Howitt and Fison Papers

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Search for "Lake Tyers" LakeTyers* "Lake Tyres"

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Merriman is at the Aboriginal Station at Tilba Tilba - Waloga Lake.Larry says that the Kurnai had certain animals, birds, fish&ctwhich were called the Thundun that is elder brothers.

His father when Larry was a small boy, say eight years of agepointing to a small birk [sic] which frequents the shores, "that is yourbudjan, do not hurt it. He has never injured one, nor would he eatit, and would be very sorry if any one did so in his presence. Thisbird is called the Blit-burring.

Larry belongs to the Malagoota Krauatun Kurnai, who are alsoclaimed by the Yuin, as of their tribe. The term Budjan is a Yuin word but is the same as the Kurnai term Thundun, as being the "totem".

Billy the Bull is a yalmerai (shark). When there are too manyabout the Lakes entrance he sends them away by singing to them. Hebelongs to Lake Bunga.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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The Kurnai have no class or subclass names andtherefore no social organisation as I use that termbut they have unmistakable indications that they[had totems and therefore - crossed out] must have had all atsome former time.

Each individual had a thūndung or elderbrother, [not only in their sex totem Yürung or, - crossed out][Djütgun but also in some - crossed out] being some marsupial animal, or bird, reptile or fish. It is the [They however have no influence upon marriage - crossed out][which is regulated by kinship and local exogamy- crossed out][and survive as the merely as the elder brother and - crossed out][and also as in so far the -crossed out] protector that in[some cases such as Kangaroos + birds- crossed out] it gave[notice of - crossed out] danger, and [also -crossed out] has also invokedsongs in cases of [??]

They [thundung - crossed out] are also spoken of as jiakor flesh as in other tribes.

The [jiak - crossed out] totem was told by a man to his son whenabout eight or nine years of age and by a womanto her daughters. [For instance a man might - crossed out]point out his totem to his son and say["see there that is your thundung; yu must - crossed out][not kill it!" - crossed out]

As these names are perpetuated from fathersto sons, the daughter having also the same, descentis clearly in the male line, and they would benecessarily prepetuated in the locality to whicha man belonged. A good instance is thatof the Bunjil-baul who lived in RaymondIsland in Lake King and whose jiak was [the Gluin - crossed out] a bird the Gluin, whence their nameof Gluin-Kong, the Glui's beak.

[The Australia - crossed out][These Thundung- crossed out][The totem and its human brother are - crossed out][These toems and their human "younger brother"- crossed out][which are younger - crossed out][brother - which are sill in the relative of- crossed out][protected + protector - they the form here the - crossed out][two classes with which we now I feel certain they- crossed out][have at one time I feel [??] [??] at where- crossed out][they preceeded - crossed out]

(1) I am much indebted to the Revd John Bulmerfurther investigating the Kurnai Thundungconfirming my own endeavours, by obtaining a[which - crossed out] of [the - crossed out] old people which abundantly exhibitedof male descent.

[written in left side margin]If I am correct in believing that these "thundung"were at one time[consistent with the two primary - crossed out][?? class divisions - crossed out]part of a two class system thenwe have here an instanceof the peculiar[??] of these coast tribes.The totem which [??]to my view preceeded the class agnate[??]exist, whileit has beenreplaced by rhelocal [?agnate?]

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Toto-wara-wara was a great man in the muk-kurnai time and he always stops atYerick to take care of the Kurnai there. When Bundawāl was a boy old Morgan(Bunjil gwaran = thunder) and old Darby tookhim [??]. Being a stranger from another placehe had to speak their language (Nangai) and nothis own. But he could understand it because it was like his. He could only drink out of a bark bowl while one of the men stirred the waterwith a stick. This was to avoid the evil which would come in him otherwise he being a stranger to this country. He would have the Wia-wuk reallyis his lips and mouth would become [??] as also his teeth would come out. Wia-wuk really means "Bad-country" but it is applied to theeffects upon strangers who are not all protected by the [people Kurnai -crossed out] Brataualung who speak the Nangai languageTotawara-wara is known to all the blacks at Lake Tyers and the Snowy River.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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Borun the PelicanBorun the Pelican took a canoe from LakeTyers and went outside to Yirak because all the people from the low country and the mountainswanted to go there to feast on jiak (meat-foodeg. fish and game). They had come to Borun andasked him to get a canoe and take them there.Then Borun did as they wished and took themall to an island in the great waring (sea)outside of the shore Yiruk but in sight of it. There theycamped for the night. In the morning he tookall the men across to the land first but said there was not enough room for [the- crossed out] a womanwhom he left behind. When he came back and took her into the canoe she broke the bottom out as they were going round the end of the island and said "There you broke the canoe with carrying so many people on it at once." The canoeleaked so much that he had to land to mend itand camped there for the night. In the morning whilehe was mending his canoe the woman cut herhair off and fastened it to a piece of wood by the fireas if she were asleep there. Then she went into the waring (sea) and swam to Yiruk where the others were. When Borun landed by himselfat Yiruk he had to fight with all the menfor having run off with the woman.

[written in left side margin]Mt Singapore

Rabbit island

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie
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Baukan

In the old times when the "Muk Kurnai?" lived in this country there was a woman called Baukan. Some other women were fishing andBaukan was near to them. They did not likeher because she came down from the nurt (sky)[.......] to get rid of her they threw mudin her face saying "go and get some fish foryourself." Then they being busy fishing away fromtheir camp Baukan took all their fire and carried it away. When they returned and foundwhat had been done they sent the little red [.....]who followed Baukan as she was climbing up [.....][...] and striking at the firesticks as she could[... .......] off pieces of the fire [..] that [...] fell all over the country of [....mai][.....] their fire again.This was at Walmajera (1) where [Baukuan was - crossed out] Brewin [?]Baukan and Yeruk [........................................][margin note: near Lake Reeves. ]

[............................] and made of the [.......] of the ginnara (red wallaby)He first tried kangaroo "sinews?" which he threw "out?"[......] and then pulled at [....] and it broke.Then he tried a red wallaby's [......] which [....]face. He and Baukan "climbed?" up the [....................]

(1) Walma = ribs -jera = kangaroo

Last edit 5 months ago by J Gibson
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The Barn [.....]

Long time ago in the [....]-kurnai time the kurnai men were out in their bark canoes fishing with their nets at [Maling] and the women and children were sitting in the camps on the top of the "cliff?" banks of the lake where the big rock now is. They were waiting for the men to come back and the women had cooked [...] dura in the ashes of their fires to be ready for their return with fish. The manner of fishing was that two men in canoes held each one of the ends of the net which was spread out between them in the shallow water while [.......] a little distance another man in his canoe drove the fish before him and beating the water with his canoe pole. Thus the fish swam between the two canoes into the net [....] and the two men "approaching?" each other had "them caught?" There were a number of men in [.......] for people had [.......] here from all parts to feast on fish. [diagram] He had a [.... .....] of fish Kaian (Bream), Taubim - (perch), [......] [sand mullet) - Billin (salmon)- Briungah ( [......]) - [.........] ([... ......]) "and many others?".

Last edit over 2 years ago by nburgess
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When the canoes came to the [....] laden with fish the women and children came down from to carry them up [.... ..." (camp). Before this the [....] had been talking about being so hungry and when the fish was brought in the [...-... (...... Baru)] [..........], saying nanta yuguta munaintu, that is "you not going to give me any? Then all the people and their camps and [....... ...........], and remain there now - the [.....] at her [.....] are the [.....] and men, their [........ .....] all the women and children of [... ....] and their camp. The people who came to this place were from [........... (Lake Tyres)] [.. ....] [Birr......] further along the "lakes?" in fact all [.....] the [.....] met to eat fish which were very [.....ful .. .......].

Fish hooks were "used?" the women "and were?" made from pieces of the "leg bone of a kangaroo?" which being "beaten?" with a stone [.....] a flat piece which were [....] of all [..... ......] both sides "in a string?", then [.........] with a hole which [............] and [... .... ... being ...... .....] a hook [... .....] of the eye and [....] of [....] [picture of hook here] A [...................] bark of the [picture of hook here] [......... shark ........] [.. ..... .... ..... hook].

The nets were made of the fibre of -

Last edit over 2 years ago by nburgess

XM21_ICDMS_lowres Charles Barrett to Howitt 28 September 1907

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Telegraphic AddressPooncarieMallara StationWentworth, NSW

Sept 28th 1907

A W Howitt Esqr Metung

Dear SirYours of Sept 16th to hand I am close to Police reports as to numbers of blacks in Wentworth + Pooncarie districts i.e numbers of blacks on the Lower Darling in the original state. Old Mrs McLean of Poliatold me she had seen them 1200 strong going down on their annual tour to Lake Victoria. The blacks died off from small pox. The blacks told me at that time they died so fast that the living were not able to bury the dead a great many died at another time from measles. The Blacks at the Rufus + Lake Victoria Ihave no idea but rumour says there was 700killed at the fight on the Rufus of which you no doubt know the particulars. I know a Black named Warra wonna who what [sic] in the fight. Question No. 3 you will see in the Police reports. The blacks have seen to have intermarried all round. There are orwas Lubras from Cobham Lake Mundi

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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Mungo Lake Victoria. I have three girls hereas house servants their father is a Darling Black from Polia + mother a Murray Black . I was much interested in your inauguraladdress. I have read about Babbage and WarburtonH. Brookes [sic] who with Coulthardt [sic] and Willie Scottwere exploring on the Bede Creek and Brooks+ Scott fell in with Babbage's party + got a pint of water from him + saved their lives Coulthardtperished Brooks was manager on Moorara foryears for my father. When I came on the Darling in '64 Burke + Wills were fresh in peoplesmemory and they did not speak well of Burke as a bushman. I knew Wright he did 18 monthsloaf at Culhero till he was or ordered off. Ofcourse you the story of Burke touchingGrey on the head with a revelover [sic]. William Maiden is the oldest resident of Menindeeand might give you some information yourequire. All the old Blacks are dead that resided about here. I am suffering from a bad attack of influenza which makes my writing a bit shaky. I am Yours faithfully Charles Barrett P.S Warrego is the local name for Eagle Hawk

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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(18/7/07)Brenda StationJuly 18 1907

My dear Mr HowittI will now answer yourquestions of June 21st.I Ipatha belongs to the Moorawaritribe, her age 59.II She was born at ThurulgoonaShe explained that "Thurul"stands for a creeping weed,called by us "pigweed" andlagoon, as you know, is anothername for a long stretch ofwater like a lake.III There are twelve of her tribenow living.IV The country occupied by her tribe.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Lake TyersApril 20th 1880

My Dear Mr Howitt

I have made enquiry of Billy McDougall and JennyCooper on the various queries proposed by you with the following results. The Blacks sometimes exchanged wives at Corroborie time. He tells me this was done when there was a great gathering of Blacks. But they also resortedto the exchange of wives to avert some fancied calamity as for instance. There wasonce a great display of the Aurora Australis or perhapssome great shower of Meteorsin the heavens, they thought

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Lake TyersApril 28th 1881

My Dear Mr Howitt

In speaking of sticks beingsent only as an invitationto a corroborrie I referred to the Waimbio. The GippslandBlacks seem to know nothingabout the sticks.

The message stick I sawon the Murray was aboutthe length of an ordinarywalking stick and markedspiral fashion with aband here & there. Thereseemed to the no connection between the marks & thecorroborie but I noticedthe stick went whereverthe corroboree went after

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

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[Hand-drawn image of a map of the river system at the Queensland -NSW border.]

[Left column]

Paroo }Warrego } Darling tributariesWidgee }Nebine } TributariesNungalala } of Narran into narran lake + overflows perWallan } Culgoa Hospital creek into BokahraBirie runs out of Bokahara into CulgoaBokahara runs into Cabo Creek + billabong of Barwon

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

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Lake TyersAugst 30th 1881

My dear Mr HowittBob Curran wishes me to tell you that he sent by Sargent Goodenougha certain article called a J-o-e-i. I suppose from his description of it aBulk and he isanxious to let you know that he sent it.Jenny Cooper is getting better so I will be able to ask her the questionsforthwithWith kind regards

Yours faithfullyJohn Bulmer

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Lake TyersOct 1st 1881

My Dear Mr Howitt

I have made enquiryabout questions in yourcircular just receivedand have also sent youmy own observationsI begin to fear Jenny Cooperas a hopeless case to getany information out ofher. She was very illand just as I was gettingher nicely better Dicktook her for a changeFrom the questions I haveasked her she seems

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Lake TyersFeb 13th 1882

My Dear Mr Howitt

Bob Curran was at Swan Reach but has now left and has to day startedon horseback for ManerooKing Charly started a week ago. Bob tells me that itis Charly's intention to dothe far off business as he will keep his Horse and Bob will do that which isnear, Bob was very muchpuzzled about how hewas to get hold of the moneyyou sent but I told himthat would be given at the discretion of the personto whom it is confided

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Lake TyersMarch 25th 1882My Dear HowittKing Charly has just arrived here from Maneroohe starts again next weekto meet you, he says he hasbeen Bombala and has seen a lot of blacks andMurray Jacky is to fetchthe blacks down to Delegate Old Monday went to Begaand will bring up the Blacks fromthat place.I had a note from Bob Curran+ he tells me he had alreadysent a lot of Blacks away for Delegate. he willbe there to meet you at

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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3413Baiamai used to live at the Cūajellūgūnglake on this side of the Lachlan RiverA tree there is called his canoe - itis as if it were bottom up and anothertree beside it is his "canoe stick"He went away from there and upto his home because there were too many ants there.

If you roat Emu, possum +c on the fire and the fat comes out and frizzles, Daramūlŭn comes downwith a noise like thunder, youcan see him sometimes coming down like a star falling.

"I remember once when I was out backfrom the river with several otheryoung men we pulled an Iguanaout of a hole under a tree and roasted him. He burst in the fireand the oil frizzled up. Then weheard Daramūlŭn give threecracks like thunder:

[written in left side margin]Murri-kangaroosays

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

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[??] The Latrobe Papers p4Hugh Murray who occupied the Colac county in September 1837says that some of the Barrabool tribes murdered an old manand a child of the Colac tribes on the bank of that lake. Theybrought with them portions of the man and the child on theends of their spears and he saw them eat these with greatexultation during the evening.

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie

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Lake TyersMch 4th 1876

My dear Mr HowittI have received the paper youreturned with your instructionson it. I will go through [??] and send you the resultsI find though in reality the Blks look upon their parents + brothersand sisters as parents yet they generally address them by another nameto distinguish the paternal or maternal relationship. So I think Charley (1) should call Butbunda (19) Wangeeand then perhaps it would be right for the Butbunda to call Charley Namban. Jenny is not at home today or I would have settled the matter at once, however I will do so by

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Lake TyersMch 9th 1876

My dear Mr Howitt

I find I made a mistakein my note about relationships among the Blacks as I called the father's brother BabaakThis is not so as the Babaakis the mother's brother and I am told it is synonomous [sic]with Wandbaak.With regard to the Omeotable Jenny tells me that Charley No 1 is Namban to No 19. It seems to me that the difference arisesfrom the fact that BulbunduNo 19 is the daughter of Charley's sister had shebeen of his brother no doubtshe would have called Charley

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Lake TyersJan 11th 1878

My dear Mr HowittI have made enquiries about marriage of Blacks + send you the result.It appears to me there is no strict law against marryingin any tribe. I find in askingthem for instance when theBul Butta got wives + thewomen husbands they mainlygive instances of marriagein the quarters indicatedbut at the same time they express themselves as being ableto get wives anywhere. I see you apply the term Kani as the description of a tribe. I think the term is used

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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'Lake TyersOct 10th 1878My dear Mr Howitt,I have to acknowledge the receipt of your three letters relating to the Manners +c of the Blacks. I am sorry I have been so much occupied of late but I think I may be able to do something in the matter now. With regard to Tulebas information I think he is not reliable. It is not always necessary for a young Kani to run off with a girl. They only run off when it is a love match and cannot get the parents consent. In the marriage contract the wish of the woman is not asked. The whole affair is managed by the Brother or next of kin, and

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Lake Tyers[Dec?] 16th 1879

To my dear Mr Howitt

Many thanks for yourXmas present. It will helpme to make the Christmasmore attractive.With regard to your queriesI have made every enquirywith the following resultNo 1 Billy McDougall tellsme the Blacks were notafraid of anything happeningto them if they saw theirGuiaban but theyavoided them becausethey did not like to seetheir sons in law. I believethe old men would sometimes

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

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Lake TyersDec 26th 1879

My dear Mr Howitt

With regard to this lastquestion you ask relatingto the Aborigines. I havemade inquiry and findthat the Blacks of this partdid not use the instrumentyou mention, (the Bullroarer)I have seen it used by theMurray Blacks in the followingwayA man used it to makehis wife well. He went fromhere sufficiently far to allow

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Lake Tyers [Ap?] 30th 1880

My dear Mr Howitt

I find I have looked over one part of your letter about the position brothers occupied with their wives. I do not think among the Lower Murray (junction of Darling tribe) who called themselves Waimbio that there was really anything more than the family if having a deceased brothers wife that is I do not think they regularly cohabitate but from what I remember of the people they were

Last edit about 2 years ago by Stephen Morey

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Lake TyersJuly 6th 1880

My dear Mr Howitt

I send you the list made upas far as I can do it I haveforgotten some of the names[?]of relationship but as I haveTaplins book somewhereI will hand it up and sendyou as far as I rememberif it is correct. The wordsyou send are I think [literally?]correct. The Blacks had ageneral term for Child asWaimbia my child orLeethe, to distinguish betweenson or daughter they usedthe term Katulya orthe little one which thedaughter was known as

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie

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Lake TyersOctr 26 1881My Dear HowittWe will be very gladto see you whenever youcan make it convenientto visit Lake Tyers I thinkthis will be the best way wecan then talk over numerousmatters connected withthe Blacks.One of your queries I think I can answer from myown knowledge of the languageof the Kurnai. You ask themeaning of Kroutunkolongit simply means men of the coast. The word Kulong being in the masculine gender. Braguolo is as

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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[Table]

Name, Native Place, Division of Tribe, Wife's division of tribe

William McDougall, Raymond Island, Tatoonkolong, BrabolongTuleba, Bruthen, Brabolong, BrabolongWilliam Thorpe, Bairnsdale, Brabrolong, *Ngrangit the entrancal Blacks.Neddy O'Rourke, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, Braberry worcutTommy Johnson, Snowy River, Kroathun, Yacktoon worcutDick Cooper, Tatoonkolong, Tatoonkolong, Lowajerak Buffalo womanLarry Johnson, Snowy River, Kroatunkoolong, NrangitTimothy, Snowy River, Kroathun, TatoonkolongBilly the Bull, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, Yacktoon worcutJacky Jacky, Lake Tyres, Warrnangatty, Yacktoon worcutBilly Jumbuck, Lake Tyres, Warnangatty, KroatoonYelmi, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, BraberryDan, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, KroatoonKerlip Tom Snowy River, Kroatun, NgrangitBig Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Yucktoon worcutLamby, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Brabeerry Brathu (turee)*Charley Rivers, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, BraberryBobby Brown, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Ngrangit Ngrangit (both wives)Charley Muir, Bruthen, Braberry, KroathunKing Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Lowajerak BrabolongBen Jennings, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Warrangatty Charley Alexander, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, LowajerakSinging Johnny, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowajerakMunday, Maneroo, Brajerak, BidwellJohnny the plater, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, KroatunMurray Jack, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowerjerakLawson, Scrub black, Bidwell, Bidwell. Jack Hay, Maneroo, Brajerak, Brabrolong taken by theftJimmy Thompson, Maneroo, Brajerak, Braberry Paddy, Sale, Brajerak, Kroatun worcut has girls - to himdid not marryHanner, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon worcutKing Tom, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon

Ngrangit means belonging to the Entrance to Lakes. Lambys +c and wife Ellen are Tara

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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1 Sometimes the Kroathun had a wife given bythe Twofold Bay tribe if they were friendly to himbut sometimes he would run away.2 The Twofold Bay Blacks were calledWaral meaning belonging to a country in3 the east a long way off. They were lookedupon as Brajeraks4 King Charley's first wife was a woman froma tribe near the Murray somewhere near Albury.5 She was a widow and he came off with herfrom Maneroo.6 His second wife was a Brabralung he ranoff with her from Lake Tyers she being inwidowhood at the time. His first wife did notgo with them but stayed with another personat Lake Tyers. She and the second wife had continual quarrels.8 The first wife never likes her husband to takea second. She generally shows fight for sometime in fact there is continual jealousy.9 Cases often happened where her friends agree[?]in such a case in the giving of a sister tohim in case he could not get his wayhe would certainly recommend her to runoff with her sister if the sister was in thesame mind but if not of course it woulddrop. But should it seem that theFather & Brother agreed to give a girlaway the girl's consent would not beasked. She would be given at once &to insure obedience would receive somepunishment if required. They generallyhad a bit of a fight at a wedding as therewas said[?] to be some who objected, perhapsthe mans own friends might make a row[?]

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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