Search for "Lake Tyers" Lake
Tyers* "Lake Tyres"
His father when Larry was a small boy, say eight years of agepointing to a small birk [sic] which frequents the shores, "that is yourbudjan, do not hurt it. He has never injured one, nor would he eatit, and would be very sorry if any one did so in his presence. Thisbird is called the Blit-burring.
The Kurnai have no class or subclass names andtherefore no social organisation as I use that termbut they have unmistakable indications that they[had totems and therefore - crossed out] must have had all atsome former time.
Each individual had a thūndung or elderbrother, [not only in their sex totem Yürung or, - crossed out][Djütgun but also in some - crossed out] being some marsupial animal, or bird, reptile or fish. It is the [They however have no influence upon marriage - crossed out][which is regulated by kinship and local exogamy- crossed out][and survive as the merely as the elder brother and - crossed out][and also as in so far the -crossed out] protector that in[some cases such as Kangaroos + birds- crossed out] it gave[notice of - crossed out] danger, and [also -crossed out] has also invokedsongs in cases of [??]
They [thundung - crossed out] are also spoken of as jiakor flesh as in other tribes.
The [jiak - crossed out] totem was told by a man to his son whenabout eight or nine years of age and by a womanto her daughters. [For instance a man might - crossed out]point out his totem to his son and say["see there that is your thundung; yu must - crossed out][not kill it!" - crossed out]
As these names are perpetuated from fathersto sons, the daughter having also the same, descentis clearly in the male line, and they would benecessarily prepetuated in the locality to whicha man belonged. A good instance is thatof the Bunjil-baul who lived in RaymondIsland in Lake King and whose jiak was [the Gluin - crossed out] a bird the Gluin, whence their nameof Gluin-Kong, the Glui's beak.
[The Australia - crossed out][These Thundung- crossed out][The totem and its human brother are - crossed out][These toems and their human "younger brother"- crossed out][which are younger - crossed out][brother - which are sill in the relative of- crossed out][protected + protector - they the form here the - crossed out][two classes with which we now I feel certain they- crossed out][have at one time I feel [??] [??] at where- crossed out][they preceeded - crossed out]
(1) I am much indebted to the Revd John Bulmerfurther investigating the Kurnai Thundungconfirming my own endeavours, by obtaining a[which - crossed out] of [the - crossed out] old people which abundantly exhibitedof male descent.
[written in left side margin]If I am correct in believing that these "thundung"were at one time[consistent with the two primary - crossed out][?? class divisions - crossed out]part of a two class system thenwe have here an instanceof the peculiar[??] of these coast tribes.The totem which [??]to my view preceeded the class agnate[??]exist, whileit has beenreplaced by rhelocal [?agnate?]
In the old times when the "Muk Kurnai?" lived in this country there was a woman called Baukan. Some other women were fishing andBaukan was near to them. They did not likeher because she came down from the nurt (sky)[.......] to get rid of her they threw mudin her face saying "go and get some fish foryourself." Then they being busy fishing away fromtheir camp Baukan took all their fire and carried it away. When they returned and foundwhat had been done they sent the little red [.....]who followed Baukan as she was climbing up [.....][...] and striking at the firesticks as she could[... .......] off pieces of the fire [..] that [...] fell all over the country of [....mai][.....] their fire again.This was at Walmajera (1) where [Baukuan was - crossed out] Brewin [?]Baukan and Yeruk [........................................][margin note: near Lake Reeves. ]
[............................] and made of the [.......] of the ginnara (red wallaby)He first tried kangaroo "sinews?" which he threw "out?"[......] and then pulled at [....] and it broke.Then he tried a red wallaby's [......] which [....]face. He and Baukan "climbed?" up the [....................]
(1) Walma = ribs -jera = kangaroo
The Barn [.....]
Long time ago in the [....]-kurnai time the kurnai men were out in their bark canoes fishing with their nets at [Maling] and the women and children were sitting in the camps on the top of the "cliff?" banks of the lake where the big rock now is. They were waiting for the men to come back and the women had cooked [...] dura in the ashes of their fires to be ready for their return with fish. The manner of fishing was that two men in canoes held each one of the ends of the net which was spread out between them in the shallow water while [.......] a little distance another man in his canoe drove the fish before him and beating the water with his canoe pole. Thus the fish swam between the two canoes into the net [....] and the two men "approaching?" each other had "them caught?" There were a number of men in [.......] for people had [.......] here from all parts to feast on fish. [diagram] He had a [.... .....] of fish Kaian (Bream), Taubim - (perch), [......] [sand mullet) - Billin (salmon)- Briungah ( [......]) - [.........] ([... ......]) "and many others?".
When the canoes came to the [....] laden with fish the women and children came down from to carry them up [.... ..." (camp). Before this the [....] had been talking about being so hungry and when the fish was brought in the [...-... (...... Baru)] [..........], saying nanta yuguta munaintu, that is "you not going to give me any? Then all the people and their camps and [....... ...........], and remain there now - the [.....] at her [.....] are the [.....] and men, their [........ .....] all the women and children of [... ....] and their camp. The people who came to this place were from [........... (Lake Tyres)] [.. ....] [Birr......] further along the "lakes?" in fact all [.....] the [.....] met to eat fish which were very [.....ful .. .......].
Fish hooks were "used?" the women "and were?" made from pieces of the "leg bone of a kangaroo?" which being "beaten?" with a stone [.....] a flat piece which were [....] of all [..... ......] both sides "in a string?", then [.........] with a hole which [............] and [... .... ... being ...... .....] a hook [... .....] of the eye and [....] of [....] [picture of hook here] A [...................] bark of the [picture of hook here] [......... shark ........] [.. ..... .... ..... hook].
The nets were made of the fibre of -
XM21_ICDMS_lowres Charles Barrett to Howitt 28 September 1907
Dear SirYours of Sept 16th to hand I am close to Police reports as to numbers of blacks in Wentworth + Pooncarie districts i.e numbers of blacks on the Lower Darling in the original state. Old Mrs McLean of Poliatold me she had seen them 1200 strong going down on their annual tour to Lake Victoria. The blacks died off from small pox. The blacks told me at that time they died so fast that the living were not able to bury the dead a great many died at another time from measles. The Blacks at the Rufus + Lake Victoria Ihave no idea but rumour says there was 700killed at the fight on the Rufus of which you no doubt know the particulars. I know a Black named Warra wonna who what [sic] in the fight. Question No. 3 you will see in the Police reports. The blacks have seen to have intermarried all round. There are orwas Lubras from Cobham Lake Mundi
Mungo Lake Victoria. I have three girls hereas house servants their father is a Darling Black from Polia + mother a Murray Black . I was much interested in your inauguraladdress. I have read about Babbage and WarburtonH. Brookes [sic] who with Coulthardt [sic] and Willie Scottwere exploring on the Bede Creek and Brooks+ Scott fell in with Babbage's party + got a pint of water from him + saved their lives Coulthardtperished Brooks was manager on Moorara foryears for my father. When I came on the Darling in '64 Burke + Wills were fresh in peoplesmemory and they did not speak well of Burke as a bushman. I knew Wright he did 18 monthsloaf at Culhero till he was or ordered off. Ofcourse you the story of Burke touchingGrey on the head with a revelover [sic]. William Maiden is the oldest resident of Menindeeand might give you some information yourequire. All the old Blacks are dead that resided about here. I am suffering from a bad attack of influenza which makes my writing a bit shaky. I am Yours faithfully Charles Barrett P.S Warrego is the local name for Eagle Hawk
My dear Mr HowittI will now answer yourquestions of June 21st.I Ipatha belongs to the Moorawaritribe, her age 59.II She was born at ThurulgoonaShe explained that "Thurul"stands for a creeping weed,called by us "pigweed" andlagoon, as you know, is anothername for a long stretch ofwater like a lake.III There are twelve of her tribenow living.IV The country occupied by her tribe.
Lake TyersApril 28th 1881
My Dear Mr Howitt
The message stick I sawon the Murray was aboutthe length of an ordinarywalking stick and markedspiral fashion with aband here & there. Thereseemed to the no connection between the marks & thecorroborie but I noticedthe stick went whereverthe corroboree went after
[Hand-drawn image of a map of the river system at the Queensland -NSW border.]
Paroo }Warrego } Darling tributariesWidgee }Nebine } TributariesNungalala } of Narran into narran lake + overflows perWallan } Culgoa Hospital creek into BokahraBirie runs out of Bokahara into CulgoaBokahara runs into Cabo Creek + billabong of Barwon
3413Baiamai used to live at the Cūajellūgūnglake on this side of the Lachlan RiverA tree there is called his canoe - itis as if it were bottom up and anothertree beside it is his "canoe stick"He went away from there and upto his home because there were too many ants there.
If you roat Emu, possum +c on the fire and the fat comes out and frizzles, Daramūlŭn comes downwith a noise like thunder, youcan see him sometimes coming down like a star falling.
"I remember once when I was out backfrom the river with several otheryoung men we pulled an Iguanaout of a hole under a tree and roasted him. He burst in the fireand the oil frizzled up. Then weheard Daramūlŭn give threecracks like thunder:
[written in left side margin]Murri-kangaroosays
[??] The Latrobe Papers p4Hugh Murray who occupied the Colac county in September 1837says that some of the Barrabool tribes murdered an old manand a child of the Colac tribes on the bank of that lake. Theybrought with them portions of the man and the child on theends of their spears and he saw them eat these with greatexultation during the evening.
Lake Tyers [Ap?] 30th 1880
My dear Mr Howitt
I find I have looked over one part of your letter about the position brothers occupied with their wives. I do not think among the Lower Murray (junction of Darling tribe) who called themselves Waimbio that there was really anything more than the family if having a deceased brothers wife that is I do not think they regularly cohabitate but from what I remember of the people they were
Lake TyersJuly 6th 1880
My dear Mr Howitt
I send you the list made upas far as I can do it I haveforgotten some of the names[?]of relationship but as I haveTaplins book somewhereI will hand it up and sendyou as far as I rememberif it is correct. The wordsyou send are I think [literally?]correct. The Blacks had ageneral term for Child asWaimbia my child orLeethe, to distinguish betweenson or daughter they usedthe term Katulya orthe little one which thedaughter was known as
XM235_ICDMS_lowres Typed notes
Mr Lang remarks at page 55 of his Secret of the Totem ,"If Pirra--uru were primitive, it might be looked for among these southernand eastern tribes ....But in these primitive South-east tribes pirra-uru is no more found than subincision, nor is it found among theArunta and the northern tribes."
I do not understand what Mr Lang means when he speaks of "primi--tive tribes", but assume that he refers to the tribesof South East Australia who have advanced from group marriage toindividual marriage, and among whom, certainly, pirrauru is not found.
But I think than I can show good reasons for the belief thatall the tribes of South East Australia did at one time practise it.
In the accompanying tables are the marital, parental, filial and fraternal terms of relationship, used by the tribes of which the Dieriis the type. I also give those used by some of the tribes of SouthEast Australia ,where there is only individual marriage, and these I thinkwill serve as examples of the others.
To assist the reader in following the comparison which I shallmake between the terms of relationship of the tribes herein referredto, I give a few leading facts as to each tribe.
The Dieri inhabit that part of the delta of the Cooper whichextends from the east side of Lake Eyre, and mainly south of that riverfor some hundred and fifty miles. It has a two class system with totemsgroup marriage and descent in the female line.
The Kurnandaburi inhabited country on the Barcoo river aboutone hundred miles from the eastern boundary of South Australia, andhad group-marriage , the equivalent of the Dieri tippa-malku , and descent in the female line,
The Wathi-Wathi were on the Murray river and belonged to anaggregate of several nations whose north western tribes are theneighbours of the Dieri and Yantruwunta. These nations have a two-class system with totems, individual marriage and descent in thefemale line.
The northern Kamilaroi are part of a nation which is organisedin two classes, four sub-classes and totems, individual marriageand descent in the female line.
[written in left margin]condense + retype
[top of page seems to have been cut off]But I think that I can show good [rest of line missing]all the tribes of South East Australia did at one time practise it.
In the accompanying tables are the marital, parental, filial andfraternal terms of relationship, used by the tribes of which the Dieriis the type. I also give the those used by some of the tribes of SouthEast Australia, where there is only individual marriage, and these I thinkwill serve as examples of the others.
To assist the reader in following the comparison which I shallmake between the terms of relationship of the tribes herein referredto, I give a few leading facts as to each tribe.
The Dieri inhabit that part of the delta of the Cooper whichextends from the east side of Lake Eyre, and mainly south of that riverfor some hundred and fifty miles. It has a two class system with totemsgroup marriage and descent in the female line.
The Kurnandaburi inhabited country on the Barcoo River aboutone hundred miles from the eastern boundary of South Australia, andhad group-marriage, the equivalent of the Dieri tippa-malku , and descent in the female line,
The Wathi Wathi were on the Murray river and belonged to anaggregate of several nations whose north western tribes are theneighbours of the Dieri and Yantruwunta. These nations hava a two-class system with totems ,individual marriage and descent in thefemale line.
The northern Kamilaroi are part of a nation which is organizedin two classes, four sub-classes and totems, individual marriageand descent in the female line.
The Kaiabara tribe was at the Bunya-Bunya mountains in Queens-land and represented a large number of tribes, extending from thecoast inland for some hundred miles square. The organization was intwo classes divided into four subclasses with totems. There wasindividual marriage with male descent.
TheArunta are the immediate neighbours of the north of theUrabunna, and have four subclasses in the southern and eight in thenorthern part of the tribe. There are totems which do not regulatemarriage and descent in the male line.
The Binbinga tribe has eight sub-classes, with individualmarriage and descent in the male line.
The Narrinyeri tribe are situated on the coast at the mouthof the Murray river .The tribe has no class names, but has exogamoustotems and is organised in local clans. There is individual marriagewith descent in the male line.
[written in left margin at top of page]condense + retype
and descent in the female line.The Wurunjeri was one of several tribesin south central Victoria, which had a two classorganization with one totem. It was also organizedon locality, and had individual marriage anddescent in the male line.The Kaiabara tribe was at the Bunya BunyaMountains in Queensland and represented alarge aggregate of tribes extending from the coastfor somemiles. The organization was intwo classes, segmented into four subclasses, withtotems. There was individual marriageand descent in the male line.The Arunta tribe is the immediate northernneighbor of the Urabunna who are on the northernside of Lake Eyre while the Dieri are at the East.The Arunta are organized in four subclasseswith totems which do not [...late?] marriage and descent inthe male line.The [Binbura?] tribe is again in [eight?] subclassesand has [eight?] subclasses with individual marriageand male descent.Although there are four classes in the southernpart of the Arunta tribe there are eight in the northern as in all the tribes which occupy thecountry [......] of the [Burbuya?]The Narrinyeri are situated on the coastat the mouth of the Murray River.This tribe has no class names but has[........] totems and is organised in localclass. There is individual marriage and descentin the male line.
[Upside down at top of page]- 205 - 9 Sunday - White Sunday - 160
As a comparison with the [Legend- crossed out] beliefs in the Mura-mura[of the Lake Eyre tribe - crossed out]. I know of no better example than thoseof the [Kurnai - crossed out] Kulin and Kurnai tribes of Victoria.A numbers legends [sic] have been published by different authors takenfrom their folk lore (1) [and of the - crossed out] of which I note [versions which - crossed out] several different versions (1)[I collected myself and which have been from - crossed out] from Woeworung + Kurnai narrators collected originally myselfAs the Kurnai were an offshoot from the Kulin stock, theexplanation which I am able to suggest as to the legends of the
[Upside down]- 806 - 8 Saturday - 169
former may be applied to the analagous legends of the latter.
[I have - crossed out] legends [relating to- crossed out] [I have not been able to learn of the ceremonies suppose to be - crossed out] [few - crossed out], I am [??] of any beliefs or legends relating to theinitiation ceremonies of the Kulin, and the reason may be thatthose ceremonies [were many that- crossed out] did not have the sand or [??] characterof the Bora at the Kuringal. But with the Kurnai there wasan legend [sic] relating to the Jeraeil. As to [the number - crossed out] legends recording[the - crossed out] wanderings they also are few, those relating to the sky-countryare more numerous, but in most of these [relate to the actions - crossed out]the actors are [anoth - crossed out] beings who combine the human andthe animal element.
A few instances will illustrate these several classes.of which I have quoted from the work of my daughter in the Folkloreand legends of some Victorian Tribes (1) - [The other instances are - crossed out]The Wotjoballuk legend - see reverse ofThe Kurnai legend relating to the [Init- crossed out] Jeraeil ceremony is the
The Woeworung legend of Lohän is that he when he was [baking eels- crossed out] cooking eelsat the Yarra River a Swan's feather was carried by the south [wind - crossed out] breezeand fell on his breast. Walking in that direction he at length reached[the sea the - crossed out] Westernport Bay where the Swan [was - crossed out] lived. There he remained until they migrated Eastward, when he followed them, and at last came to Corner Inletwhere he made his home in the mountains of Wilsons promontory, watching overthe welfare of the people who followed him south to the country he had found (2)Another legend relates to the [early - crossed out] wanderings of the [ancestors - crossed out]Kurnai predecessors. Bunjil Borun the first Kurnai marched acrossapproched from the north west until he reached the sea at the Inletswhere Port Albert now is. On his head he carried his canoe in which washis wife Tūk. Bunjil Borun is the Pelican & Tūk the musk duck.
Upside down 206 - 6 Saturday - 157(see over)
[written at top of page]and the Alcharinga ancestorsof the Arunta
A legend of the Wotjo tribe gives an account of the wanderings of the two Brambramgals [who were the - crossed out] in search of their sister's son Doän(the flying squirrel) who had been killed and eaten by Wembulin (tarantula); [afterwards they - crossed out] and [went - crossed out] afterwards further meeting with various adventures and naming these places where theyoccurred, until the younger of the brothers died. [The elder brother + their mother sought for him - crossed out] Theere was elder 'shaped' part of a tree [??] the form of a man and by his magic it became alive + called him elder brother United once more the Brambramgals travelled far to the west where they lived in a cavern, but no one knows where they have gone (p. )
7[in left hand column]Yaurorka??
[a neighbouring friendly tribe he is received in the same - crossed out][manner (Gason) - crossed out]
During my exploration on the Southern side of Sturts StonyDesert and in the [Yeranaka (urbana?) country - crossed out]country of the Ngurawola tribe I had a good opportunity of observing the manner in which a [stranger -crossed out] party of strangers was heralded and received. This was subsequent-to the agreement which I made with the [Yeranaka - crossed out] Yaurorka one of whomaccompanied [me - crossed out] and so accredited me. On arriving within shouting distance of the camp, the guide halted us and breaking a branch of a tree which he held up in his right hand, went forward somewhat nearer to the [Camp- crossed out]group of old men who had come [from - crossed out] forward + who stood at a lesser distance in advance of their camp.
The guide having his branch at arms length said in a loud tone of voice that we [had - crossed out] were travelling peacefully ("barkū-balkalaner") Then [there was - crossed out] followed a loud toned conversation between him and [the one of the old men (the Pirrauru of this camp) and he appearing - crossed out] the Pirraru of this Camp.Being at length satisfied, they came towards us and conducted us to place adjoining the water channel, on the further side of which was their encampment in a cluster of some score of beehive shaped grass huts. Here we were told to camp and some of their young men were sentoff to gather wood for our fires.
found black fellows prowling about their camp at night would certainly shoot them after this notice.
[The old men preferred treated the matter as a were induced to treat the matter as a - crossed out][joke, but after some further discussion they agreed- crossed out] after some discussion the old men pronounced that some oftheir people should go near [among - crossed out] our camps at night, and that when doing so in the day time, they would lay down their arms at a little distance - and on my part I promised notto do them any hurt. I must say that This agreement was kept by them and I observed that not only they but also their fellow tribesmen [but generally in their tribes, before their neighbours also- crossed out] in future laid down their weapons when visiting us.
It may be here noted that a Dieri man who is of no noteor influence, arriving as a messenger at a camp [after a unavoidable absence -crossed out]sits down near to without saying anything. After remaining for a few minutes in silence the old men gather round him and ask whence he comes and what has befallen him. He then delivers his message and details his news, and often with embellishments.
Two of the principal old men then stand up one retailingthe message [news and to the men- crossed out] the others repeating it in an excited manner
The newcomer if he is a friendly stranger is hospitably entertained, living in the hut of some man of the same totem as himself.
I remember an instance of such a visit when I was camped [near- crossed out] close to a small number of [encampment these friendly -crossed out] [Yeraka? Yeriwoka- crossed out] some distance to the north of Cooper Creek and [later was- crossed out]and with whom I was on friendly terms, under the agreements above spoken of. A stranger had arrived from the South, and so far as I remember was a Dieri. I could watch all their movements by the light of their fires, [and as- crossed out]and hear what was spoken in a loud tone, for we were separated from them only by a narrow though deep water channel. They spent the evening in great feasting and the women were busy till late at night in pounding and grinding seeds for food [rest of sentence crossed out]. The stranger [who had arrived- crossed out] related his news and it was repeated in a loud tone to the listening tribes men sitting or standing by their fires. I was unable to [catch - crossed out] understand more than the general meaning of their amusements but my black boy who was acquainted with the Dieri speech explained that this man was a "walkabout blackfellow" in otherwords a messenger who was telling them his news. The place [which - crossed out] was onone of the flood drains along Cooper Creek which turned northwards towards Lake Lipson
A man of influence arriving at a one of the of friendly tribe camps [of his tribe- crossed out]is received by the inmates with raised weapons as if in defiance. Upon this the visitor rushes towards them making a pretence of striking them, they warding off his feints with their shields. (p - ) Immediately after this they embrace him and lead him to hiscamp where the women shortly after bring him food (1) [if he wants -crossed out]Gason
[written in left margin] [see - crossed out]last paper - crossed out]p74p75
(1) [Merschen? - crossed out][Claytonia? - crossed out]
Refer to the news brought tome aboutMcKinlay-here
In the Dieri tribe, as in all thoseof the Lake Eyre (Basin) (crossed out)the oldest man of a totem is its (xxxxxxx) Pinaru or head, in each horde there is also a Pinaru, who might happen to be alsothe head of the totem. But it does not (necessarily) (crossed out) follow that thehead of a totem or of a [?] division had necessarily much, orindeed any influence outside his totem or division. I remembersuch an instance at Lake Hope where the Pinaru was by reason of his great age, the head of theEaglehawk totem, but he had otherwiselittle personal influence, for he was not a fighting man, or medicine man.The pinarus are collectively the headmen of the tibe, andof them someone was superior to the others. At the time when Iknew the tribe, in the year 1861-2 The principal headman was oneJalina Piramurana, the head of the Kunaura totem, and he wasrecognised as the headman of the wholeDieri tribe.When going northwards from my Depot at Coopers Creek, onthe occasoion of my second (xxxxxxx) expedition I obtained the servi-ces of a young Yantruwunta man who knew the country as far north asSturts stony desert. He belonged to the small tribal group in [?]country
in mariage, of separating men from their wives when theycould not agreeamd making fresh matrimonial arrangements.
He periodically visited the varioushordes of the Dieri, fromwhich he also periodically received presents. Tribes even ata distanceof a hundred miles sent him presents, which werre passed on from tribe totribe for him.
He was the son of a previous Headman who was living duringMr Gasons residence in the Dieri country and who, although too infirm to join in the ceremonies, gave advice to the old men. He boasted thathe had the command of the tribe, before his son acquired it. He wasbelieved to proof to magic such as "striking withthe bone".
Jalina Piramurana had succeded to and indeed eclipsed hisfather. He was the head of the Kunaura Murdu, and boasted of being the"tree of life"' the "family" of life", for this seed forms at times theprincipal source of vegetable food of these tribes. He was also spokenof as the Illanyura-Murdu (I), that is of the plant itself.
When in the Yaurorka country, south of Sturts Stony DesertI camped for a night near one of the small groups of that tribe. A partyof the old men, the pinarus of theplace came to see me, and asked meto go with them tosee the "Pina-pinaru", the Great - great one, whocould not come to see me. I went with them andfound sittingin one of thehuts, the oldest blackfellow I ever saw. the other Pinarus were mostlygreay haired and bald, but he was so old as to bealmost childish", and was covered with a grizly (?) of hair from head to foot. The respect withhe was treated by theother old men was as marked in them as was therespect withthey were treated by the younger men.Such Headmen as these appear to be foundin all the tribesof the Lake Eyre Basin, amd probably also in all the tribes whichhave the two Dieri class names.
and also of the Krauatungalung, who were their friends. (p ).
The meeting was held on the Tambo River, between Swan Reachand Lake King. the two parties faced each other at a little distance, inthe manner describes, and Bunbra had two shields for his defecne, onefor use and the other as a reserve. the other sdie were armed with clubsand boomerangs, both for throwing. It may be mentioned that the latter, usedin these ordeals, are not carved ones which return to the throwerbut these the blades of which lie all in the same plane, and thus donot return. They are used for fighting, and are capable of inflicting teriblewounds. The proceedings commenced by Bunbra saying "I want to tell youthat I did not hurt that poor fellow". The reply was "You musr fight"Boomerangs were then thrown at him, as my informant said "Like a flightof parrots". Bunbra dodged or successfully warded them off. At last a kun-nin was thrown which passed through his thigh, but which he drew out andflung back at his assailants. the women then rushed in between the twoparties and stopped the fight, and the feud was at an end.
Other instance of the Nungi-nungit are the following. Thebefore mentioned Tulaba carried off a woman from the Snowy River, for hiswife. A messenger was sent to him by the offended husband and his kindred calling on him to come forward and "standout". the meeting took place at Nibbor Island where the NicholsonRiver comes Jones Bay. This was at so much later date than the Nungi-nungitin which Bunbra was the defendant, that he was one of the older men whohad to decide on the number of spears and boomerangs to be thrown at him for his offence.The offended party stood in a row opposite Tulaba, and threw their boomerangs at him, which he successfully dodged or warded off. Then one ofthe Snowy River men ran in and stopped the fight saying that Tulaba hadalready fought with him over this matter and that it was enough, this toppedthe fight.
About the same time or a little later, a young man calledBrownie of the Brataua tribe ran off with agirl from the Tarra River, andas was usual in these marriages by elopement, in that district, theyoung couple went to Snake Island and there remained fo some time.
4or became extinct in the Kurnai tribe the local groups, Hordes if descent remains in the female or clans if it has been [?] of and [crossed out - became attached] the male line, the exogamous law has attached itself to the local that is geographical groups which therefore regulate marriage. It is as if an English Village had determined that its children should marry beyond its bounds, possibly with the children of some one in some adjacent village while its daughters went to the village whence thier brothers took their wives.
The illustration of these statements I shall take several instances mainly those of [crossed - the case of] the Dieri and the Kurnai [crossed out - as instances] for the reason [crossed out - already stated] that they are respectively highly typical of the most archais and the most recent forms of local & social organization of the Australian tribes known to me.
The local organization [underlined]
The Dieri tribe inhabits the country of the Barcoo delta in the west and to the west side of Lake Eyre in Central Australia. It is one of a number of tribes which have the same organization, with allied languages and [crossed out - the same] ceremonies, customs and beliefs are the same lines. These tribes to some extent althoroughly submitting, if I may be permitted to so phrase it, to the English imperium, still have their own lives and follow so far as is possible the tribal customs. That which I shall have [?] of them will however be as I knew them thrity seven years ago in their wild state before their country had been occupied for pastoral purposes. The tribal territory was occupied by five principal local divisions (1) [Poordo Pirmauie?] or Lake Hope [crossed out - the ?] Lake (2) Kūramina or Blanchewater (3) Kopperamana(4) [Kilalepanina?] and [Kathithaudra?] at the junction of the Baroo Rd with Lake Eyre.
5These greater divisions of the tribes were again divided into lesser areas each of which was occupied by a certain group of people. For instance of the [Pindo Pinnanie?] there was one divisions occupying a lake zone which to western [Kūnabūra?] and the people living there were the [Kūnabūra Kurna?] or men of[ Kunabura?].
In this manner the tribe is organized geographically in local groups each having a definite trail of hunting and food grounds and the aggregate of theses groups forms the tribe. The sons inherit, or perhaps more properly speaking occupy the country on which their fathers hunted as a matter of birth right.
Such was the local organization of a typical two class tribe with descent in the female line.
[Left hand margin note to insert here]Formerly it was called [Korbalbura?] from Korbal the edible root of the water lily found growing in the swamps & [?] watercourses and [?] them for food.
It is one of that great number of tribes found in Eastern Australia from near Sydney to near this frequently [?] with the four subclans and totems and in some cases still retaining the original two classes also.
[Two lines crossed out]
A arrow at p6
[?] with many of the coast tribes its organization differed considerably [crossed out - in] from that of the [crossed out - two class] tribes of which the Dieri is the type and [crossed out - which] where two classes Materi and Kararu extended southwards from Lake Eyre following the [crossed out - hill] [crossed out - country to] Flinders Range to the head of Spencers Gulf and thence following the western shore of the Gulf of the Vincent. to Port Lincoln (1). The adjadūra had four classes which [(1) quote]in fact were major totems [crossed out - Kari] each with a group of [?] totems and each major totem inhabited one of the four [word crossed out] districts into which Yorke Peninsula was initially divided. The only restriction upon marriage depended upon nearness of Kinship [according?] to their (classification) system. Nor was there any restriction based upon locality as was the case with the Kurnai who [prevent?] mentioned. This remarkable exceptionto the almost universal primitive tribes of [?] tribes was insisted upon firmly by the old men any whom were two who [two words crossed out] were probably [word crossed out] looked over 70 years of age in 18 - ? and who it was spoke of times being before the advent of white people in their country. [three words crossed out] The exceptional development of the class system was also connected with the descent of the totem names in the male line. [Six words crossed out] It seems to be the case as explained in # - that the social organization of coast tribes has been in very many instances peculiar and much frequent [tending?] totems [?] [?] ultimate result namely the breaking down of the class system, [2 words crossed out] and of group marriage, the establishment of individual marriage and male descent and when the [Crossed out totem] class or totems have survived the localization of these in [crossed out - themarrriage in which they ? ?] separate [?]. The [subject?] tribe [crossed out - briefly] [?] shows the [crossed out - class] [?] organization of this tribe
[Table with 3 columns][Column headings] Classes; Totems; DistrictsColumn Class: Kari = Emu; Column 2 Totems: [Miduaga?] = Swallow, Lark - Waldaru; Polára = mullet; Waltha = [?] turtles; Mŭrtū = Magpie Kŭdli; [wiuta?] = mopoke [doj?]Column 3 Districts: Kŭrnara; the northern part of the Peninsular south of Wallaroo, Kadina & [?]
Column 1 Classes: Waui = Red Kangaroo Column 2 Totems: All the totems - togetherwith the major totem are coastal
Column 1 Classes: [Wiltu?] = Eaglehawk:Column 2 Totems: Wortu = wombats; [Wueda?] = wallaby; [Nantri?] = Kangaroo; [Mūlta?] = Seal; Gūa = crowColumn 3 Districts: Wari; Western half of coastal part of peninsular
Column 1 Classes: [Wilithiethu?] = sharkColumn 2 Totems: [Snai?] = wild goose; [Willi?] = Pelican; [Kangbŭra?] = Butter fish; [Manditu?] = Stingray; [Walaltu?] = WhitingColumn 3 Districts: Dilpa The extreme southern part of the peninsular
6A[Table][Title]The Kurnai Tribe
Column 1 - Clans, row 1(i) Krauat-ŭn-galŭngfrom Kanat = east; galŭng= a possessive [postfix?] = of or belonging to the sea coast from near Cape Everard to the Snowy River, all that river with its tributaries up to about [Willis?]; the sea coast from the Snowy River to the Entrance to the Gippsland Lakes with all streams flowing into Ewings Marsh and [Ru?yers?] -
[Column 1, row 2](2) [Brabralung?] - from Bra-bra manly and (ga)lung = if or belonging to all the [crossed out - country waters of the] drainage areas of the Tambo, Mitchell, and Nicholson Rivers with the [?] tributaries to their extreme sources, also to the weir on the Mitchell River to Providence Ponds, with a corresponding frontage to the Gippsland Lakes.
[Column 1, row 3](3) Bra-yak-(g)alŭng = him Bra = man, yak = west - all the country west of Providence Ponds watered by the Avon, [crossed out - River]] Macalister [crossed out - and] Thompson and Latrobe Rivers down to the junction of these into [?] & thence [?] valley the eastern bank of the Latrobe to Lake Wellington thence - eastward by the [?] to [somewhere?] near [?], thence northward to Providence Ponds.
Column 2 Title - Lesser [?]Row 1 - a) Ben – Sydenham Inletb) Dūra – 12 miles up the Snowy River from the seac) Wūrnŭng-gattung – Lake Tyersd) Brt-bitta (= a hollow in the ground)– Jimmy’s Point – entrance to Gippsland Lakes
Row 2 - (e) Bruthen, in the Tambo River(f) Waiŭng = widgeon - near Bairnsdale in the Mitchell River(g) Wŭk-wŭk = Lindeman Flat. Mitchell River(h) Mŭnji = on the north shore of Lake Victoria= There! or "the place of" e.g. -?(i) Dairgo - on the Dargo River
Row 3(k) Kŭtbūn-baura from Kŭtbūn = to have or carry and baura = fire. The name also of a hill or the upper Avon River.(l) Bŭnjil Nŭlŭng - the country between the Avon River and the Eastern boundary of the clan, south of Stratford - Bŭnjil = personal appelates of the older men-Nŭlŭng = mud. Named after the Head man of the division at the time when Gippsland was settled by the whites -(m) Bunjil-clan - the country between the Avon and the Macalister Rivers. Dan = emu - the name of a Head man -(n) Bunjil-Kraura from Kraura = west wind [Northern?] country of the clan west of [north?] to them almost impenetrable forested scrub in west Gippsland from the name of the Headman.
Column 3 title Wives fromRow 1 a) wives from b c d and Mallagoota Inlet and Twofold Bayb) wives from c a t and [p. 13] Bina-jera (the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland lakes and the sea as far as the Entrance to the Lakesc) Brüthen – on the Tambo River – Waiūng Widgeon – near Bairnsdale Mitchell River and Kŭbbūn laura – Upper Avon Riverd) b and Bina-jera (see b) or is it I = Būnjil Nŭlŭng – between Avon River and eastern boundary of clan south of the Stratford
wives toa) b c d k Twofold Bay Mallagoota Inletb) c e g t Bina-jerac) Bruthen Waiūng Widgeon Kŭbbūn laura and Bina-jerad) b or I and Bina-jera
The Kurnai Tribes (continued)Row 1Column 1 - Clans(4) Bra-taua-lŭng claimed all their country from the Latrobe River to near Cape Lip Trap (where it joined the country of the Būnworung tribe of the Western Port district & also from the Southern watershed of the Latrobe River to the sea coast.
Column 2 - Lesser divsions(o) Kŭt-wŭt - the [Tynes?] River flowing into the Corner Inlet.(p) Yau-ŭng - Warrigal Creek South Gippsland(q) Orelin - Merrim [aus? oreid?] South gippsland
Row 1 Column 3 Wives from(o) - m(p) - n(q) - p.i.tRow 1Column 4 Wives to(o) m(p) - n.q(q) p
Row 2Column 1 - Clans(5) Jatŭn-galŭng from Jat - Southaln = Sea. All the country west of the Krauatun Kurnai (1) and east of the Bratana [or Bralana?] Kurnai (4) and lying between the Gippsland Lakes, excepting Flannagan Island which belonged to the Bit-Brita division of the Kraualungalung clan.-
Row 2Column 2 - Lesser divsions(r) Yūnttrŭr - adjoining and east of (q)(s) Ngara wŭt [Ngara wŭt?], the south side of Lake Victoria(t) Bina-jera - the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland Lakes & the sea (Baulbaul) as far as the Entrance to the Lakes -
Row 2Column 3 - Wives from(r) - m(s) - e.m.q.t(t) - d.e.f.g
Row 2Column 4 - Wives to(r) - m(s) - e.m.t(t) - d.g
This information might have been made far more complete so far as relates to the lesser divisions, that is the smaller groups of Kurnai which formes any one of the lesser divisions of the clans.
O of A.J. 7
River and were called [Kutbriu-taura?] or Carriers of 'fire' their country being also so named - the prefix "Wurk" = 'carried' being understood. For instance the Brabra clan [underlined] munji subdivision [crossed out - The large secondary] was [crossed out - again] divided and
[left margin note - the BraBra clan inserted after secondary]
subdivided, each section occupying its own tract oo hunting or food ground until the unit [crossed out - of this] [crossed out - local organization] was a small group of kindred - frequently merely an old man with his married or unmarried sons; the wives and grandchildren.
Such an existence was that of the Bunjil-baul or men of the Island a small family which lived in Raymond Island in Lake King and which claimed all the swans eggs laid in that island as their own and exclusive property. The males of this family also - inherited the name of ---- or in English was -----------, evidently a survival of a onetime totem. [5 lines crossed out ]
[Left hand margin note - Insert after Adja-dūra tribe]
[Crossed out - Bruthen coast tribe] I might refer to every coast tribe from the Adjadura far up into Quensland of whichI have information as examples of these [crossed out - which and may term] the [crossed out - abnormal] same kind of social and local development. But it may suffice to give two more instances which are stretching examples of the direction which this development of the local [crossed out - organization] at the [expense?] of the local organization has taken place.
I have already mentioned the Woeworung tribe of the Yarra River and again take them as an instance. Here we find the old two clan system existing under the familiar names Eaglehawk (Bunjil) and crow (waaug). but the [?] [crossed out - the] totems there was only one named (Thara) (Eaglehawk?). All others if they ever existed had died out - and that these were totems at one time maybe inferred not only from
[crossed out - there] on the Wimmera River in north western Victoria therewas a tribe which called itself Wotjo-Ballŭk - from Wotjo = man and Ballŭk = a number of people. The tribal country extended from the northern Grampian Mountains northward as far as the waters of the Wimmera and [?] could find them way into the Mallee country
This country was occupied by five large Hordes (descent being in the female line) named [?] or [under/order?]
(1) the Gromil-ŭk at Lake Hindmash(2) the Ya-kil-Ballŭk at Lake Albacutya(3) the [Krietch?] Ballŭk about Dimboola(4) the Wiech-wŭndaiŭk about Warraknabeal(5) the Yarik-Kilŭk at Lake Coorong
These Hordes were as in other tribes again divided into lesser groups.
[Crossed out - ? tribes although it retained] The [nujnbirūj?] tribes were all organized in the same manner into tribal groups.
Between Cape Howe and Shoalhaven in the South coast of New South Wales were the "Murring" which was the general name for the aborigines who then formed two tribes respectively named Gūyau-gal and [Katungal - crossed out] Karial from the words guya = south and Karū = north and the possessive suffix gal = belonging to or of
The inland extent of their country included the [mountains to - crossed out] from [?projections?] and mountainous slopes from the Maneroo Tablelandsand [the- crossed out] Braidwood [country - crossed out]. In fact their territory may be perhaps defined as well as in any other manner by defining itas embracing the watershed of the rivers from Mallagoota inlet to the Shoalhaven River.
The [?] table will shoow the local divisions of this tribe and I have added to it also