Howitt and Fison Papers


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18 B

This tribe who call themselves Adjadūra [underlined] is divided into four classes.

[Table of 2 columns]Adjadūra class system[Column 1] Classes[Row 1] Kari = Emu[Column 2] Totems[Row 1]Miduga = swallowPolára = mulletWaltha = wild turkeyMŭrū = magpieWinta = mopokeWaldarū = larkKŭdli = dingo

[Column 1] Classes[Row 2]Waui = red kangaroo[Column 2] Totems[Row 2]This class name with all its totemsis now extinct

[Column 1] Classes[Row 3][Wilibuthu?] = shark[Column 2] Totems[Row 3]Maiabado = wild gooseWili = pelicanKangbŭra = butter fishmondilu = stingrayWalaltu = whiting

[Column 1] Classes[Row 4]Wilta = EaglehawkColumn 2] Totems[Row 4]Wortu = wombatWolda = wallabyNantū = kangarooMūlta = sealgūa = crow

The law of marriage as to the classes seems to have been that there was no restriction within the memory of the [crossed out - present] old men living in this year 18-? as to [crossed out - under] [?] of any one class taking a wife from one of the three other classes or their respective totems. Now was there as intribes yet to be spoken of a restriction in marriage to certain women of some particular locality [word crossed out] excepting that in this case the class names (and then totems) had in fact as I have mentioned as - p - become segregated each into one of the four districts into which the tribal (Yorke Peninsula)

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie


18D{Look up the tribes from Port Carpenter down to Adelaide}

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The Narrinyeri tribe lived around [crossed out - the great land?] [crossed out - great] Lake Alexandrina & Lake Albert which form the termination of the River Murray and which open into the Sea by the Murray mouth, the boundaries of their country [?] from Cape Jervis to Mannum and thence by by a line some distance back from the coast round to Lacipede Bay . At p. I have given the local organization of the tribe into 18 clans ([?]) each with a definite tract of country and [ford?] ground. I now [crossed out - purpose] speak of the totems which are attached to each local clan.

[Left margin note](1) Mr Taplin called these "tribes" - [?] order to bring this information [into?] live with this work [crossed out - I have [?] depend of them as clansof the Narrinyeri tribe.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Title] Narrinyeri clans and totems. (2)[Columns] Clan - Totems(1) Rasninyeri - Wirrŭlde [crossed out - or Tangeri] = Wattle gum(2) Janganarin - Manguritpuri = Pelican(3) Kōndalinyeri - Kandali = whale(4) Lungundaōrn - [Taidityeki ? or Taieltyeri?] = Tern(5) Turarorn - Turi = Coot(6) Pankinyeri - Kŭnguldi = butterfish(7) Kanmeraiorn - Kanmeri = Mullet (8) Kaikala binyeri - Ngulgarinyeri = Bullant, Pingai = Water weed(9) Mungulin yeri - Wanye = chocolate sheldrake(10) Rengulinyeri - Turi-it-pazni = Dark coloured dingo(11) Karatinyeri - Turi-it-parni = Light coloured dingo(12) Piltinyeri - maninki = leach, [Pomeri?] = catfish, Kēdkali = IguanaYalkinyeri - ditto - ditto - Tiyanwi = IguanaWŭloke - ditto - ditto - Warangŭmbi = Iguana(13) Korowali - Waiye = Whip snake(14) Pŭngūratpūla - Peldi = Musk duck(15) Welinyeri - Nakari = Black duck, Ngumundi = Black snake red belly(16) Lathin yeri or Kalabunyeri - Kŭngari = Black Swan, Ngaraki - seal, Kikinŭmi = Black snake grey belly(17) WŭnyaKŭlki - Nakari = Black duck(18) ngrangatari or Gŭrang wari - Waukaw[crossed out ayai]iyi [Waukawiyi] = Kangaroo rat

[Left margin note}(2) Native tribes of South Australia [J D Hood?] added c 1899The Nariū yeri p 2.(quote Taplin's original answer) ----also from communication by Taplins [?].

Last edit 3 months ago by Christine



[Diagonal line upper left to lower right through text sometimes obscuring words]

[Table of 3 columns][Table title] - Clans and totems of the Wobjoballuk [underlined]

[Column heading titles]Classes - Totems - Claim

[Column 3 crossed out - Moiwillŭk (carpet snake) - tikomai (venomous snake)mindai (a small snake) - morokŭt [??] -wūrip (small bird with top knot) - mitjan (the moon)

[Column 1 at right angle to text 1-6] [Kro Kitch?]

(1) - Ngauina-gŭli [underlined] men of the sun - Bunjil (formal?] , Ngiarau (Turkey), ? (opossum), gŭr (a grub), jaruka (a tuber), gore (kangaroo), Burra (red kangaroo)

(2) - [gartapuka?] [underlined] [?] which [cos?] - "

(3) - Bareurin [underlined] a cave - "

(4) - Batya-ngal [underlined] Pelican - (There are Batjangal in both classes, I have not been able to ascertain how the totems are divided between each).

(5) - Wartwŭt [underlined] (Hot wind) - Moiwillŭk (carpet snake), tikomai (venomous snake), mindai (a small snake)morokŭt ([perman or German?] to Southeast), wūrip (small bird with top knot) mitjan (the moon)

(6) - Mŭnya? or Mŭrnya?] [underlined] a yam] - ?[Line across page]

[Column 1 at right angle to text 1-6] Gamutch

(1) - Jallan [underlined] deaf adder - [Gŭ??owara?] (black man) - [crossed out wūrand] Berejŭl (tiger cat)[Waa?] (crow), Wilkri (dingo)

(2) - Ngŭngŭl [underlined] The sea - ?

(3) - Batja-ngal [underlined] Pelican - [two words crossed out] ? (thunder), [gonŭ??] (magpie), boäm-baik (stick tail-native cat)Wanyip (Fire), [?]rtjuk (white gull or girl), Burtila (white back cormorant?]), Borŭp (small black cormorant) , Wangwŭng (large black cormorant) Ngari (Casuarina glauca), Karinbal (a wader with spotted breast & long [legs?]), Baruga ( grey heron), Propom ([?])

(4) = Wiraut [underlined] black cockater = Joyo (small iguana), Nganur (Lace lizard), Ngŭri ( black duck) gŭmil (green turtle), [Bernér?] (teal) jering (a bird)

Last edit 3 months ago by Christine


[Crossed out 36] 37

[Left margin note]Rv J Bulmer Bidwel [Biduel?]-mitŭng

The class divisions of the Wolgal tribe were obtained from this old man who was one of the singers or bards and [crossed out - who] had joined the Ngarejo/Ngarego/Ngarigo of Maneroo.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Title] Class system of the Wolgal tribe

[Row 1][Column 1 heading] Class divisions[Maliaro?] - Eaglehawk

[Column 2 heading] Totems1 Banda - Kangaroo2 Nūron - Emu3 [crossed out - Yubai] Ebai - Hawk4 [Mari?] - Dingo5 Wūthering - Flying Squirrel 6 Belit-belit - Lyre bird

[Line under row]

[Row 2][Column 1 heading] Class divisionsŪmbe - crow

[Column 2 heading] Totems1 Megindang - Wombat 2 Natjauajau - Bat 3 [Maralang?] [crossed out - Wajnalang] - Brown snake 4 Bringal - Star (Venus) 5 Waniyūk - Bandicoot 6 Wandeli - Porcupine

[Line under table]

The law of the class divisions the ususal one. But that of their totems was said to be that the totems would marry as placed in the above lists. For instance another Wolgal man Maliau-Ebai (3) [crossed out - would marry] married Umbe-marakang [crossed out - Wearalang? and to] (3) and the children take the class and totem names of their mother. This I give with reserve. yet this old man - [Mr Agula?] - was so far as I knew him a trustworthy informant, and a perfect mine of songs both festive and ceremonial (Bora) of this tribe.

At any rate the Wolgal as thus defined would touch upon if not include some of the Wirajuri speaking people when class system differs materially from the above, being of the Kind being familiar to us under its Kamilaroi Form.

Before proceeding further into New South Wales it is necessaryto say something of the coast tribes beginning with the Biduell/Bidwel-mitŭngwho I have just mentioned. This small tribe was not counted among the Kurnai although the Krautŭn clan of that tribe occupied the sea frontage from the Snowy River mouth to Cape Everard thus cutting off the Biduell/Bidwel from the [sea - crossed out] actual coast frontage.

Their country is one of high mountain ridges descending from the coast range, which is the edge of the great Maneroo table land, and of lower usually sandy country extending to the coast. The whole country was covered with forests and most with dense scrub which were made

Last edit about 1 month ago by Christine

hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages



8per Billy WoodJinnunculus [?Chenchoule?] - Mlee - djēn - Lick - legRobbin [sic] (Pet. [?trusla?]) BibbrénRed Wallaby- GinnaraCotols Farm Būlŭmajiraua- Bilby KangaarooMarch Fly- NgarawatNarūt - Wambat [sic] is Muk KurnaiGūla- Sloth Bear - [ditto]Wottŭn- Opossum [ditto]Batalŭk- Lace Lizard [ditto]Takwan-Black Wallaby [ditto]Djira- Kangaroo [ditto]Barn- Dingo[ditto]Baui- Small Wallaby[ditto]Ginnara- Red Wallaby [ditto]Gūrnŭn- Seal [ditto]Gändū- Whale [ditto]Gwannūmŭr-ŭng- Eaglehawk [ditto]Bi-wing- Hawk- Muk WrūkŭtBaandagŭn- Mopoke Muk KurnaiBūrŭn- Pelican Muk KurnaiTeddelik- frog [ditto]Ngarūgal - crow [ditto]Tatanlūk- Leatherhead muk wrūkŭtKartū- Blue Crane [ditto]

Karian- Gang Gang [ditto]None of the three Cockatoos, any snake, [?hawk?] crow, Laughing Jackass are Muk Kurnai

Gwénnet Bellbird[mole - crossed out] Jijera- mole cricketBūndragŭn- Mountain White gumKūpbarra- Blackbutt- E. RegnansJárl- Daviesia latifolia

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

hw0418 Howitt Notes on Wotjobaluk



p 3 removedfor questionnaireon back also8 + 9

WotjoballaiukWeringa-ba-kutchap division - Pine PlainRock Spring near Lake Corrong

[The following are grouped under the following, which is written on the left hand side]Wartwut claims: gāng - Typha angustifoliamoi wil - a poisonous snakemindai - [ditto] [ditto]Tickomai - Brown snakeLark - reed[?Leiruk?] - [Death adder - crossed out] a snakeWurke - bunga - death adder snakeBingal - Diamond snakeJarrocha - poisonous snakeTe-kom - [ditto] [ditto]Lerk - a small snake

Bāp - E. sp. white gum local nameNgaui - the sunmitjen - the moongarchuka - gotjun - native companionbōk - BandicootKau-ur - EmuMunya - a yamWallang - wood duck

Ngurau - TurkeyJallup - mussel - Jeri - Bk cockatoo - red in tailBenera - teal duckYurkorn - a lizardngari - [?Bull oak?]Julwil - musk duckBityangur - mountain duck[Kr - crossed out] Kirauer - a small diverDual-dual Duck with pendant side of billngaruar - magpie gooseDurt - like a teal duckwūtchuk - like a duck

waang - crowKolor nok - snake - not poisonous- red bellyJallan - Whip snake - yarn - native catBerejul - Tiger catgunowara - black swan[jinap - sulphur crested cockatoo - crossed out] wilkur - dingo

Joyo - small lace lizardNgarnur - [?Larger?] lace lizardWotcha - Largest lace lizardWurant nguri - Black duckBk cockatoo gŭrmil - Black snakeWallap - Sleeping LizardJinap - Sulphur crested cockatooPitchi-Kal - quandongKutchi - like quandong

Barnga - grey heronBatyangal - Karimbal - wader long legs, spotted breastsJarb gūk - white gul [sic]Burtita - white bellied CormorantBorup - smaller black cormorantWangwūng large black cormorantWanyep - fire

[written in left side margin]Sergeant Major


Wrembulin = Krokitchher daughters = Kaputch[?Jenutgenkt?] = Krokitch-jallupGartuk = Krokitch

Sergeant Major


[written in table under Wartwut]Bial - E. [?Rustrala?]Ngaui - the sunnutjen - the moongotjan-native companionbōk - bandicootKau-ur - EmuMunya - [wild duck - crossed out] yamWallang - wood duck

Last edit 6 months ago by Stephen Morey
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