Howitt and Fison Papers

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At the Jeraeil ceremonies he was the leader, and it was main-ly his voice which decided questions discussed at the meetings of theinitiated men which were held. when during the ceremonies two of thenovices were brought before the old men, by their guardians, charged withhaving broken some of the ceremonail rules, it was Bunbra who spoke lasthis directionsas to them were obyed.

In the olden times the Gweraeil-kurnai, or as I have almostliterally translated the term, the Headman took an active part togetherwith the other old men, in dealing with breaches of their moral code,for instance unlawful, that is incestuous marriages, which were punishedwith death.

In each clan of the Chepara tribe there was a Headman calledKulumba-mutta that is Greatman,, and in the Chepara clan itself the Kalumbra-mitta was superior to all the others.

The office of Headman descended to the son, if no son thento a daughters son, and failing this, the brother of the deceasedKulumbra-mitta received the authority. If a headman became incapacitated,or for some other reason did not fill his office satisfactorily, thenthe old men would set him aside and select some one of the obove mentionedin jis place. The medicineman Bagerum (p ) did not become Headman

These instances which extended over a considerable part of theEastern part of the continent,are taken either from my own observationof rom the staements of competent correspondents, and show that in these tribes (which I have taken as illustrations - crossed out) there were menrecognised as having a conrol over the tribes people, whose orders were obeyed, and who received designationswhich in some cases may be translated "elder" or "great one". These ins-tances justify the conclusion that similar Headman existed in other tribes(in the parts of Australia, and in fact their existence generally -crossed out) in south/eastern Australia. No doubt that in some tribes their power and authoritywere better established than in others, while in certain tribes there wasa tendency for the office of headman to be transmitted from father toson. (?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????)so if the latter were worthy.Simply as a question of terminology it is well to avoid the use of the__________________________________________________________________

(2) A.L.P. Cameron( ) John B. Bribble (These 3 names crossed out)(3) John B. Gribble

(1) J. B. Gribble

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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ly his voice which decided questions discussed at the meetings of theinitiated men which were held. when during the ceremonies two of thenovices were brought before the old men, by their guardians, charged withhaving broken some of the ceremonail rules, it was Bunbra who spoke lasthis directionsas to them were obyed.

In the olden times the Gweraeil-kurnai, or as I have almostliterally translated the term, the Headman took an active part togetherwith the other old men, in dealing with breaches of their moral code,for instance unlawful, that is incestuous marriages, which were punishedwith death.

In each clan of the Chepara tribe there was a Headman calledKulumba-mutta that is Greatman,, and in the Chepara clan itself the Kalumbra-mutta was superior to all the others.

The office of Headman descended to the son, if no son thento a daughters son, and failing this, the brother of the deceasedKulumbra-mitta received the authority. If a headman became incapacitated,or for some other reason did not fill his office satisfactorily, thenthe old men would set him aside and select some one of the obove mentionedin jis place. The medicineman Bagerum (p ) did not become Headman

These instances which extended over a considerable part of theEastern part of the continent,are taken either from my own observationof rom the staements of competent correspondents, and show that in these tribes (which I have taken as illustrations - crossed out) there were menrecognised as having a conrol over the tribes people, whose orders were obeyed, and who received designationswhich in some cases may be translated "elder" or "great one". These ins-tances justify the conclusion that similar Headman existed in other tribes(in the parts of Australia, and in fact their existence generally -crossed out) in south/eastern Australia. No doubt that in some tribes their power and authoritywere better established than in others, while in certain tribes there wasa tendency for the office of headman to be transmitted from father toson. (?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????)so if the latter were worthy.Simply as a question of terminology it is well to avoid the use of the__________________________________________________________________

(2) A.L.P. Cameron( ) John B. Bribble (These 3 names crossed out)(3) John B. Gribble

(1) J. B. Gribble

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Eaglehawk and lived in the Ovens River near Wangaratta and from the Wŭdthau-worŭng speaking people who lived at Geelong. While [crossed out - they] women camefrom these places as wives, their sisters went to their places as wives also.

[left margin note - Faira? Creek]

(or tabulated-thus)Table showing the intermarriage of the [Kulin] clans and tribes

Name of the tribe - (1) Urŭnjeri Ballŭk Locality - KewClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (2) Būllŭk-wilŭmLocality - CranbourneClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (3) Nira BallŭkLocality - Kilmore, BendigoClass - WaangLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (4) Kūr-ŭng-jang BallŭkLocality - WerribeeClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (5) Yau-ŭng-ilŭm BallŭkLocality - Between Mt Macedon, Kilmore, HeathcoteClass - WaangLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (6) Būn-worŭng BallŭkLocality - Cape SchankClass - WaangLanguage - Būn-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (7) Ngarūk-ilumLocality - DandenongClass - BunjilLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (8) Būn-worŭng Locality - MordiallocClass - BunjilLanguage - Būn-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (9) Gūnŭng illum balluk Locality - Mt MacedonClass - BunjilLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (10) Būthera balluk Locality - SeymourClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (11) Waring ilum balluk Locality - Yea RiverClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (12) Yiran-ilum-balluk Locality - Goulburn River, Seymour to BenallaClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (13) Ngūr-ai-ilum-balluk Locality - MurchisonClass - BunjilLanguage - ngurai-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (14) Ben-ben-dora-balluk Locality - MorupnaClass - BunjilLanguage - ?

Name of the tribe - (15) Wŭdtha-wurŭng-balluk Locality - GeelongClass - BunjilLanguage - Wudtha-wor-ung

[14 insert here]

Column 5 - Remarks - Urŭn = white gum treeballuk = people a number ofWoë = noWillŭm or ilum = campNira = cave or hole in a bankthagun = noyan-ŭng = stone būn = nongarūk = stones

A My informants stated that the people were either bunjil and waaug as far as the Avoca River [crossed out - where] beyond which the people were [Ganulih?] and [Krokitch?]. To the north eastward along the flanks of the mountains and up the rivers as far as the Buffalo River Bunjil and Waaug also extended. [Similar?] they extended to [crossed out - about] near Colac.

To this I may add that [Gamuch?] & [Krokitch?] extended over the extreme north west of of Victoria [?] Mt [Gambier?] (1) On the upper Ovens, the Kiewa, the Mitta Mitta Rivers I have found that the classes were [Matiau?] (Eaglehawk) and Yuthembrŭk (crow) thus [?] in [law?] confirming the statements of my Kulin informants.

Last edit about 1 month ago by Stephen Morey
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[crossed out - In] The Great dividing Range which to the westward of the meridian of Melbourne [curves?] until in Western Victoria it shows mainly by isolated mountain, in the Eastern side rises into a gret chain [crossed out - of mountains] extending to te north East until at the boundary of the colony it rises into its greatest elevation in Mt Kosciusko to the height of 7386 feet above sea level.

The great streams from their mountain form valleys [crossed out - also] though which flow northward [as?] [round?] the River Murray or [north?] [round?] to Bass's [Hut?].

Tribes such as the Woewurrung claimed the river [crossed out - in which] flowing through their country as part of their territory [grounds?] to its sources in the mountains [crossed out - where] by which in summer they [behove?] themselves to hunt. But [crossed out - ?] [crossed out - further than] beyond the sources of the Goulburn/Goulburn River and Yarra/Yarra River Rivers the [crossed out - in] Dividing Range/Great Dividing Range [widens?] [out?] into greater alpine plateas [crossed out - which] with tracts of grass and herbage and bordered or [created?] with still higher rugged mountains. At an elevation of about 5000 ft the timber ceases and the ultimate great downs and summits are clustered with an alpine vegetation glorious in summer time with flowers. So such alpine tablelands continue in succession and at [various?] altitudes from near Woods Point at the sources of the Goulburn/Goulburn River and Macalister/Macalister River River until they terminate in New South Wales in the [tablelands?] of Kiandra. [crossed out - They] The higher plateaux are in winter covered deeply with snow but the lower ones such as that of Omeo in Victoria and Maneroo in New South Wales are habitible all the year round.

[crossed out - In a] On such elevated plateaux were located certain tribes which to some extent formed a nation [which - crossed out] with a community of customs, of ceremonies while yet having some connection with the adjacent tribes of the lower lying [where - crossed out] country. In many these mountaineers occupied the upper valleys of this region also. [crossed out - upper valleys of the Rivers. Rest of line crossed out] about [crossed out - three lines that are difficult to read]They [??]man.lived in the Upper Ovens/Ovens River and Buffalo/Buffalo River Rivers and which was claimed by the Kulin as being Bunjil. In the Southward they intermarried with the small Dargo [??] of the Brabralūng clan of the Kurnai which inhabited a small trail of open country [crossed out - along the] about the junctions of the Dargo, Wonnangatta and Wentworth Rivers. To the Eastward they intermarried with the Ngarego tribe which inhabited part of the

[Left margin note]The [??] tribe which inhabited the Omeo tableland and the Upper Mitta Mitta & Tambo/Tambo River Rivers was [??] into the Omeo

Last edit 16 days ago by Christine
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on such elevated plateaux were located certain tribes where the elevation was such within the region of perpetual sun during the winter months, as [crossed out - but such was the case with the Omeo tribe]: at Omeo in Victoria and Maneroo in New South Wales: But even in such cases the mountain tribes usually occupied some of the higher River valleys which [crossed out - lay any?] prohibit the plateaux from either side, or where the tablelands were inaccessible during the winter months, [crossed out - in summer] the tribes which claimed them had their winter quarters in lower lying country.

Thus [crossed out - The Omeo tribe] on the Gippsland side one branch of the Baiaka clan, the subdivision named [Kŭtbŭru-taura?] or Fire carriers? whose headquarters were on the Avon River [crossed out - at the] in the [??] foothills bordering the plains, during the summer time ascended the spur of Mt Wellington where at a height of 5000 ft then reached the southern edge of [crossed out - the] a plateau now called the Snowy Plains; which excluded northward between the deep valley of the Macalister and Wonangatta Rivers a distance of _____ miles to the Great Dividing Range.

Similarly from the oppposite side the tribe which occupied the valley of the [crossed out - Upper Ovens River and its tributary the] Buffalo River ascended during the summer, [crossed out - the latter] then almost isolated Plateau called the Buffalo Mountain, [crossed out - and the] and was therefore the distant and [??] neighbour of the? Braiaka. [crossed out beneath - former the ???? tableland now known as the Dargo High Plains.]

Beyond [crossed out - these] and still following the Great Dividing Range to [crossed out - the] north Eastward lies the vast tableland out of which at successive elevations rise the sources of the Mitta MittaRiver, known now as the Bogong High Plains, and Omeo.

Here lived formerly a mountain tribe which was divided into two great local groups. One was the Theddora Mittŭng (1) occupying the [Cobungra - crossed out] the Mitta Mitta River and its tributaries [from - crossed out] upwards from about the [Gibbo?] mountain, the Upper Kiewa River and the Ovens River above the Buffalo Mountain, thus being the neighbour of a number of lowland tribes in the northern half of the Dividing Range, among which was the Buffalo tribe which was claimed by my Woeworung informant as [the outlying member of the - crossed out] belonging to those who had the ‘names’ (classes) Bunjil and Wang (1)

[Left margin notes]Theddura Mittung

Mittung = a number of people; also = a number, many. this word particularly appears in Mitta-Mitta River in reference to its rise & number of tributaries.

(1) see p.-----psee also as to the [??] also of the [??] & Omeo with since Kurnai ch us. p.

Last edit 16 days ago by Christine

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reed groundWerribee - Kūrūng jang5 ballŭk(mob)

Mt Macedon - gūnŭng willŭm6 ballŭk

Kilmore neera - ballŭk7 neera = deep gully[Kilmore and Seymour bracketted together]Seymour - Būthera ballŭk8 Alexandra - yowŭng illungMansfield balluk 9Head of Muddy Creek - Warring-illum10 ballŭkBig swampBelow Benalla - [Yarrun - crossed out] Yeerŭm illŭm11 ballŭkCape Schank - Būn mūrŭng12 ballŭkcannot [??] them much good friends

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Wangaratta - Ballŭng Kara13 mittang[crossed out - ballŭk]būlla14. Wŭdthewrung ballŭkGeelong[1 from Geelong - to Geelong + Seymour - crossed out]1 to 14 - 3.8.11.12.4.8.7.10.5. from Bacchus Marsh Grey BallŭkThallin Willŭn-at Bullingerook6. from same as five7. from of Bacchus Marsh & fromDandenong8. from [Ngouranglŭng būllaat MurchisonNgouranglŭng būlla fromEchucha are called[Baingerang]

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

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Jiringal language - by Bega Charley.

man - Paiūlwoman - ngūligahead - KábarnHair - YárraEye - MábraNose - IgilTongue - Thállūnhand - Káuing-ainThumb - NgákūFoot - Djin-aSun - Naū-aMoon - Tháu-a-raFire - KáubiWater - NgókaMy - ngai-allūThey - IndigalHis - wūrtūone - mit-ing-ellitwo - būlla-kūrlathree - pállūm ūrfour - nūriafive - Karoin-galsix - Karoingal- mittangal

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

hw0164 Notes on the Maneroo and Ngarigo

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Ngarego Tribe

The boundaries of this tribe are well defined bythe limits of the Maneroo tableland; being bounded to the West by the Thed-dora of Omeoabout the Cobboras; the Kurnai aboutGelantipy; to the South West by the Biduelliat the Coast Range, and by the same range to the south from the Coast tribes(Murring). To the East they are boundedabout Bong Bong by [othe- crossed out] some tribe.To the North their neighbours were the Wolgal.

The word Ngarego is the name of thelanguage they spoke - the distinctive nameof this tribe being Murring = men. Thisword however includes the Coast tribesand the Wolgal.

While this [Ngarego was- crossed out] tribe called theirlanguage "Ngarego", they called the languageof the Theddora, Kŭndūng-orūr and thatof Gippsland Kūngela. Wild blackswere called Bŭdara and white menmūgan.

The names of the tribes bordering the Ngarego wereNgai-mŭthc-mittăng at Queenbeyan [sic]; Waral-mittang at Bega; Bondi mittŭng at Bondi;Biduell-mittang at Bendoc; Woradjeri mittūngat the Tumut River; the men along the coast were called Katŭng-gal and thosefurther up than Bega - Kŭrial. TheNgarego-mittang were as far as Cooma.The open plains country is calledBimŭng.

[in left side margin at top of page, next to title]yes = yeyono = mūrū

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie
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3Answers to questions in first Series1 Ngarego They also call themselves Mur-ring to distinguishthemselves from other tribes2 and 4 Yes into two classes and Eighteen subdivisionsMeroong Eagle HawkBellet Bellet Lyre BirdNadjinajan BatBullemba Flying squirrelMerndarung Lesser dittoNarnung Black SnakeMoolauor Mungia FishBut-the-Wark MopokeCown-ga Black opossumWa-at Red Wallaby

Look up copy of letter with questions

Yukembrook(Crow)Bra-a-gar Small HawkSchuteba Native RabbitBow-wur Squirrel next in size to BullembaBurroo KangarooBerribang EmuBud-da-luk IguanaKoo-i-oor Native CompanionCow-wan - PorcupinesOo-loon-ban Sleeping Lizard3 Munday says formerly to Mitta the other side of Omeo, to Bong Bongtowards Sydney, to Braidwood and to Bega.5. Munday still says that Merong may only marry a totem ofYukembrook, but when asked how, he a Merong is marriedover

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0436 Notes by Howitt on Omeo 'tribe' and letter from Bulmer

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1Omeo TribeJohn Buntine Esq J P Tongatha

TribesI was about 14 to 15 when I went to Omeo with Mr McFarlane.Tha Blacks or any of them who are left will know me wellby the name of "McFarlane's Johnny!"The Omeo Blacks were divided into two tribes.The Thed-dora who inhabited the country up the LivingstoneCreek from the Township, the Jim + Jack and Butcher'sCountry = the Victoria Plains. These people knewof Dargo where they used to go to kill the Dargo Blacks.A young fellow known as Theddora Johnny was my principal informant. It was he that wentdown with McFarlane to Gippsland. The Blackfellowthat went with McMillan was named Friday.The Omeo tribe lived about the Plains, the Mitta Mittaand over eastward where they joined on tothe Maneroo tribes. They also extended down Bindi to Tungeobut not as far as Numlamungie.

Medicine MenTo this part of the whole tribe belonged Metokothe Head wizard and Doctor. "Old cockey"who was a Doctor and "Cobbon Johnny" whowas then Head fighting man.Metoko was supposed to be able to blow something likecobwebs out of his mouth up to the sky and then toclimb up to Drŭm-ŭ-lŭn.I remember when about a hundred blacks, men, womenand children went down to Gippsland underthe protection of the whites and camped at Heyfield(McFarlane's) that when one of the men was sickOld Cockey went into the hut to cure him. The cookwas sent by us to watch proceedings through the openingsbetween the slats at the back of the Hut. He reportedthat Cockey turned down the blankets from the sick man. That he then sucked his stomachabout the navel and then ran to the door- blew out a great puff of wind, jabberedsome words clapping his hands together at the same time and ran back after shutting the door to repeat the performance.

Bull roarerOnce when in the blacks' camp at Omeo stationOld Cockey being there alone he shewed mea wooden instrument a few inches long - withnotched edge, and tied by its pointed end to a stringat the end of which was a short stick handle.

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie
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5OmeoTribesTheddora Mittŭng = Cobungra, Mitta Mitta, Yakendanda [sic]Kiewa, Oven River down to Bufalo [sic]Kandangera Mittŭng Omeo Plains, Limestone RiverBindi, Tongeo

Jenny Cooper is a Theddora of Yakida (Yakendanda)She formerly spoke the Theddora - now speaksthe Ngarego languageMittŭng = a number, or many +cMitta Mitta is a big river all the way along its course

TotemJenny Cooper says she is a Būtalūng which she says is the same as Djeetgŭn

Marriage It was an uncle who gave his daughter towife to nephew

HeadmanBiraarkMetoko was a Headman called a Tūrki.a Birraark was a Būdjan belan. ButKing Charley says that a Būdjanbelan isa man who can take out people'sfat at a distance, or go to a distanceto do this. Bŭt-teré = take out fat [2 written under take and 1 under fat]

InitiationWhen boys are made young men the great spirit"Mallŭr" comes down and makes a noise likethunder. This is to frighten the young men.When the teeth are knocked out the young [man - crossed out] womencover up the boys with rugs. The boys do not look at them. I heard the noise of Mallŭr andit was like Thunder. Young women havingcovered up the boys leave them. The boys sit with theirheads drooped. I do not know more about mallŭr- women are not allowed to know.

The skyThere is another kind of country up above the sky andthere are other blackfellows there.

[written in left side margin]Language?

Last edit about 1 month ago by Jacqui Durrant

hw0185 Howitt notes on the Wolgal

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[left column]Murray Jack - Malian- Yibaiwas born at Thalbungun a mountainat Head of Tumut River famous for WambatsJack Johnny MragulaMan - murrinewoman - Kowamba - BallanHead - Kudagong Hair YerungEye - GoondoveNose - NoorTongue TallangHand MannamaninThumb Nadjan - dittoFoot - Mai-dowaSun - MammaitMoon - GoondawangFire WattaWater Najūngmine indigithy - ngaimbahis - ngaim ba junmaind-wa indigi1 = mitambo2= blŭlla3- blŭ-mittŭng4- bai ūlanga number= yabŭng

The name of the fallsin the [??] Riveris Langeri-yan-yura

[right column]Johnny Mragula is WalgalWalgal LanguageNganain = yesWan-a-gain = No

Boundaries of the Walgal countryCowombut - down River to Tom Grogginto Wheelers - Cudgewa - as far[as far - crossed out] as Walariganya River joining theMurray - at Albury on WūrajeriMitta Mitta all Thed-doraOvens River all Kūlinto Tumberumba - AdelongKilmore Ck to TumutDown Tumut to GundagaiGoloot - Cullinbong - Lambing Flatto Yass - Queenbeyan [sic] - MicalagoCooma - Kiandra - Lobs Hole- Thelbingūng Mountain - thenaccross to Cowombut

Wolgal class system + totemsMeroongEaglehawkBellet Bellet - Lyre BirdNadjinajan - BatBullemba - Flying SquirrelMundarung - little Dittonamung - Bk snakemoolau or munjea - FishBut the wark - mopokeCownga - Bk opossumWa-at Red Wallaby

YukembruckCrowBraagur - Small HawkTchuteba - Rabbit ratBow-wur Squirrelnext in size toBullembaBurroo KangarooBeribang EmuBud-da-luk IguanaKooioor Nt CompanionCorr-on Porcupineo-loon-ban Sleeping Lizard

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-34-15 Howitt to Fison 17 August 1880

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The results beside the corrections in the note now sent are these:A large tribe existed in the N.W. part of Victoria between the Grampians, Pyrenees, Avoca, the Northern Mallee scrubsand the scrubs west of the Wimmera. It was divided intoclasses - such as Mūk jarrawaint and [?Banjū būnnū](for each man or woman in [?first] was Mūk jarrawaint) and in lattereach man was [?Banjū būnnū] - [?wūrnditch] and each womanwas [?Banjū] [?][ ?] - the first class is named froma break up of the latter one. I cannot trace the derivation yet.Other classes existed yet to which I cannot get data. Myinformants belonged each to one of these above. They each speakalmost the same language, and are of the same totem,([?Gartchūker])and give me the same totems as [?]in their class and they each state that these [?] excludedbeyond their own boundaries. It looks to me now as if we might find the following [?] groups.

1. Westernport, Yarra - Goulburn.2. Victoria west opf Lodden & north of Dividing Range.3. Murray River at any rate below Echuca.4. Geelong, Colac etc.5. Western Victoria south of Dividing Range and west of Hopkins Rv.6. N.E. Victoria between Goulburn Rv & Murray up to say Albury.7. Upper Murray, Mitta Mitta, & Omeo.8. Gippsland.

I am meditating compiling a comparative list ofwords for these eight hypothetical groups.

I send also a supplementary note re Orestes; also acondensed [?] [?] of [?] main passages as tochange of descent. I [?] it hoping to get [word crossed out] [?]texts of Euripides so that I could give you verses [?]but I don't know when I shall receive it so I wait no longer.I have been for a very long time carrying about with meyour letter re Antigone and I cannot see any

Last edit about 1 month ago by HelenB
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