Howitt and Fison Papers

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I recognize the names of the animals as Marroura the [Karnie] was a large lizard and belonged to the [Maguw..] and I remember very many nice dinners I had off the [Namiba (...forth) then also belonged to the Kilpurra Blacks often talked about Capt Sturt & Major Mitchell many old men were there who had no doubt been among those who opposed the Captain near the junction

Last edit over 2 years ago by nburgess

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As I have indivated before the term ghost includes not onlydeceased relatives but also stangers, of their own tribe or evenof other neighbouring tribes, who would be certainly enemies.

I was told by a Tatūngalūng that when a boy sleeping inthe camp of his parents. He was awakened by the outcries of his fatherand starting up fount him partly out of the camp on his back kicking while his wife held him bu the shoulders. His father said that whilelying bu the fire a mrart came up with a bag, and tried to pull himout of the camp by the foot. He then cried out and his wife caught hold of him and the mrart vanished. I this account and evil mrartrepresent the night mare of our own people.

Tankowillin and his friend Turlburn were once walking past a fenced in garden, near Bairnsdalein Gippsland,when they were much alarmed by seeing what seemed to be a fiery eye watching them between two of the palings. Believing that a mrart was there hidden on the watch for them, they were afraid and ran off to their camp.

Another instance is however that of a ghost which though not related to the person whom it visited, was not inimical to him.

Tulaba when gathering wild cattle for a settler XXXXYXSX near the Mitchell river in Gippsland, dreamed one night that two mrarts were standing near his fire. They were about to speak to him, or he to them, Iforget which. When he awoke, they had vanished, but on looking at the spot where they had stood, he perceived a bulk (pp ), whichhe kept. He valued it much as powerfull magic.

(?)Last page. Each creaturem or at least each creature used for foodwas believed to have a sporot. Any young man or young woman eating forbidden game, for instance, emu, black headed snake, spiney anteaterand [...?] it and would gradually pine away and dieuttering the sound perculiar to a creature in question.

Last edit 2 days ago by gsl8zj

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{Left margin note]

[??] ofSee - Section 5 evil ghosts [underlined]

I was told of a Talūngolung man whom I know [crossed out - [who spoke the] [crossed out - other is in camp by] that as a child [crosssed out - he was] sleeping in the camp of his parents, he was awakened by the outcries of his father, and starting up, found him partly out of the camp on his back, kicking, while his wife held firmly the shoulders. His father said what while lying by the fire a 'mrart' came up with a bag and tried to pull him out of the camp by the foot. He then cried out and his wife caught hold of him and the mrart vanished.

[Left margin note to top of next paragraph]Insert atp - (+)

[Line across page, down RHS, across bottom to note in left margin]Brewinda in see Chap - p -Nūndū-mŭys = [2 words crossed out]below[??] & to look or catcheye [mŭn wŭa?] = spear thrower.

[Crossed out - Julaba where I have elsewhere mentioned] Thus [crossed out - might] [any one?] mrart man [crossed out - ??] [??]] the Kurnai referred the myth man of our own people. I said that his "father" brothers murryi (p -) ocassionally visit him in sleep and communicate to him sings (charms) against [Jukiren?] and other evils. One charm which he thus learned and which I have heard him sing to cure pains in the chest - is as follows " Jūndŭnga Brewinda (1) nŭndŭ-ŭnja ūgarinda mri mŭrriwŭnda. or freely have liked "Oh Jŭnding! & believes Brewinda has hooked me with the eye of his throwing stick" (2)and then such charm also communicated to Juliba & heard him using at the Jeraeil (see p.) to alleviate the internal pains of his old wife.

(Quote this).

[Left margin note](1) see p -(2) [??] [??] like the frayed fibres of stringy bark which the medicine man & continue prefers to [??] as the cause of disease.

[Line across page]

[Left margin note]Kurnai

As to a [well?] [??] Mrart the ([feeling?]; [crossed out - Another of the Kurnai] Tubaba had one of the [??] since called Būck. (see p -) which he much valued. [Crossed out - because] [crossed out - but found it] He said that when gathering wild cattle for a settler near the Mitchell River he dreamed one night that two "mrarts" were standing by his fire. They were about to speak to him or he to them (I now forget which) when he woke. May be vanished but in looking at the spot where they understood to be "Buck" [??]

Last edit 8 days ago by Christine
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[Most of page the same as previous page]

[Left margin note at top of page][??] of Section 5 evil ghosts [unerlined]

I was told of a Talūngolung man whom I know [crossed out - [who spoke the] [crossed out - other is in camp by] that as a child [crosssed out - he was] sleeping in the camp of his parents, he was awakened by the outcries of his father, and starting up, found him partly out of the camp on his back, kicking, while his wife held firmly the shoulders. His father said what while lying by the fire a 'mrart' came up with a bag and tried to pull him out of the camp by the foot. He then cried out and his wife caught hold of him and the mrart vanished.

[Left margin note][Left margin note to top of next paragraph]Insert atp - (+)

[Line across page, down RHS, across bottom to note in left margin]Brewinda in see Chap - p -Nūndū-mŭys = [2 words crossed out]below[??] at to look or catcheye [mŭn wŭa?] = spear thrower.

[Crossed out - Julaba where I have elsewhere mentioned] Thus [crossed out - might] [any one?] mrart man [crossed out - ??] [??]] the Kurnai referred the myth man of our own people. I said that his "other father" brothers [murryi?] (p -) ocassionally visits him in sleep and communicates to him sings (charms) against [Jukiren?] and other evils. One charm which he thus learned and which I have heard him sing to cure pains in the chest - is as follows " Jūndŭnga Brewinda (1) nŭndŭ-ŭnja ūgarinda onri mŭrriwŭnda. or freely have liked "Oh [Tŭnding?]! I believes Brewinda has hooked me with the eye of his throwing stick" (2)

Anothern such charm also communicated to Juliba & heard him using at the Jeraeil (see p.) to alleviate the internal pains of his old wife.

(Quote this).

[Left margin note](1) see p -(2) [??] [?sub?] like the frayed fibres of stringy bark which the medicine man & continue prefers to [??] as the cause of disease.

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[Left margin note]Kurnai

As to a [well?] [??] Mrart the ([feeling?]; [crossed out - Another of the Kurnai] Tubaba had one of the [marginal?] & [time?] called Būck. (see p -) which he much valued. [Crossed out - because] [crossed out - but found it] He said that when gathering wild cattle for a settler near the Mitchell River he dreamed one night that two "mrarts" were standing by his fire. They were about to speak to him or he to them (I now forget which) when he woke. May be vanished but in looking at the spot where the two stood he perceived a "Buck" which he kept.

[Line across page]

[Left margin note]Another [croeesed out - instance] of the evil separation of some mrarts - the [??].

Janko [william?] and his friend Jūrl-bŭru whom I have before mentioned (p. -) were walking after nightfall had a fence in his garden near [Barrusirtis?] when they were much alarmed by its singing which seemed to them like [crossed out - two] a fiery eye watching them between two of the palings. Belonging to a mrart man there hidden in the [??] they were afraid and ran off to their camp.

Last edit 8 days ago by Christine

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so. From that place we went round the country looking for our enemies.We sent out four spies in the day time, while the main body lay concelaedin the scrub and only travelled by night. Sometimes I was one of the spiessometimes Tankewillin (p ), was one of them. We went all over the countryeven down to the Tarra, but could not meet our enemies. At length we pre-tenede to be friends and returned to Mitchell River. We waited a whileand then sent to the Snowy River men who came to us. But the blackfellowsfrom Maneroond the Ovens returned home, and only a few of the Omeo menremained to help us.

While this was going on the Dairgo and Braiaka men had sentlewin to me saying that we would fight and then be friends. it was deci-ded by the Dairgo old men, that the fight should take place nearDeightonat aplace called Yau-un-dit. We met them and fought but no one was kill-ed. They were too strong for us and ran us back to the Mitchell River.We now waited again for some time till one of the Brataualung brought us amessage from the Headman at Dairgo that we should be friends. it was their custom to do this bysending a spear jagged with quartz asa token. The one he sent by Charley Buchanan was jagged with glass. We saidamong ourselves "we will pretend to be friends and wait till bye and bye.The spear was passed on by way of Bruthen, and sent up to Omeo and so round and back to Dairgo. Then we all gathered, but the Snowy River menwould not come, for they were frightened, two of their men had been spear-ed.

Bruthen-munji (p ), told us "we must send a message to theDairgo men where to meet us, but we must be quick and get to BushyPark"We had with us Omeo men, with their Headman Nukong. Our Headman wasBruthen-munji.

(I) A Brabralung native from the Wuk-Wuk division of that clan.(2) Sometimes one of the skin aprons worn by the men was sent round inthis manner as a token, hung at the point of the spear.

Last edit 22 days ago by ALourie

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6A[Table][Title]The Kurnai Tribe

Column 1 - Clans, row 1(i) Krauat-ŭn-galŭngfrom Kanat = east; galŭng= a possessive [postfix?] = of or belonging to the sea coast from near Cape Everard to the Snowy River, all that river with its tributaries up to about [Willis?]; the sea coast from the Snowy River to the Entrance to the Gippsland Lakes with all streams flowing into Ewings Marsh and [Ru?yers?] -

[Column 1, row 2](2) [Brabralung?] - from Bra-bra manly and (ga)lung = if or belonging to all the [crossed out - country waters of the] drainage areas of the Tambo, Mitchell, and Nicholson Rivers with the [?] tributaries to their extreme sources, also to the weir on the Mitchell River to Providence Ponds, with a corresponding frontage to the Gippsland Lakes.

[Column 1, row 3](3) Bra-yak-(g)alŭng = him Bra = man, yak = west - all the country west of Providence Ponds watered by the Avon, [crossed out - River]] Macalister [crossed out - and] Thompson and Latrobe Rivers down to the junction of these into [?] & thence [?] valley the eastern bank of the Latrobe to Lake Wellington thence - eastward by the [?] to [somewhere?] near [?], thence northward to Providence Ponds.

Column 2 Title - Lesser [?]Row 1 - a) Ben – Sydenham Inletb) Dūra – 12 miles up the Snowy River from the seac) Wūrnŭng-gattung – Lake Tyersd) Brt-bitta (= a hollow in the ground)– Jimmy’s Point – entrance to Gippsland Lakes

Row 2 - (e) Bruthen, in the Tambo River(f) Waiŭng = widgeon - near Bairnsdale in the Mitchell River(g) Wŭk-wŭk = Lindeman Flat. Mitchell River(h) Mŭnji = on the north shore of Lake Victoria= There! or "the place of" e.g. -?(i) Dairgo - on the Dargo River

Row 3(k) Kŭtbūn-baura from Kŭtbūn = to have or carry and baura = fire. The name also of a hill or the upper Avon River.(l) Bŭnjil Nŭlŭng - the country between the Avon River and the Eastern boundary of the clan, south of Stratford - Bŭnjil = personal appelates of the older men-Nŭlŭng = mud. Named after the Head man of the division at the time when Gippsland was settled by the whites -(m) Bunjil-clan - the country between the Avon and the Macalister Rivers. Dan = emu - the name of a Head man -(n) Bunjil-Kraura from Kraura = west wind [Northern?] country of the clan west of [north?] to them almost impenetrable forested scrub in west Gippsland from the name of the Headman.

Column 3 title Wives fromRow 1 a) wives from b c d and Mallagoota Inlet and Twofold Bayb) wives from c a t and [p. 13] Bina-jera (the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland lakes and the sea as far as the Entrance to the Lakesc) Brüthen – on the Tambo River – Waiūng Widgeon – near Bairnsdale Mitchell River and Kŭbbūn laura – Upper Avon Riverd) b and Bina-jera (see b) or is it I = Būnjil Nŭlŭng – between Avon River and eastern boundary of clan south of the Stratford

wives toa) b c d k Twofold Bay Mallagoota Inletb) c e g t Bina-jerac) Bruthen Waiūng Widgeon Kŭbbūn laura and Bina-jerad) b or I and Bina-jera

Last edit 8 months ago by Christine

XM31_ICDMS_lowres Handwritten draft notes

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I have [??] informants as toThe present actual condition of the Kurnuand Mūrawari tribes from the Superintendantof Police at Bourke through the courtesy of Mr R. H.Beardsmore the Secretary for the Board for the Protection of Aboriginesin SydneyThe Kurnu tribe now numbers only 25[individuals- crossed out], and the Mūrawari 40individuals, a number of whom live at theBrewarrina [abori- crossed out] Mission StationI have also received a statement showing the respective numbers of Full blood + Half CasteAborigines in the Bourke District for the lastten years. I may mention that the Bourke Districtcomprises twenty four counties, being an area of approximately one fifth of the State of New South Wales[which - crossed out] the extent of which is 310.700 square miles.The Bourke District may be considered ashaving been settled at three different periods[one following the - crossed out] the first being its eastern partfollowing the exploration of Sturt and Mitchell sayfrom 1830 to 1840, the second along the Darling Riverand is [?particular?] above Bourke from 1845 andthe North Eastern part after 1861-2.[The effect of this and of the formation of towns has - crossed out][been - crossed out] On this view I consider that the aborigineswill have dominated in number in population to thedifference in the time which has elapsed sincesettlement by whites in their country. I think that one half ofthe surviving Fullbloods will probably be found in the latest settled area.

[written in left side margin]1898 Full blood Aborigines 824 Half caste Aborigines 4541907 [ditto] [ditto] [ditto] 540 [ditto] [ditto] [ditto] 425

Last edit 15 days ago by ALourie

XM67_ICDMS_lowres Letter from Jocelyn Brooke, undated

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often brought in contact with the blacks of the LynnRiver the Mitchell River The Walsh and Palmer tribes somay be able to get you information from them.I was the first to bring in theblacks on the coast northof Cooktown with a view tomaking friends with themmany had never seen a whiteman beforeThey have some very fine canoesmade of large logs hollowedout with an outrigger onthe outside very like the canoesused in Ceylon by the natives.Wishing you every successin your useful and interestingworkI am Siryours trulyJocelyn BrookeSub Inspector N.P.

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Treatment when Sick [underlined]If a black has a headache a ropeis tied round the head and heis bled with a shell or flintthe head being beaten with a smallstick to cause the blood to flowfreely.Pains in the back are cured byanother man standing on the back of the sick man.Certain herbs bruised and soakedin water are used as medicine alsothe gum of the blood wood tree meleted in waterAn aching tooth is pulled out witha string if a back one if an incisoris knocked out with a stone astick being used as a chisel.Sores are dressed with mudor else with down off a duck or hawk.

Last edit 17 days ago by ALourie

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1. The Dalebŭra tribe claimed countryhaving a radius of say fifty milesfrom Lammermoor Head station atthe Thomson River in the MitchellDistrict. In 1865 the numbers of this tribe were about 500.

Index - country 1 - class 2 Betrothed 2 Government 3Offences against tribal law 3. message sticks 4 medicine men 5Burial 6 Bora 7 Food - regulations 8Infanticide 9 - cannibalism 9 gesture language 9Smoke signals 9 Customs of the women 10 Self inflicted [?wounds?] 11. 12Cure for snake bite 12 wild blacks 14 [??] 16[?various?] - 17/18

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie

XM64_ICDMS_lowres Letter from Jocelyn Brooke 14 March 1884

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Normanby RiverN. Police BarracksCooktownMarch 14th 84

My dear SirI duly received your letterdated Feb 26th and regret to saythat soon after I wrote to youfrom the Walsh River I wastransferred here and my enquiriesamong the blacks was put anend to in that district.I know Mr Palmer well andthe class names he has givenyou of the blacks on the Mitchellare quite right. There are severaltribes on that river and I

Last edit 17 days ago by ALourie
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[left hand side]believe the blacks on theTate River are called Takalakawhile the blacks at the head of the Mitchell are called Gooka-Mene and Gooka YalangaThere is a native police stationon the McIvor River 60 milesnorth of Cooktown and also oneon the Laura River and I will ask the officers in chargeto try and get the informationyou require about the blacksabout Princess Charlotte BayNative Police Officers have plentyof work to do and get very littleencouragement from the Governmentto obtain scientific information

[right hand side]But we have better opportunitiesthan most people to get suchinformation in the course of ourduties. I was the first to bringin the natives into Cooktown andnow some of them are takingcontracts to clear scrub on theBloomfield Sugar Company's Plantationand doing good work and earning wages. I also brought the blacksinto Mr Palmer's station on theMitchell at his request and though they spearedthe manager they are now peaceable.I also got many blacks to engage inthe Beche De Mer trade for which theyare well suited and work wellunder a fixed agreement.Some of the blacks in this district

Last edit 17 days ago by ALourie

tip70-10-24-6 Taplin to Fison 22/9/1873

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2as far as Western Australia. The PortLincoln word for it is Kapi. King GeorgesSound Kypi, (also yemat + Kowin) and Swan River, Kypbi gabbi and djanDo you know if there is any record of the language of the Tasmanian Aborigines? I wish I could get alist of words.The Anthropological Instituteof Great Britain have been kindenough to send me a few copiesof that paper on Native Languagewhich they printed. I do not knowwhether you have a copy of thePublication in which it appearedif however you have not perhaosyou might like to have a cpyso I will risk it and send you onewith this. If you should have an opportunity of getting a listof Aboriginal Words to fit this table at any time I should be gratefulfor them. I am so anxious to seeif I can trace the lines of migrationor immigration by the languages,also the points where lines crossed each other or united. We havean instance of migration inSir T Mitchells case. In hisexploration of the Bogan and upperDarling he found a tribe which wasvery hostile and afterwards hemet the same tribe when he wentacross to the Darling junction by

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-24-8 Taplin Notes 19/10/1874

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the following particularsA. The children of my brothers (I beingmale) are not called by the samename as my own children. Neitheris my fathers brother called by thesame name as my own father.B. My mothers sister is not always,but only under some circumstances, calledby the same name as my own mother.C There is a distinctive name forson, daughter and child: and alsowhile there is a distinctive namefor my elder and younger brothersand sisters, there is a collective termfor all of them.And it will be observed that intermarriage between brothers children and sisterschildren is forbidden (note 3)6. These Marauras are the tribe whichdescended the Darling between theyears 1831 and 1836. They were metby Mitchell's expedition in the formeryear a long way up the Darling;and again met in the latter yearat its Junction with the Murray.The same individuals met theexpedition.

Last edit 9 months ago by ALourie

hw0305 Letter from Cameron to Howitt 14/July/1884

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7from the Belyando where the termsUrgella etc were in use they asked theMathagurri what were their termsand on being told they askedthem to adopt this Belyando euivalentswhich they did and have ever since used them.

The belief of the Mathagurri withregard to witchcraft etc was muchthe same as that of the tribes in thisneighborhood and the initiationceremony was the same.

Mathagurri VocabularyHand Mamboona Man PangilEye Yoko Woman PineyehTongue Tallien old Woman WamooraMouth - Boy KatyakaThigh Thurra Youth Pangil KalpinFoot Tchanna Big Boy KoyeriNose Ng nigur girl MengineEar Pinarr Fire YangoHair Kandarr Water YabuKnee Pungul Earth MugeaToe = Tchalle Tchalli Tchaunn Mitchell grass KeterrTeeth = Errangal Gidyah PactchuriWhisker WallanduMoustache = Mungurra

Betha Betha tribeJoins the Kalkadune on thesouth and are similarlyconstituted. The [sic] practice theKoolpi and circumcision andare something like a sub tribe of the Kalkadune I did not see any of this tribe

Last edit 22 days ago by ALourie

hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages

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4The Kurnai

The JeraeilToolaba's first recollection of a Jeraeil was one heldat where Mr [?Bill?] lives on Reeves River beyond Shaving Point.He was there about [twelve - crossed out] ten years old and his elder brotherBarry was made [?Toutwurring?]. There were so many boysthat the row as they were laid on the ground extended from aobut [?twenty?] paces long. Lanky was made a young man then.

The next was at [?Bringjerra or Bringena?] and at that a great number of people attended. The white men hadjust settled in Gippsland at that time. Toolabawas then about fifteen or sixteen. At the Jer reila whole lot of girls eloped - among others [?Tomy?] [?Hoddinch?]Mary + her two sisters; according to Toolaba theremust have been a dozen of elopements of youngpeople. He says this was because the oldpeople would not give their consent to any of thegirls being married.

The next Jeraeil was at Bairnsdale about thetime that "night came about dinner time". -After that there was another at B'dale wherethe township now is - only Macleod + Joneslived at the Mitchell then.

After that there was a large Jeraeil at Bushy Parkand then no more until ours at [?Wenail?]

Last edit 23 days ago by ALourie

hw0406 Notes on Eucalypt names from Gippsland Aboriginal people

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Names of the Eucalypts given to them by the Gippsland Aborigines---------------------------------------------------------------------------Kurnai names for the Eucalyptsin the Mŭk thāng Dialect (2) ------------------------------------------------------------E. Amygdalina - [tick] ChūnchŭkaAmygdalina - (b) Katalalak or Yertchukamygdalina - (c)-------------------------------- wang-ngara (2)Botryoides - [tick] BinakCapitellata - [tick] [crossed out Dūmŭng Gūyŭn-gūyŭn] [dūmŭng?]Eugenioides - [tick] [crossed out Dūmŭng] yangūraGlobulus - [tick] [crossed out Binak] (Balūk) - wang njara (2)([Brataua?])Goniocalyx - [tick] BálūkGunii - [tick] Gūra binak Hemiphloia - [tick] Dēn or Dérn [word crossed out]Leucoxylon - [tick] Yirik or BwŭrawiMacrorhyncha - [tick] [Káta katak?] or [(Yūróka)] (3) [Thang quai?]Melliodora - [tick] DárganObliqua - [tick] Káta katakOdorata - [tick] DarganPauciflora - [tick] Bŭndagra3 -Piperita - [tick] YángūraPolyanthema - [tick] Den (or Dern)10-Pulverulenta - Bindŭrk [(word crossed out)]

[On LHS Bindŭrk (Mukthang)

Sieberiana - YauŭtStellulata - YīmbitStuartiana - Bŭt BŭtTereticornis - Yūro5- Viminalis - Binak

11- [four lines bracketed crossed out] wang-ngara

[Line crosssed out]

Tristania laurina - Gūyŭr

[circle with dot] Mŭkthang (i.e. Excellent speech) was spoken by the [Brabolenj? or Brabolung Kurnai whoinhabited the country [upon?] Mitchell, Nicholson Tambo River; [near? or the?] Kruatun Kurnai camp[?] [try?] [Dr?]. camp & spoke the [word crossed out] Thang-quai or " broad speech"; the[Brayakalung?] Kurnai inhabited the south of the Avon, Macalister, Thompson [fl?] River & spoke the Muk Thang or variations of it with Bratàua [two words crossed out]--------2------and Tatung Kurnai who inhabited the country between lakesand the sea in South gippslandsea [Nulit?] spoke the Nūlit

[writing on LHS]

(2) E amygdalina is [Erica?] [rest of line crossed out]The bark of the tree is extremely tough and can be stripped up the bole in long stripes. That of E globulus

is not so tough but hangs at times when falling off from the limbs & [trunk?] in long strings from which [perhaps?] the South Gippsland black called it Wang ngara. [rest of line crossed out]

But wanj = bark and ngara = string or tough [as?] [?] [ngarang]] = sinew the application of such a term is much [more?] [appropriate?] E amygladina [(4)?] than to E globulus.

Last edit 23 days ago by ALourie

hw0418 Howitt Notes on Wotjobaluk

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3Major's father's father gave him his "animal"name (ngaur) mindai= a very venomous snake

Krokitch-wartwut-[?claim?]mindaiwurki-bungomoiwill-poison snakepangal diamond snakejarrocha - poison snaketei-korn - snakeLük - small snakeWūrup - cockatoo parrotWillek willek a large bird with red breastMorukirt - rosellaKerangoran - parrot like RosellaKallelak bird with red undereach wing - called Major Mitchell

At the Jain matters are discussed - at a firemade there. For instance if a man he hadapproached a woman who is too near Yauarinto him. Like bringing him before them for an offence.

Jajaurong call the Jain Ūlambara

See the notebook for theirmortuary arrangements

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie

hw0437 W.T. Dawson and H.W. Pettit Gippsland place names and vocal

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2.Biddi – a creekIronmungie – a flatCoongulmerang – station, a succession of small flats [handwritten] Lindenow Station Mitchell River

GIPPSAND LAKESNowre Nowre – Lake TyersBatta-Boulong - Nowre-Nowre – The Ironstone MountainBinginwarree – new entrance to LakesBarramunderang (Devil Devil sit down) EntranceBelligullet – EntranceMulloo (pipe clay) Lake Tyers EntranceChale – brogan – a conical isolated mountTombarro – a river running at the base of Chale-broganTalla-bowee (longtailed wallaby) – a creek running with L. TyersDellin – Coady ValeNinne – Large Bluff left of LakesDellbut – Lightwood Flat in Bank. Jones BayCreug – Creek falling into Jones BayBolodun – point running into Lake below wheat paddockTourr – wheat paddock, Crooke’s HouseNimbun-wullung – Backwater, Jimmy’s point

TAMBO RIVERBradgerac – The Omeo CountryTambo – a riverBendi – a limestone plain, head of TamboBindi – good grass country near Crooke’s StationEnno – mungie – a limestone plain, head of TamboInnio- mungie – Crooke’s StationTongeo-mungie – Crooke’s stationTongio-mingue – a limestone plain, head of TamboBalial-mungee – Tongio lambing stationGowa-mungee – Hill back of Tongio InnNinninda-tunde-wunga - part of Bruthen morassMoran - moran – Stirling’s, BruthenDelbut-wurwun – Junction of Tambo and TimbarraBorran – near Tambo below Mossiface, a resort for pelicans

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie
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4.Bona-Berrie - Hellhole Creek, above TongioGillum - Large hill opposite Shady Creek, East side of riverChirot-Ballan - Junction CreekTallowudgin - Parts of Tambo where there are no possumsNung-nung or )Tambo Crossing Place, McDougall'sNoye-yang) conger eel (AWH)Bongeroot - Fainting RangeMillukmungee - grass coutry on Buchan RiverCragun - Stony CreekBeerr - Road to Bruthen via Marshall'sDarrdong - Marshall's Toora - Place on river near BruthenNillung - Creek crossing Swan Reach Road, BruthenNarrt- Yarrung - near BruthenPundar-Wadda-da - The Lake Bruthen MorassBenkalunka - a small morass, near BruthenDoolneyarn - a backwaterBequa - crossing place at BruthenNoorun-norrun - place opposite where Buchan Road goes up nextriverBoeiyou - Kilmorie HouseBruthan- Mungie - Morass at BruthenBruthen - Long wooded pointTournilli - Peak at end of long-wooded pointDelbadoot - Ridge back of Bruthen MorassMullungdung - end of morass west side of TamboBools-Bools-yurn - Creek Mossiface FlatQuock - point opposite Tambo BluffMietung - Bend in Lake at Tambo BluffQuonnumbrun - Neck of land, mouth of TamboNangwungdite - Point below lagoon on lakeMoar - Saltwater Creek

NICHOLSON RIVERGeremoot - Nicholson RiverTurru - Morgan's PlaceDeerwun - Morass, mouth of NicholsonBoolodun - Morass higher up the Nicholson

MITCHELL RIVER/

Last edit 4 days ago by ALourie
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5.[MITCHELL RIVER- crossed out]Merrindal - a large mountain on the Maneroo RoadMerrindal-mungie - a small river running from Maneroo RoadBoulong-dirra - Dargo Station, MackintoshTail-waddy - Mount EwingToorn-dung - Pretty Boy MountTulloo-bowie - Yellowman's nobRecamermetta - Cobbler's CreekBooloongwall - Mt. TaylorBullumwaal - two spears: Mt Taylor Mt Lookout (AWH)Tooculerdoyung - Point on RiverBerpercutty - Callaghan's SwampToon-toon - Creek from McLeod's MorassBunk-un-wal - mouth of Lguana CreekDoogooree - GlenaladaleCurl-wun - Bluff at Mt TaylorNibber - LucknowWyong (duck) - BairnsdaleNarran (Eagle) - Eagle Point

PERSONALTRIBAL NAMESBraberwollong – Mitchell River and Bruthen BlacksDulungalong} – Lakes Blacks Tatungolong}Crow-widgingolong – Snowy River BlacksBradolong – Buckley’s BlacksBriagolong – Macmillan’s Blacks

RELATIONSHIPCunni, Kanni, Gooni, Kurnai - Black manBullaru (O) - Black womanWermberooket - Black womanJerribung (O), Bourdan, Bourdi - old manBullurn-machu - old ginMilung (O) very old ginTallu-bordine - little old manTallu-murt, Talla-mart - young masterWarrumbull (O) young fellowCoungulla (O) Coungulla - wild blackfellow

[written in left side margin]BuchanMitchellRiver

Last edit 4 days ago by ALourie

hw0196 Notes on the Wonghi tribe

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Wonghi 2A wife was obtained by gift from [the - crossed out] her father andnot by exchange of a female relative.

No instance of elopement of unmarried girlsis recorded. Female captives were theproperty of their captors if of a class fromwhich he might legally take a wife. A Wonghiman would not persist in retaining a femalecaptive of a forbidden class, for by doing so hewould incur the contempt of every memberof his tribe. It is not certain whether he wouldbe killed or not in such a case.

assuming that an Ipai man would regard every Ipathaas his sister - how would he regard Butha? andassuming that he might regard every Matha as hiswife how would he regard every Kubbitha?A reply to this might throw some light backwards into the shadowy past.

It was not I think customary for men to xchangewives to prevent sickness or to avert a calamitythreatened.

The [Ŭnghi - crossed out] Wonghi intermarried with the Woradjeriand the Barkinghi or with any friendlytribes.

[written in left side margin]This seems to point to a system of betrothal

It will be importantto fully confirm this

If we could learn fromwhat localities, nearor distant the Wonghi menfetched their wives - itwould be an importantstep. In the Mitchell blacksbeing from Bathurst obtained awife at Regents Lake, Lachlan Rvand she understood the languagedown below Euston.

x I will make xfurtherenquiries

This opens up manyquestions. Where were these tribes all located;What were their classsystems; did theiryoung men attend the Wonghi Borasor vice versa +c +c?

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie

XM294_ICDMS_lowres The antiquity of man in Victoria

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incision: the bone does not appear to havebeen gnawed; and those who have recently examined thebone generally argue that the cut must have beenmade by a sharp metal implement. The smoothsurface was not likely to have been made byrubbing down, because the opposite side of thebone [?projected?] with a jagged broken edge, whichwould have been worn down at the same timeThe bone has been mineralised, therefore to preserveit from decay it has been [?sized?] and varnished, so thatthe freshness of the cut cannot now be determined.

Look up De Vis paper - he concluded that the bonereceived [in its present shape (from the devonian) and - crossed out][he an- crossed out] its present shape from the hand [?spear?],before it was buried 238 ft below the presentsurfaces of the ground.

xx The cut in the bone is reported as of human originby * * those who have [consider - crossed out] carefully examined it""- nevertheless only spear in Kangaroo Mr Hallx xAt in his address then regarded this bone with [??][??]

"The tribal [division- crossed out] distinction only [?power?] were[??] of the tribe + [?most?] these long undone in Victoria.That they have not been here for a great length oftime is supported by their comparatively small numbersno account [??] [?is?] ever made of this. ButBrough Smyth x x x concluded that the [total - crossed out] number ofaborigines in Victoria at the [??] [??] of his[?correctly?] at only 3000 (vol. 1 p35) Mitchell [?extent?]in lesser + Thomas in 6000. Parker calculated thenumber in Victoria at 7500. Thomas estimated theBunurong + Yarra tribes at 1839 at 207 individuals. (letters from Vic pioneers p272)

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

hw0245 Christison to Howitt 1884/09/23

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LammermoorHughendenSep 23rd

Ackd& repd to17/10/89

A.W. Howitt EsqSale Gipps Land

Sir, Thinking the following may interestyou I send it. I suppose in this districtI know more about the natives thanany one. From my station where I now write I have had close contact with theblacks for 22 years, coming amongst thembefore they saw a white man, andbefore they became demoralised by our [underlined]vaunted civilization. Should you requireany information about them, I shall behappy to write it to you. From where I nowwrite, Mitchell district head of the Thomson and on the dividing range from whichflows that river to the S into Coopers creek,the Flinders to the N.W. into Carpentaria and the riverssuch as the Cape etc, into the E coast

Last edit 4 days ago by ALourie

tip70-10-33-3 Howitt to Fison 15/5/1873

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EastwoodBairnsdaleMay 15 1873

Lorimer Fison EsqrBurwood roadHawthornMelbourne

Dear Sir

In accordance with the wishexpressed in your letter in "Australasian"of last week I forward to youover leaf the native words for thelist of terms given by you so faras I am able to procure them.

They are in the language used by the Aboriginal natives of that partof north Gippsland comprisingthe Mitchell, Nicholson and Tambo rivers and the Lakes

I am Dear SirYours very trulyA. W. Howitt

Last edit 2 days ago by ALourie

tip70-10-34-17 Howitt to Fison 30 August 1880

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Sale Aug 30 1880

My dear Mr Fison

Your note of the [?15/25] Aug seems to have lefta former letter behind somewhere. I have not seenthat you mention having sent via [?N.S.] enclosingthe draft for p.6. It is to be hoped it may yet arrivebut in case it does not I now advise you at once.I shall complete index to K & K tonight and thenthe book is off my hands and a heavy weight removed.

I had no idea what a thing it was to see a work throughthe press; and afterall I am not satisfied with it.I expect -[?] never saw a book through the press elsehe would have added that to the writing which hewished his enemy to do. "That which you do notcare to use" does not at any rate refer to the notewhich shall be duly placed on the title page. I shallstrike out all your free list except [?][?] now have I his address. I must look it up.

I have no news to tell you having so latelywritten. I have a [another - crossed out] new correspondentwho has a station at the Mitchell River

Last edit 3 months ago by HelenB

XM514_ICDMS_lowres

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The Classes of the Kurni1. Kroatungolung The whole of the Snowy Rv +Buchan River[Boggy Ck - crossed out]Lake TyersEast coastKroat=East - Lung= Mūngan = Father (man?)divisions and boundaries wanted

2. Brabrolung Bra=man the whole of the MitchellRiver 3 mobs (see Toolibar's account) Nicholson + TamboRivers

3. Tatūngolung = Ta= south Between Lakes+ SeaAll the land lying between the Gippsland lakes and the seaextending also west to Buckleys river, thence by that rivervia Bayles or Baileys morass to junction of Thomson + Latrobethence by Latrobe to Lakes. Also all the islands in the Lakes except Flannigans Island which belongs to the Brabrolung.Divisions - Binnajerra near Boul Boul (pronounced as in Fowl)Gnarrawut Lake VictoriaYūnthur The remainder to the westMarriage forbidden in the division maybe in among otherdivision or in any other class.

4. Bratowlung [South - crossed out] Fall to sea from the --- Range[Western boundary of the Tatūngolung - crossed out]Boundary by Buckley's River the to range at head therein nearjunction of Latrobe + Thomson Rivers. Thence by the saidrange [towards - crossed out] westward to the Great scrubs and extendingwestwards to [the - crossed out] near the Tarwin River thence to the sea coastwest of Wilsons Promontory.Divisions Yowung Kutwut DelinWarrigal ck Wilsons promontory Buckleys River

5 Briakolung Latrobe, Thomson Mcalisterand Avon RiversBoundaries

[written in left side margin]where is meaning ofBenTūraWūrunngattyBinnajerraGnarrawutYunthurYowungKutwutDelin

are thesenames of birds?

Last edit 3 days ago by ALourie
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