written Wūrŭnwhich is the River white gum = E. Viminalis.The Warin or Waring is the sea which extends all round from Geelong.The boundary between the Wŭdthau’rungWūdthauworung and the Woëworung was at the Werribee-yallŭk (river)The former went inland as far as the Anakies and further west to the Leigh River and their great meetings with the tribe from about Ballarat were held at Mt Emu (per Johnny Philips).

The Boon’orung Boonworung extended from the Saltwater River along the coast Eastward.

William Berak remembers [the - crosssed out] some of the Kulinfrom the Buffalo River coming to a great meeting near Melbourne. They were the Mogullum bitch tribe, and their Head man was called Kallakallap, who had great influence and was listened to.

He also some [sic] of the Theddora-mittung from beyond the country of the Mogullum-bitch, also came to a great meeting held before but at which Kallakalap was. They came as friends the Kulin of the Dandenong mountains (look these up).

Note This being the case the Kulin of the Dandenong mountains could only have come to know the Theddora-mittung by meeting them in the summer haunts in the mountains eg [at - crossed out] in the country between the head of the Yarra & the head of the Buffalo River, unless they met at some great meeting say in the country of the tribes about Mansfield.

The Redgum is called Bial by the Woeworung.Banksia integrifola – Kurnai (Brabra) BírrenWoëworung = Wūrait

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67Mt Macedon = Jura.-waite, the place where Ningqualaval = Capt. Turnbull lived.[Flats - crossed out]Melbourne.Flats on Saltwater River, at Flemington +c Buruk[?]-willum.Parliament House & about it Ngár-go = net bag worn by men over their shoulders.Richmond & Collingwood higher parts Qwo-wurung = “dead timber”.about Burnley, Koϊ-wirup – ti tree. Much nice greenerythere. (Koowerup?)Collingwood Flat. Yalla-birrang = wooden point of reed spear.G. P. office Turr-ák = junction of little gullie.North & West Melbourne, Yerndavilla.Brunswick – Bulleke-bek from Bullek = Hill countryRoyal Park QuirnongMalvern Rising ground between [?Ry?] St + junction of Wattle Tree and Dandenong Rd, Koornang = rising groundMt St Leonard = Mernda – Mountain on Healesville side of Fishers Creek = [Karn - crossed out] Kan (like can). Cathedral – Jee-Gurr.St Kilda – You-rŭk – Stony or Rocks, from the Bunjil rocks which are there; where Bunjil stopped the incroach of the sea by these rocks.Lanecoorie, properly Langa-kūra for Kūra = Kangaroo and Langa or Langi = the place of, eg [?Langalayan?]

Last edit 11 months ago by ALourie
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