Howitt and Fison Papers

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Search for mŭrring* murring* Murring* Mŭrring* CoastMurring* "Coast Muring" "Coast Murring" "coast Murring"

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The Kurnai have no class or subclass names andtherefore no social organisation as I use that termbut they have unmistakable indications that they[had totems and therefore - crossed out] must have had all atsome former time.

Each individual had a thūndung or elderbrother, [not only in their sex totem Yürung or, - crossed out][Djütgun but also in some - crossed out] being some marsupial animal, or bird, reptile or fish. It is the [They however have no influence upon marriage - crossed out][which is regulated by kinship and local exogamy- crossed out][and survive as the merely as the elder brother and - crossed out][and also as in so far the -crossed out] protector that in[some cases such as Kangaroos + birds- crossed out] it gave[notice of - crossed out] danger, and [also -crossed out] has also invokedsongs in cases of [??]

They [thundung - crossed out] are also spoken of as jiakor flesh as in other tribes.

The [jiak - crossed out] totem was told by a man to his son whenabout eight or nine years of age and by a womanto her daughters. [For instance a man might - crossed out]point out his totem to his son and say["see there that is your thundung; yu must - crossed out][not kill it!" - crossed out]

As these names are perpetuated from fathersto sons, the daughter having also the same, descentis clearly in the male line, and they would benecessarily prepetuated in the locality to whicha man belonged. A good instance is thatof the Bunjil-baul who lived in RaymondIsland in Lake King and whose jiak was [the Gluin - crossed out] a bird the Gluin, whence their nameof Gluin-Kong, the Glui's beak.

[The Australia - crossed out][These Thundung- crossed out][The totem and its human brother are - crossed out][These toems and their human "younger brother"- crossed out][which are younger - crossed out][brother - which are sill in the relative of- crossed out][protected + protector - they the form here the - crossed out][two classes with which we now I feel certain they- crossed out][have at one time I feel [??] [??] at where- crossed out][they preceeded - crossed out]

(1) I am much indebted to the Revd John Bulmerfurther investigating the Kurnai Thundungconfirming my own endeavours, by obtaining a[which - crossed out] of [the - crossed out] old people which abundantly exhibitedof male descent.

[written in left side margin]If I am correct in believing that these "thundung"were at one time[consistent with the two primary - crossed out][?? class divisions - crossed out]part of a two class system thenwe have here an instanceof the peculiar[??] of these coast tribes.The totem which [??]to my view preceeded the class agnate[??]exist, whileit has beenreplaced by rhelocal [?agnate?]

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie

XM10_ICDMS_lowres Notes from Harry Aldridge

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Cutting the two joints off the little finger of thewomen was very common among the coast tribesboth north & south of here, but it was not universalThe little finger being that would indicate a coastwoman that one could not say to what tribe shebelonged. I always looked upon the cuttingoff her little finger as quite optional, that it wasvery generally practiced because it was "fashionable"Many of the men on the coast also bored the septumof the nose and their ears. These mutilations mayhave had some meaning in days gone by, butas far as I know the [....] knew of no meaning.

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XM12_ICDMS_lowres Harry Aldridge notes

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Harry E Aldridge

I have not heard or read of the custom anywhere else of pulling the hair out of a mans face as we practiced in this district between an inland & coast tribe when they met, it was considered a great honour to send word to a man on the other side that you would like him to pull your beard or whiskers out - of course there was only a small quantity of hair left to pull out, the rest being too dead to pull - A [.....] generally took place about mid-day & with a little bees wax on the fingers the operation was soon gone through, fat & burned bark (bloodwood as a rule the young bark of which makes a very fine black [.....]) being rubbed in, I believe it was an exceedingly painful operation. It is I believe something after the style of the making of "blood brothers" one reads of in African [novel].

A Mother of a boy practices the following customs lays the child on the ground on its back puts her two hands on his shoulders, pull his hands [.....] down to his heels, making a peculiar clucking noise with her mouth - this is the make him grow & is done 3 or 4 times a day especially when the child wakes in the morning.

A woman with a boy child on her lap or close to her is liable to severe punishment if she does [... ... that ...]

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Lake TyersOctr 26 1881My Dear HowittWe will be very gladto see you whenever youcan make it convenientto visit Lake Tyers I thinkthis will be the best way wecan then talk over numerousmatters connected withthe Blacks.One of your queries I think I can answer from myown knowledge of the languageof the Kurnai. You ask themeaning of Kroutunkolongit simply means men of the coast. The word Kulong being in the masculine gender. Braguolo is as

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XM235_ICDMS_lowres Typed notes

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[top of page seems to have been cut off]But I think that I can show good [rest of line missing]all the tribes of South East Australia did at one time practise it.

In the accompanying tables are the marital, parental, filial andfraternal terms of relationship, used by the tribes of which the Dieriis the type. I also give the those used by some of the tribes of SouthEast Australia, where there is only individual marriage, and these I thinkwill serve as examples of the others.

To assist the reader in following the comparison which I shallmake between the terms of relationship of the tribes herein referredto, I give a few leading facts as to each tribe.

The Dieri inhabit that part of the delta of the Cooper whichextends from the east side of Lake Eyre, and mainly south of that riverfor some hundred and fifty miles. It has a two class system with totemsgroup marriage and descent in the female line.

The Kurnandaburi inhabited country on the Barcoo River aboutone hundred miles from the eastern boundary of South Australia, andhad group-marriage, the equivalent of the Dieri tippa-malku , and descent in the female line,

The Wathi Wathi were on the Murray river and belonged to anaggregate of several nations whose north western tribes are theneighbours of the Dieri and Yantruwunta. These nations hava a two-class system with totems ,individual marriage and descent in thefemale line.

The northern Kamilaroi are part of a nation which is organizedin two classes, four sub-classes and totems, individual marriageand descent in the female line.

The Kuinmurbura tribe occupied country near Broad Sound inQueensland. It had two classes, four sub-classes and totems, indi--vidual marriage and descent in the female line.

The Wurunjeri were one of several tribes in southern central Victoria,with two classes and one totem. It was also organized on localitywith descent in the male line.

The Kaiabara tribe was at the Bunya-Bunya mountains in Queens-land and represented a large number of tribes, extending from thecoast inland for some hundred miles square. The organization was intwo classes divided into four subclasses with totems. There wasindividual marriage with male descent.

TheArunta are the immediate neighbours of the north of theUrabunna, and have four subclasses in the southern and eight in thenorthern part of the tribe. There are totems which do not regulatemarriage and descent in the male line.

The Binbinga tribe has eight sub-classes, with individualmarriage and descent in the male line.

The Narrinyeri tribe are situated on the coast at the mouthof the Murray river .The tribe has no class names, but has exogamoustotems and is organised in local clans. There is individual marriagewith descent in the male line.

[written in left margin at top of page]condense + retype

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The Yuin are a coast tribe in southern New South Wales. Theyhave no classes or sub-classes, but totems which, together withlocality regulate marriage. They have individual marriage and descentin the male line.

The Kurnai inhabited almost the whole of Gippsland and wereorganised in exogamous local groups. Individual marriage was broughtabout by a system of elopement. Descent was in the male line.

The Chepara formed a considerable tribe in southern Queensland .Therewas not any organisation in classes ,subclasses, or totems, but thetribe was divided into local clans with male descent.

These tribes fairly represent those described by MessrsSpencer and Gillen and by me, covering some three fourths of eastern Australia.

Considering them as a whole we see that the Dieri and kindred-tribes, having group marriage (1) and descent in the female line, are themore backward standing, while the most advanced in one direction ofsocial progress, are tribes such as the Bingbinga with eight sub-classes and descent in the male line. Other tribes have advancedsocially in an other direction, from an organisation like that of theDieri to that of tribes, such as that of the Wathi Wathi who, withthe class organisation of the Dieri, have individual marriage and notgroup-marriage. This latter series terminates, for instance, in theKurnai, with an organisation altogether on locality, andwith descent is the male line.

The progressive rate of advance has not been the same, so thatno two tribes are, so to say, at exactly the same distance fromthe starting point. It is therefore necessary to take all the factorsinto account, before determining whether any particular tribe is,or is not, primitive, or more or less socially advance than another.

In this communication I have only considered the advance fromgroup-marriage to individual marriage.

I have already explained what the reation [sic] of noa is, andshall now go a step farther and show how the potential claim of aman to one or more of his female noas is given effect to.

I have described the several ways in which this done [sic] and neednow only summarise them, giving references to where, in any NativeTribes, they are to be found.

(1) [too faint to read]

[written in left margin]is this the starting point of my explanationsThe noa relationship and to make them as clear as possibleto my readers I shall [make use of a small diagram -crossed out]in the first place enumerate the several ways in whichthe potential claim of a Dieri man to one or more of his female noas is given effect to.

re write

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6B following A

[As to Wenberi's song I my- crossed out]Wenberi's song as given by Dr. Torrance differs slightly froma it as I wrote down from Berak sometime before, which with its translation [of which - crossed out] runs as follows.

"Nge tuigar ngala ngibenba ngalungawe go all the bones to all of them

dindirnding nga Dullen wilnitshining white in this Dullen country

warreindung Bunjil mamen-ngata yerriniThe rushing noise of Bunjil father ours singing

thulurm eik nga wurugaluk eikin breast mine this inside mine

Berak said that this song was made on the death of Wenberi'sbrother who died through evil magic in the Dullen countrybeyond Geelong. (The corroboree song?)

used to go out a mile or more from the coast in their bark canoeto spear fish.

As an example of his songs, I give one which he composed whengoing down the coast in his boat to attend the Kuringal [initiation - crossed out] cere-monies which I have described in chapter - [a previous paper- crossed out][Note "Australian Ceremonies of Initiation" "Journ. Anthrop.- crossed out][Inst", May, 1884- crossed out]

He sang the song in the evening, sitting by his camp fire and beatingtime with two short sticks, while an appreciative and admi-ring audience stood round.

Umbara's Song

Galagala binja buninga ngaliCapsizing me striking me

winbelow jena ngarauan udja(the) wind blows hard (the) sea long stretched

kandubai buninga melinthi buningabetween striking hard hitting striking

ngali mulari binja buningame dashing up me striking

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6diulirunding nga Dulur wiluitshining white (in) this Dulur country

Wa WEINDUNG Bungil mameng-ngata yeninThe noise rushing (of) Bunjil father ours singing

tgulurmeik nga wurngaluk -eik.(in) breast mine this inside-mine

Other poets composed under what may be called naturalinfluences as distinguished from supernatural. Umbara, the bardof the Coast Murring told me that his words came to him "not insleep as to some men, but when tossing on the waves in his boatwith the waters jumping up round him." [(Note) He- crossed out] This man is a fishermanand owns a good Sydney-built boat, which he manages with the aidof his wife. In the olden times these "sea coast men" (katungal)used to go out a mile or more from the coast in their bark canoeto spear fish.

As an example of his songs, I give one which he composed whengoing down the coast In his boat to attend the Kuringal [initiation- crossed out] cere-monies which I have described in chapter - [a previous paper- crossed out][Note "Australian Ceremonies of Initiation" "Journ. Anthrop.-crossed out][Inst", May, 1884- crossed out]

He sang the song in the evening, sitting by his camp fire and beatingtime with two short sticks, while an appreciative and admi-ring audience stood round.

Umbara's Song

Galagala binja buninga ngaliCapsizing me striking me

winbelow jena ngarauan udja(the) wind blows hard (the) sea long stretched

kandubai buninga melinthi buningabetween striking hard hitting striking

ngali mulari binja buningame dashing up me striking

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

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The Yuin are a coast tribe in SouthernNew South Wales. They have no classes orsubclasses but have totems whichwith locality [replicate?] individual marriage with maledescent.The Kurnai tribe inhabited almost the whole ofGippsland and was organised in localexogamous, intermarrying groups.There was individual marriage brought aboutby a system of elopement with descentcounted in the male line.The Chepara were a coast tribe in SouthernQueensland. There was no organisation in classesor sub-classes and there were no totems.The tribe was divided into local clans with maledescent and individual marriage.These tribes fairly represents those described byMessrs Spencer and Gillen, and by me is[.....] some three fourthsof the [Eastern?] half of Australia.Considering them as a whole we see that the mostbackward standing are the Dieri and [kindred?] tribewith the most advanced, in one direction of social [.......]are the northern tribes with eight subclasses and descent[reckoned?] in the male line. In another direction the tribeshave advanced from an organization like that of the Dieri[... .... .... .. .. .... .. ... ..... .... ..... ..... .....]have individual and not group marriage.Such coast tribes as the Kurnai who have become altogetherorganised on locality with male descent.The progressive rate of advance has not been thesame so that no two tribes stand at identicallythe same distance from the starting point. It is [therefore?] necessaryto take into [....] all the factors in the problem and [... ......] to saythat any one tribe is [.......] because its [ceremonies?]or its [social? ..... .. .......], or beliefs is anyother ["....."] have [remarkably?] more [......] featuresto this paper & only consider the [distance?] from groupmarriage to individual marriage.

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which its path was directed were gathering together for war.

Their neighbourns the Wolgal thought that the Aurora showd that the blacks a long way off were fighting and that a number of them were killed. According to the Wotjoballuk the rainbow causes a person's fingers to become crooked, or contracted if he points with a straight finger at it, so that he will not be able to use his hand for making the markings with which [words crossed out] the opossum rugs are ornamented. [Therefore?] When pointing towards a rainbow the fingers must be turned over each other, the second over the first, the third over the second and the little finger over the third, by which the evil is avoided.

The Coast [Murring?] believed that the thunder is the voice of [Daramulan?]. The [Gringai?] had a great dread of thunder, and believe it to be the demonstration of the anger of some supernatural being rebuking them for some impropriety. As is [shown?] at (p ) this being is [Cooiee?].

The Wiradjuri call the Milkyway [Gŭlar?], by which name is also that of the Lachlan river. The stars α {alpha?] & [beta?] centauri?] are two young men [Kūnŭndra?] and [Bŭragin?] who are going to kill [an?] Emu which is sitting on its nest. The emu is the southern cross. The Corona Australis is [Kūkūbŭrra?] the Laughing jackass, and a [?] star in Argos is [?] [Bidjerigang?], the Shell Parrakeet.

The seasons are reckoned by the [Bigambud?] according to the time of the year at which trees blossom. For instance Yarra is the name of a [tree?] [which?] flowers in September, hence that time is called [Yarra_binda?]. The Apple-tree (I), which blossoms about Christ-mas, is [Nigabinda?]. The Ironbark (3) about the end of January which they call [Wo-binda?]. They also call this [?] which is in the height of summer "tima-koje-[?]", that is to [say?] the time when the ground burns the feet. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(2). In Mr Maiden's/Maidenwork the following trees are noted as being called [Ironbark?] in New South Wales and Queensland. Eucalyptus leucoxylon F, V, M. E. siderophloia Benth., E. largiflorens F.V.M. -. E. [melanophloia] F.V.M.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(I) "Angophoras are called appletrees in the colonies from a fan-cied resemblanceto those trees", J.H. Maiden/Maiden The Useful Native plants of Australia, London and Sydney 1893.

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In the tribes on the south coast of New South Wales eachtribe had its [Headman]], who in their language was called Gommera. To become Gommera a man must be aged, be able to speal severallanguages (dialects), be skilful as a fighting man and above all be ableto do those feats of magic, which the gommers exhibit at the initi-ation ceremonies.

Magic is especially a feature at these ceremonies, and it is anecessary adjunct to the office of a headman.

There was a Gommera in each division of the tribe. Althoughthere were totems, these differed from the totems of other tribes, forinstance of the Wiradjuri, in that, although they so far affected marriagethat no one might marry one of the same totem, they wereas the Yuinexplained to me "more like a joia than a name", that is more like a magical quality than a designation. (p ).

[?] the gommera was also called [?] waht may be understood as master andin his particular locality dictated to his people. Unubara the tribal head explained it to me ib this way.[?????????????]A man is the biamban of his wife and childre. An old man is the biambanof the younger men. The Gommera is the biamban of all the men, andDaramulun is the biamban of all".

There was also a head Gommera over the whole tribe. The lastone was one Waddyman ( ) who died a veryold man about 1884. His accountof himself was that as a little boy he waas taken by the then head Gommera,and trained by him to be a Gommera so that he might take his place,

The power of these men is rivetted on the younger men by theimpressive instructions which are given at the initiation ceremonies asto the implicit obedience to be given to their order, and also by theapparently supernatural powers which they exhibit thereat. But theGommeras also admonish their people directly, as when one of them wouldstand up in his camp and tell those present about the old laws which theymust obey.

A few more instances will show theexistence of Headmen intribes in other parts of Australia.

In the Gringal tribe there was a Headman called "[Nurjain]" who(?) be an aged man before he was much thought of. The office is said tohave been in a certain family, the members of which were either (?) or(?). Assuming this to have been so, it follows that in this tribe, descentmust have been in the male line, which is a departure from the (??)practice. this is nothowever improbable, for as I have shown descent is

The medicine man, the Kuratchi, was not necessarily Headman.

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In the tribes on the south coast of New South Wales eachtribe had its [Headman]], who in their language was called Gommera. To become a Gommera a man must be aged, be able to speal severallanguages (dialects), be skilful as a fighting man and above all be ableto do those feats of magic, which the gommers exhibit at the initi-ation ceremonies.

Magic is especially a feature at these ceremonies, and it is anecessary adjunct to the office of a headman.

There was a Gommera in each division of the tribe. Althoughthere were totems, these differed from the totems of other tribes, forinstance of the Wiradjuri, in that, although they so far affected marriagethat no one might marry one of the same totem, they wereas the Yuinexplained to me "more like a joia than a name", that is more like a magical quality than a designation. (p ).

[?] the gommera was also called biamban what may be understood as master andin his particular locality dictated to his people. Unubara the tribal head explained it to me in this way.[?????????????]A man is the biamban of his wife and childre. An old man is the biambanof the younger men. The Gommera is the biamban of all the men, andDaramulun is the biamban of all".

There was also a head Gommera over the whole tribe. The lastone was one Waddyman ( ) who died a veryold man about 1884. His accountof himself was that as a little boy he waas taken by the then head Gommera,and trained by him to be a Gommera so that he might take his place,

The power of these men is rivetted on the younger men by theimpressive instructions which are given at the initiation ceremonies asto the implicit obedience to be given to their order, and also by theapparently supernatural powers which they exhibit thereat. But theGommeras also admonish their people directly, as when one of them wouldstand up in his camp and tell those present about the old laws which theymust obey.

A few more instances will show the existence of Headmen inthe tribes in other parts of Australia.

In the Gringai tribe there was a Headmanncalled "[Nurjain]" who must be an aged man before he was much thought of. the office is said tohave

(??)

The best man in war would be recognised by them as prin-cipal advisers, and would have authority by consent of the olders. I haveknown the office to be hereditary, when the son proved himself a capablewarrior. Without such proof there was no possibility of his being accepted,

A koradji might be such a leader. In every case, however the leading (?) of man might be only primus inter pares, and be liable to be set(?) (?) council of old men if his actions were disapproved. At this(?) the young men that it those having been initated might(?) would not speak. such

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for a long time over it, until the spear thrower fell down into the fireand the majic complete. Some one brought this news down to the Bunwurungans some time after the man died. His friends did not say any-thing, but waited till a young man of the Echuca tribe came down to theWestern Port district and they then killed him. News of this passed fromone to the other till it reached his tribe, who sent down a mess-age to the Bunwurung saying that they would have to meet them at a place nearMelbourne. This was arranged and the old men said to the men who had killedthe Echuca man, "Now don't you run away, you must go and stand out andwe will see that they do notuse you unfairly." This messagehad been given by the Meymet (1), to the Nira-balluk (2), who sent it on bythe Wurrunjeri to the Bunwurung. It was sent in the interim,so as to give plenty of time for the meeting, which took place on theMelbourne side of Merri Creek. The people present were the Meymet,whose headman had not come down with them, The Bunwurung, with theirHeadman Benbu, the Mount Macedon men with their Headman Ningulabul, the Werribeepeople, with the Headman of the Bunwurung (of the coast Benbow) (crossed out), finally,there were the Wurunjeri with their Headman Bili-bileri.

All these people except the Meymet and the Bunwurung, were onlookers, and each lot camped on the side of the meeting groundnearest to their own country, and all the camps as was usual looked to-wards the morning sun.

When the meeting took place the women left in the campsand the men went a little way off. The Bunwurung manstood out in front of his people armed with a shield. Facinghim were the kindred of the dead Meymet man, some nine or ten in number,who threw so many spears and boomerangs at him that you could not countthem. At last a (?) spear went through his side. Just then a Headman

(1) the Woeworung called the natives by the Murray River about the junctionof the Goulburn Campaspe (??) Meymet, as they called the Gippsland nativesBerbira, thus distinguishing both from the Kulin tribes who were their friends.(2) The Nira-balluk were the tribe about Kilmore. Nira = a deep gully, balik =people, and of (?) and probably adjoining the (?) tribe at Echuca.

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2Ngarego of the Maneroo Tablelandand the Coast Murring [beyon - crossed out] of Twofold Bay and the South coast of New South Wales.

Their neighbours living in the Western Port District were called [Thuring?] or snakes as they put it because they came snaking about to kill us.

The Australians as a whole are [crossed out - therefore] thus divided into tribes and these tribes are organized in certain lines in two independent directions. One [2 words crossed out] I have termed the local [underlined] and the other the social [underlined] organization.

As this is a matter of great importance in my investigation I shall devote some special consideration to it. The Dieri and Kurnai [crossed out - tribes] are [crossed out - respectively] two of the best examples with which I am acquainted. The former of the [?] most backward [crossed out - and] standing and the latter of the most forward standing Australian tribe. I shall therefore take them as my examples of the organization which I have inferred, leaving it to another place to enter into further explanation as to the nature and extent of the advance made by the Kurnai beyond the States in which the Dieri even now are

Left hand margin note](1) The Dieri cultureHorde. A and & 7 doc 2I - A -dnow - 1884 - be XIV p 143-

(1) As I shall more fully explain later in an entire community-nation tribe or which ever else itmay be called - of Australian blacks is divided socially inot the principal exogamous intermarrying section which may for shorten designate as A and B. In some parts of Austrlaia these principal sections or classes have been divided each into two supclasses [or subclasses?], and whether there the two principal classes only, or those with the four subclasses or the latter only without the former there are also a number of lesser groups attached, let us say, to A and

[Lower left hand margin not - cannot read]

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A arrow at p6

Yorke Peninsula in South Australia between the Spencer's Spencers Gulf & the Vincents Gulfs Vincent's Gulf was once occupied by a tribe which called chief Adja-dūra meaning

[?] with many of the coast tribes its organization differed considerably [crossed out - in] from that of the [crossed out - two class] tribes of which the Dieri is the type and [crossed out - which] where two classes Materi and Kararu extended southwards from Lake Eyre following the [crossed out - hill] [crossed out - country to] Flinders Range to the head of Spencers Gulf and thence following the western shore of the Gulf of the Vincent. to Port Lincoln (1). The adjadūra had four classes which [(1) quote]in fact were major totems [crossed out - Kari] each with a group of [?] totems and each major totem inhabited one of the four [word crossed out] districts into which Yorke Peninsula was initially divided. The only restriction upon marriage depended upon nearness of Kinship [according?] to their (classification) system. Nor was there any restriction based upon locality as was the case with the Kurnai who [prevent?] mentioned. This remarkable exceptionto the almost universal primitive tribes of [?] tribes was insisted upon firmly by the old men any whom were two who [two words crossed out] were probably [word crossed out] looked over 70 years of age in 18 - ? and who it was spoke of times being before the advent of white people in their country. [three words crossed out] The exceptional development of the class system was also connected with the descent of the totem names in the male line. [Six words crossed out] It seems to be the case as explained in # - that the social organization of coast tribes has been in very many instances peculiar and much frequent [tending?] totems [?] [?] ultimate result namely the breaking down of the class system, [2 words crossed out] and of group marriage, the establishment of individual marriage and male descent and when the [Crossed out totem] class or totems have survived the localization of these in [crossed out - themarrriage in which they ? ?] separate [?]. The [subject?] tribe [crossed out - briefly] [?] shows the [crossed out - class] [?] organization of this tribe

[Table with 3 columns][Column headings] Classes; Totems; DistrictsColumn Class: Kari = Emu; Column 2 Totems: [Miduaga?] = Swallow, Lark - Waldaru; Polára = mullet; Waltha = [?] turtles; Mŭrtū = Magpie Kŭdli; [wiuta?] = mopoke [doj?]Column 3 Districts: Kŭrnara; the northern part of the Peninsular south of Wallaroo, Kadina & [?]

Column 1 Classes: Waui = Red Kangaroo Column 2 Totems: All the totems - togetherwith the major totem are coastal

Column 1 Classes: [Wiltu?] = Eaglehawk:Column 2 Totems: Wortu = wombats; [Wueda?] = wallaby; [Nantri?] = Kangaroo; [Mūlta?] = Seal; Gūa = crowColumn 3 Districts: Wari; Western half of coastal part of peninsular

Column 1 Classes: [Wilithiethu?] = sharkColumn 2 Totems: [Snai?] = wild goose; [Willi?] = Pelican; [Kangbŭra?] = Butter fish; [Manditu?] = Stingray; [Walaltu?] = WhitingColumn 3 Districts: Dilpa The extreme southern part of the peninsular

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5BTo the Eastward of the Muthabura and [Būtrebura?] were the [Babutybura?].

The strength of the connecting bond between these tribes as also between them and more distant tribes maybe estimated from the following particulars.

They all together with some other tribes which have been omitted attend at the same Bora. But the more distant as for instance the [Muthabura?] from the Upper Thomson River did not come to the ceremonies in the Wakelbura country in a body, nor do the Yangiburas a still more distant tribe near Aramac. A few [crossed out - came] accompanying the [Kumbuthabura?] and when the [Wakelbura?] go to Muthabura or [Yanpbura?] ceremonies it is [?] a few of them who do so in company with the [?aubura?] or Kumbuthabura.

The same applies to all the distant tribes who have some relation to the Wakelbura and [word crossed out] unites them .

The nearest tribes came in a body together. The more distant tribes were represented by a few members who accompany some other tribes.\

Similarly the [Kūin-mŭr-bŭra?] tribe who inhabited the Peninsular between Broadsound and Shoalwater Bay in Queensland are [?] in at least meeting other tribes all occupying adjacent country. The Kūin members speak of all these as their "mates" but say that the "Rockhampton Blacks" are of another country.

[* left margin note for here]

[Line below text]

The Southern Queensland the "Chépara" tribe occupied a tract of country in the coast extending from near Brisbane to the New South Wales boundary.

The name Chépara means "the Coast '. It was divided into the following clans.

[Left margin note](n ch. as in Charles)

[Left margin notes have line through them]* This case is a good example of the manner how vast tracts of country are parcelled out among related tribes just as the country of any one tribe is parcelled out among its [?] divisions. It is often in such cases most difficult to [?] it is a large tribe or a group of sub-tribes or Hordes.

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5C

MūlgūnKa būl tū - occupying thr Pimpama DistrictMūna dali - the head of the Albert River Kŭte-būl - the head of the Logan River [Yŭn-gūr-pau? or -paw?] - Coomera and NerangBir-in - the Tweed River Būr-gin-meri - Cleveland District Cher-man-pŭra - Coast District

These names are derived from localities, for instance Chepara means the coast, MūlgūnKa būl tū means the neighbourhood of the mountains. The other names are derived from natural objects such as scrubs, trees &c.

The Chepara had a tradition that at one time the tribe was not divided into the above clans but that in consequence of interna; wars fighting quarrels [one above the other and underlined] it became split up into clans of which the Chepara was considered to be the first.

The clans were divided up into lesser groups each with a distinctive name and a definitie tract of country.

[Above text has line under it]

The country within a radius of 50 miles from Maryborough in Queenslandis/was occupied by [crossed out - a] tribes [crossed out - which were] which were comprised of groups of related people occupying certain tracts of country. The smaller groups are little more than an undivided family comprised of several levels in a generation, for [?] grand parents, parents and children; [crossed out - such occupying a piece of country] [crossed out - of some ten miles radius]. A number of such family related to each other hunt over [underlined] and occupy [underlined] a tract of country of some 10 miles radius. The whole of the community [crossed out - thus occupying] which occupy the tribal country in this manner, and attend the Bora ceremonies, covers the tract of the coast country above mentioned.

[Left hand margin note - Bóra]

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5D

The great divisions of this tribe bear the following names.

Blengbŭra at Sandy Cape, Fraser Island [Jari-bi-limg?] at Bundaberg [NūKū-nūKū-bŭra?] at Mt Perry Thi-bura at Gayndah [Kŭk-bain-bura?] at Gympie

The three latter are inland tribes in hordes who [?] [unit?] the coast at Intervals. The whole community being fishing and and coast tribes.

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I of A. T. 6AThe third illustration which I take of the local organization is the extreme case of the Kurnai tribe of Gippsland. In this case theclass system had entirely disappeared, the totems only survived as [the - crossed out] names of animals which were inherited by [the - crossed out] sons from their fathers. The local organization had remained, and having the whole field to itself regulated marriages in the lines of the old customs of the two class and four class and totemic organizations.

This tribe occupied the whole of what is now Gippsland excepting [the greater - crossed out] that part of the country Croajingolung which lies inland from the coast. This great area of tribal country ___ miles in length by ___in width lies between the sea coast and the Great Dividing Range, extending also in a narrow coast strip from the Snowy River mouth to Twofold Bay.

[written in left side margin to go above "This great area of tribal---"]This exceptional hard even now a wild mountainous country mostly covered with dense [?trees?] and almost impenetrable scrub [?hosted?] a small jungle tribe the Biduelli of [unknown?] men elsewhere

It was divided into five areas which were inhabited by five clans of the Kurnai. These five clans spoke dialects of the same language which in the extreme east and next/west were almost unintelligible to the respective speakers. The following table will observe details of this local [?] of this tribe.

[Left margin not - Insert pp 7A & 7B here]

[Table of 6 columns]

LocalitiesRow 1 Column 2 - Coastline of Croajingolong and extending to entrance of Gippsland LakesColumn 3 - Coastline between Gippsland Lakes and the SeaColumn 4 - Central Gippsland between [?] & [?] Column 5 - West GippslandColumn 6 - South west Gippsland

Row 2Column 1 - names of clansColumn 2 - Kranat-ŭn-galŭng[Belingiry?] to the eastColumn 3 - Tatŭn-galŭng[Belingiry?] to the SeaColumn 4 - Bra-bra-lŭnjManly-belinjiry to ManlyColumn 5 - [Bra-ya?][?] [Belingiry?] to the westColumn 6 - [Brata?][Belingiry?] to

Row 3Column 1 - Language spolenColumn 2 - Thang-guai Broad speechColumn 3 - Variation of Thang-guai Column 4 - Muk-thangExcellent speechColumns 5&6 - Nūlit

Each of these clans was subdivided into lesser local groups, each of which had special names which in some cases was derived from the principal locality while in others it gave the local name. For instance a large selection of the [crossed out - ? many of the] western men lived in the Upper [crossed out - pog] waters of the Avon

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6A[Table][Title]The Kurnai Tribe

Column 1 - Clans, row 1(i) Krauat-ŭn-galŭngfrom Kanat = east; galŭng= a possessive [postfix?] = of or belonging to the sea coast from near Cape Everard to the Snowy River, all that river with its tributaries up to about [Willis?]; the sea coast from the Snowy River to the Entrance to the Gippsland Lakes with all streams flowing into Ewings Marsh and [Ru?yers?] -

[Column 1, row 2](2) [Brabralung?] - from Bra-bra manly and (ga)lung = if or belonging to all the [crossed out - country waters of the] drainage areas of the Tambo, Mitchell, and Nicholson Rivers with the [?] tributaries to their extreme sources, also to the weir on the Mitchell River to Providence Ponds, with a corresponding frontage to the Gippsland Lakes.

[Column 1, row 3](3) Bra-yak-(g)alŭng = him Bra = man, yak = west - all the country west of Providence Ponds watered by the Avon, [crossed out - River]] Macalister [crossed out - and] Thompson and Latrobe Rivers down to the junction of these into [?] & thence [?] valley the eastern bank of the Latrobe to Lake Wellington thence - eastward by the [?] to [somewhere?] near [?], thence northward to Providence Ponds.

Column 2 Title - Lesser [?]Row 1 - a) Ben – Sydenham Inletb) Dūra – 12 miles up the Snowy River from the seac) Wūrnŭng-gattung – Lake Tyersd) Brt-bitta (= a hollow in the ground)– Jimmy’s Point – entrance to Gippsland Lakes

Row 2 - (e) Bruthen, in the Tambo River(f) Waiŭng = widgeon - near Bairnsdale in the Mitchell River(g) Wŭk-wŭk = Lindeman Flat. Mitchell River(h) Mŭnji = on the north shore of Lake Victoria= There! or "the place of" e.g. -?(i) Dairgo - on the Dargo River

Row 3(k) Kŭtbūn-baura from Kŭtbūn = to have or carry and baura = fire. The name also of a hill or the upper Avon River.(l) Bŭnjil Nŭlŭng - the country between the Avon River and the Eastern boundary of the clan, south of Stratford - Bŭnjil = personal appelates of the older men-Nŭlŭng = mud. Named after the Head man of the division at the time when Gippsland was settled by the whites -(m) Bunjil-clan - the country between the Avon and the Macalister Rivers. Dan = emu - the name of a Head man -(n) Bunjil-Kraura from Kraura = west wind [Northern?] country of the clan west of [north?] to them almost impenetrable forested scrub in west Gippsland from the name of the Headman.

Column 3 title Wives fromRow 1 a) wives from b c d and Mallagoota Inlet and Twofold Bayb) wives from c a t and [p. 13] Bina-jera (the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland lakes and the sea as far as the Entrance to the Lakesc) Brüthen – on the Tambo River – Waiūng Widgeon – near Bairnsdale Mitchell River and Kŭbbūn laura – Upper Avon Riverd) b and Bina-jera (see b) or is it I = Būnjil Nŭlŭng – between Avon River and eastern boundary of clan south of the Stratford

wives toa) b c d k Twofold Bay Mallagoota Inletb) c e g t Bina-jerac) Bruthen Waiūng Widgeon Kŭbbūn laura and Bina-jerad) b or I and Bina-jera

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6B[Table]

The Kurnai Tribes (continued)Row 1Column 1 - Clans(4) Bra-taua-lŭng claimed all their country from the Latrobe River to near Cape Lip Trap (where it joined the country of the Būnworung tribe of the Western Port district & also from the Southern watershed of the Latrobe River to the sea coast.

Column 2 - Lesser divsions(o) Kŭt-wŭt - the [Tynes?] River flowing into the Corner Inlet.(p) Yau-ŭng - Warrigal Creek South Gippsland(q) Orelin - Merrim [aus? oreid?] South gippsland

Row 1 Column 3 Wives from(o) - m(p) - n(q) - p.i.tRow 1Column 4 Wives to(o) m(p) - n.q(q) p

Row 2Column 1 - Clans(5) Jatŭn-galŭng from Jat - Southaln = Sea. All the country west of the Krauatun Kurnai (1) and east of the Bratana [or Bralana?] Kurnai (4) and lying between the Gippsland Lakes, excepting Flannagan Island which belonged to the Bit-Brita division of the Kraualungalung clan.-

Row 2Column 2 - Lesser divsions(r) Yūnttrŭr - adjoining and east of (q)(s) Ngara wŭt [Ngara wŭt?], the south side of Lake Victoria(t) Bina-jera - the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland Lakes & the sea (Baulbaul) as far as the Entrance to the Lakes -

Row 2Column 3 - Wives from(r) - m(s) - e.m.q.t(t) - d.e.f.g

Row 2Column 4 - Wives to(r) - m(s) - e.m.t(t) - d.g

This information might have been made far more complete so far as relates to the lesser divisions, that is the smaller groups of Kurnai which formes any one of the lesser divisions of the clans.

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O of A.J. 7

River and were called [Kutbriu-taura?] or Carriers of 'fire' their country being also so named - the prefix "Wurk" = 'carried' being understood. For instance the Brabra clan [underlined] munji subdivision [crossed out - The large secondary] was [crossed out - again] divided and

[left margin note - the BraBra clan inserted after secondary]

subdivided, each section occupying its own tract oo hunting or food ground until the unit [crossed out - of this] [crossed out - local organization] was a small group of kindred - frequently merely an old man with his married or unmarried sons; the wives and grandchildren.

Such an existence was that of the Bunjil-baul or men of the Island a small family which lived in Raymond Island in Lake King and which claimed all the swans eggs laid in that island as their own and exclusive property. The males of this family also - inherited the name of ---- or in English was -----------, evidently a survival of a onetime totem. [5 lines crossed out ]

[Left hand margin note - Insert after Adja-dūra tribe]

[Crossed out - Bruthen coast tribe] I might refer to every coast tribe from the Adjadura far up into Quensland of whichI have information as examples of these [crossed out - which and may term] the [crossed out - abnormal] same kind of social and local development. But it may suffice to give two more instances which are stretching examples of the direction which this development of the local [crossed out - organization] at the [expense?] of the local organization has taken place.

I have already mentioned the Woeworung tribe of the Yarra River and again take them as an instance. Here we find the old two clan system existing under the familiar names Eaglehawk (Bunjil) and crow (waaug). but the [?] [crossed out - the] totems there was only one named (Thara) (Eaglehawk?). All others if they ever existed had died out - and that these were totems at one time maybe inferred not only from

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11

[crossed out - there] on the Wimmera River in north western Victoria therewas a tribe which called itself Wotjo-Ballŭk - from Wotjo = man and Ballŭk = a number of people. The tribal country extended from the northern Grampian Mountains northward as far as the waters of the Wimmera and [?] could find them way into the Mallee country

This country was occupied by five large Hordes (descent being in the female line) named [?] or [under/order?]

(1) the Gromil-ŭk at Lake Hindmash(2) the Ya-kil-Ballŭk at Lake Albacutya(3) the [Krietch?] Ballŭk about Dimboola(4) the Wiech-wŭndaiŭk about Warraknabeal(5) the Yarik-Kilŭk at Lake Coorong

These Hordes were as in other tribes again divided into lesser groups.

[Crossed out - ? tribes although it retained] The [nujnbirūj?] tribes were all organized in the same manner into tribal groups.

Between Cape Howe and Shoalhaven in the South coast of New South Wales were the "Murring" which was the general name for the aborigines who then formed two tribes respectively named Gūyau-gal and [Katungal - crossed out] Karial from the words guya = south and Karū = north and the possessive suffix gal = belonging to or of

The inland extent of their country included the [mountains to - crossed out] from [?projections?] and mountainous slopes from the Maneroo Tablelandsand [the- crossed out] Braidwood [country - crossed out]. In fact their territory may be perhaps defined as well as in any other manner by defining itas embracing the watershed of the rivers from Mallagoota inlet to the Shoalhaven River.

The [?] table will shoow the local divisions of this tribe and I have added to it also

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The Coast Murring[table]Sub tribes Clans wives from women to as wives1 East of Mallagoota Inlet 4 5 6 4 5 6Thau-ana Gūyangal 2 Tadera Manji 4 5 6 4 5 6 at Bega3 Burgeli Manji 4 5 6 4 5 6 at Moruya -----------?4 at Braidwood 1 2 3 5 6 1 2 3 5 6 Kūrial -----------? 5 at Ulladulla 1 2 3 5 6 1 2 3 5 6gŭrūngatta manji 6 Lower Shoalhaven 1 2 3 5 6 1 2 3 5 6

The Gūyangal or Southerners also exchanged women for wives in a friendly manner with the aborigines of the Maneroo Tableland who were called as in deed men then of the Guyangal who lived in the mountains. Indeed there was a distinction drawn all along [thi - crossed out] Southern NSW between the dwellers in the high mountains of the Coast Ranges, those who lived in the lowlying inland between the mountains and the sea and those who lived on the sea coast. The [from - crossed out] first were the Bemeringal or Mountaineers, the second the ____ [Howitt left this space blank] or tree dwellers the latter the Katun-gal or sea coasters from Katŭn = the sea or the Sea coast [and gal = f - crossed out]But Bemerin-gal was also applied to all the aborigines of the Maneroo Tableland [who lived in the water flowing - crossed out] even those who went out to Kiandra but not those who lived beyond the Great Dividing Range.

Beyond the "Bemeringal" of Maneroo, Queenbeyanand Lake Bathurst with whom the coast Murring [?inter?]there were tribes known to them by name only such as theWiradjuri whom they called Kūna-mildais - or ‘come by night’ who [occasionally - crossed out] came at times and killed the Coast Murring

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18A

The country of the Dieri tribe ends about Blanchewater [crossed out - where] where the Flinders Range of mountains and [crossed out - in the Freeling heights] [?] abruptly in the Freeling Heights. In these mountains were a series of tribes commencing with the [Murdilari?] or "Red people" in mountain areas, following the Kūyani --------- the country of the the latter ending [crossed out - west ? from Port Augusta] at Mt Eyre all these tribes were of the same great [st? ?ulients?]. had spread over the Lake eyre Basin having apparently migrated from [crossed out - the] N Eastern Australia following the course of the Barcoo natives and [?] those of the [?mantion?] also. At any rate I have traced the same organization and and class system on the Upper Barcoo at Mt Howitt in the [Rūnan dalrui?] tribe and the great ceremonies of the Dieri connected with the "mura mura" beliefs extend up to Birdsville and thus connect the tribes of the Everard/Everard River & Diamantina/Diamantina River with these as far south as the Dieri and [Murdula?] at the least.

The class system with the names Materi and Kararu not only extended from the Dieri to the most [crossed out - to Spencer Gul the surrounding ? extent of the tribes] [crossed out - But they also were in the [?] [Riveolin?] tribe.]tribes situated between [Piri?] and the Head of the Bight all of which had the classes Materi and Kararu in some dialectic form as for instance Mŭteri and kararu of the Witūrū and Hileri tribes at the head of the Bight. These class names cease for this [crossed out - any rate they did not extend beyond the boundaries] of the Mēning tribe settles about Eucla which [crossed out - must be ?] [crossed out - to be] is [?] of the West Australian State.

The class name Materi and Kararu as I have said extended down the western side of Spencers Gulf.

On the Eastern side: Yorke Peninsula separates Spencers Gulf from the Gulf of St Vincent. Here I may now [?] a long series of coast tribes which are remarkable as having in many [crossed out - ways] respects an organization which departs [crossed out - in] more or less strongly from the types which are found within the Australian continent.

The first of such tribes is that which occupied [?] and whose remnant state [?] therein.

[Left margin note]The [Augala?] tribe was [?] the Kūyani of Port Ausgusta. Thence in the extensive tract of whose bounds are approximately fixed by Pot Lincoln Head of the Australian Bight, Lake Gauwner & and the Gawler were two tribes whose common boundaries the coast at [Point Brom?]. The one east of the point Wilūrū and [the?] the west of the point the Hillerie tribe.

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18D{Look up the tribes from Port Carpenter down to Adelaide}

[Line across page]

The Narrinyeri tribe lived around [crossed out - the great land?] [crossed out - great] Lake Alexandrina & Lake Albert which form the termination of the River Murray and which open into the Sea by the Murray mouth, the boundaries of their country [?] from Cape Jervis to Mannum and thence by by a line some distance back from the coast round to Lacipede Bay . At p. I have given the local organization of the tribe into 18 clans ([?]) each with a definite tract of country and [ford?] ground. I now [crossed out - purpose] speak of the totems which are attached to each local clan.

[Left margin note](1) Mr Taplin called these "tribes" - [?] order to bring this information [into?] live with this work [crossed out - I have [?] depend of them as clansof the Narrinyeri tribe.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Title] Narrinyeri clans and totems. (2)[Columns] Clan - Totems(1) Rasninyeri - Wirrŭlde [crossed out - or Tangeri] = Wattle gum(2) Janganarin - Manguritpuri = Pelican(3) Kōndalinyeri - Kandali = whale(4) Lungundaōrn - [Taidityeki ? or Taieltyeri?] = Tern(5) Turarorn - Turi = Coot(6) Pankinyeri - Kŭnguldi = butterfish(7) Kanmeraiorn - Kanmeri = Mullet (8) Kaikala binyeri - Ngulgarinyeri = Bullant, Pingai = Water weed(9) Mungulin yeri - Wanye = chocolate sheldrake(10) Rengulinyeri - Turi-it-pazni = Dark coloured dingo(11) Karatinyeri - Turi-it-parni = Light coloured dingo(12) Piltinyeri - maninki = leach, [Pomeri?] = catfish, Kēdkali = IguanaYalkinyeri - ditto - ditto - Tiyanwi = IguanaWŭloke - ditto - ditto - Warangŭmbi = Iguana(13) Korowali - Waiye = Whip snake(14) Pŭngūratpūla - Peldi = Musk duck(15) Welinyeri - Nakari = Black duck, Ngumundi = Black snake red belly(16) Lathin yeri or Kalabunyeri - Kŭngari = Black Swan, Ngaraki - seal, Kikinŭmi = Black snake grey belly(17) WŭnyaKŭlki - Nakari = Black duck(18) ngrangatari or Gŭrang wari - Waukaw[crossed out ayai]iyi [Waukawiyi] = Kangaroo rat

[Left margin note}(2) Native tribes of South Australia [J D Hood?] added c 1899The Nariū yeri p 2.(quote Taplin's original answer) ----also from communication by Taplins [?].

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26

Būrt-wirinal = one which is no in Mrs Stewarts list. The classes, totems and objects claimed are as under:-

[Table of 3 columns][Column headings are underlined] Classes - Totems - Claimed by totems

[Class 1] Kroki [totems are bracketed][Columns 2 ...... 3] (1) Werio - Tea tree, melaleuca sp. ...... Ducks, wallabys, owls, crayfish, +tc.(2) Wirmal - owl ...... ?(3) Mŭrna - edible root ...... Bustards, Quail, [Jolvich?] (small kangaroo) +tc. (4) Karaál - [crossed out - black cockatoo?] white crestless cockatoo? ...... Kangaroo, Casuarina quadrivalvis, summer (Sun), autumn (fem.), Wind (fem.) +tc. [Class 1 underlined]

[Class 2] Kumite [totems are bracketed][Columns 2 ...... 3] (1) Mūla - Fish hawk...... Smoke, Banksia, +tc.(2) Parangal - Pelican ...... Dog, Acacia melanoxylin, fire, [frost?] (fem.)(3) Waa - crow ...... Rain, Thunder, lightning, Winter, hail, clouds +tc. (4) Wila - Black cockatoo -- stars, moon, etc Coorong(5) Karato - a harmless snake ...... Fish, Stringy bark tree, seals, eels, +tc.[Class 2 underlined]

It was considered wrong for a man to kill or use for food animals of the same totem as himself. When forced by hunger however it was permissible to break this rule by formally expressing sorrow for having to eat ones friends and no evil results followed. But otherwise sickness and death followed wrong doing in this respect (1).

[Left margin note] (1) Buandik pX.

Each of the totems had the prefix "Būrt" which means [dry?], as [crossed out - Werio was] "Būrt Werio, but the prefix has for clearness been omitted in the above table.

From the statements made as to the five tribes of the South eastern district it will be fairly safe to say that they were probably met in their western boundaries, somewhere in the Coorong by the Narrinyeri tribe which was located in the fresh lakes at the Mouth of the River Murray. To the northward beyond beyond the "greater Desert" they would meet the tribes of the Murray River such in the Wembaio already mentioned (p -). The Narrinyeri will be spoken of when referring subsequently (p -)to the [crossed out - Coast] tribes of the Southern & South Eastern coasts of South Australia, Victoria and N.S. Wales.

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32.

In the south of the Great Dividing Range Eastwards of Melbourne, [crossed out - there] was one of the Kulin [crossed out - clan] tribes known as the Būnworŭng or " Broad lips" [underlined] [No is above Broad lips] speaking people whosecountry ended in the dense jungles of the Great Forest of South Gippslandand in the Coast at Andersons Inlet.

Beyond them occupying the whole of Gippsland with the exception of the dense jungles and great mountains of Croajingalinglying back from the coast, were the five clans of the Kurnai[whom which - crossed out] whose local organization I have already describedat pp. 78. This tribe had no class system and no totems such as those which I have described. But there issome evidence which justifies the belief that at one time they had the classes + totems of the Kulin tribes.’

The Kurnai dialects are [strongly allied to the - crossed out] from the same stock as the Būnworung + Woeworung languages. The legends [of both the K ?? - crossed out] of [these - crossed out] the Kurnai and Woeworung both speak of the same supernatural anthropomorphic Loän who migrated from the Woeworungcountry into south Gippsland. Bunjil the great supernatural Being of the Kūlin tribes whom they called “Mamenjalō" or "our father"reappears in the Kurnai legend as ["Mungan ngar" - crossed out] “our father”(Mŭnjan ngaar). But the class name Bunjil has disappeared and is only recognizable as a name which attaches to men ofa certain age as a personal [?depictor?] accompanied by some special name, and what might be freely [translated as "Mr"?], such as Bunjil Gworun – 'Mr" Thunder referring to the deep voice of this man so named, or Bunjil Barlajan "Mr" platypus" referring to this man’s skill in killing that monotreme animal. The totem names maybe recognized in the names of beasts, birds, fishes +c which men inherited by the sons from their fathers as Wambat, Sea Salmon, Sandpiper, +c.

As there were no classes or totems there could not be any law of marriage regulated by them, but the restrictions which in other tribes attached to marriage, [were - crossed out] arose among the Kurnai out oflocality. Thus the men of each locality was restricted in [its - crossed out] their choice of wives to certain other localities as I have [?indicated?] in the table on p 6A. The local restriction [was - crossed out] acted in the same

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36[Left margin note] Ngarego

The boundaries of the country of the Ngarego appear to have included the whole of the Maneroo plains and also the country beyond the Snowy River as far as the boundary of the Omeo tribe. Their neighbours in the [Western - crossed out] South west were the Kurnai by whom they were much dreaded and whom they called “Brajerak”(1)or ‘Wild men’ [To the - crossed out] South over the coast range and between it, the Lower Snowy Riverand the sea, that is the present County of Croagingoling their neighbours were a wild jungle tribe, few in number, the Bidwell-mitung, the last of [?whome?] only “came in” and became civilized somewhere about 1870.In the south East are the Coast Murring and to the East were tribes of the group to which the Braidwood tribe belonged. Their northern neighbours were the Wolgal.

[Left margin note](1) Bra - male or man yirak or jirak - anger, thus yirakal loän = an angry white man

The class system of the Ngarego/Ngarigo was as follows:-

[Table of two columns]

[Row 1][Column 1 heading] ClassesMerŭngEaglehawk

Colmun 2 heading] TotemsBelleb - LyrebirdNadjabajan - Bat[Būlemba] - Flying squirrel Mundarŭng - TuanNamŭng - Black snake Mŭlan or Mŭnja - a fish Bŭt-[ttie?]-wark - Mopoke Kau-ŭnga - Balck opossum [Wa-at?] - Red wallaby

[Row 2][Column 1 heading] ClassesYŭk-em-brŭkcrow

[Column 2 heading] TotemsBra-a-gar - Small hawk Tehuteba - Rabbit rat Bowa - Flying squirrel next in size to Bulemba [above] Bŭr-rū - Kangaroo Beri-bong - Emu Bŭdalūk - Lace lizardKūa-i-ūr - Native [Companion?] Kau-au - Porcupine Ū-lūn-bau - Sleeping lizard

[Line under table]

The law of marriage was that Merūng married Yŭk-em-brŭk and visce versa as to the totems.

[Left margin note] Wolgal

To the north of the Ngarejo was the Wolgal tribe whose country according an old man who belonged to it and who came from the Hume River Hume River/Murray River somewhere between Tom Groggin and Cudjewa. [He?] fixed the boundaries approximately as follows. Junction of the Walarigari River and the River Murray; - Tumberumba - Adelong - Tumut - Gundagai - Lambing Flat - Yass - Queanbeyan - Cooma - [Gibs? Hole - Kiandra - Thelbingun Mt - and thence around the Indi River near Tom Groggin.

Last edit 7 days ago by Christine
54

54

[Crossed out 36] 37

[Left margin note]Rv J Bulmer Bidwel [Biduel?]-mitŭng

The class divisions of the Wolgal tribe were obtained from this old man who was one of the singers or bards and [crossed out - who] had joined the Ngarejo/Ngarego/Ngarigo of Maneroo.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Title] Class system of the Wolgal tribe

[Row 1][Column 1 heading] Class divisions[Maliaro?] - Eaglehawk

[Column 2 heading] Totems1 Banda - Kangaroo2 Nūron - Emu3 [crossed out - Yubai] Ebai - Hawk4 [Mari?] - Dingo5 Wūthering - Flying Squirrel 6 Belit-belit - Lyre bird

[Line under row]

[Row 2][Column 1 heading] Class divisionsŪmbe - crow

[Column 2 heading] Totems1 Megindang - Wombat 2 Natjauajau - Bat 3 [Maralang?] [crossed out - Wajnalang] - Brown snake 4 Bringal - Star (Venus) 5 Waniyūk - Bandicoot 6 Wandeli - Porcupine

[Line under table]

The law of the class divisions the ususal one. But that of their totems was said to be that the totems would marry as placed in the above lists. For instance another Wolgal man Maliau-Ebai (3) [crossed out - would marry] married Umbe-marakang [crossed out - Wearalang? and to] (3) and the children take the class and totem names of their mother. This I give with reserve. yet this old man - [Mr Agula?] - was so far as I knew him a trustworthy informant, and a perfect mine of songs both festive and ceremonial (Bora) of this tribe.

At any rate the Wolgal as thus defined would touch upon if not include some of the Wirajuri speaking people when class system differs materially from the above, being of the Kind being familiar to us under its Kamilaroi Form.

Before proceeding further into New South Wales it is necessaryto say something of the coast tribes beginning with the Biduell/Bidwel-mitŭngwho I have just mentioned. This small tribe was not counted among the Kurnai although the Krautŭn clan of that tribe occupied the sea frontage from the Snowy River mouth to Cape Everard thus cutting off the Biduell/Bidwel from the [sea - crossed out] actual coast frontage.

Their country is one of high mountain ridges descending from the coast range, which is the edge of the great Maneroo table land, and of lower usually sandy country extending to the coast. The whole country was covered with forests and most with dense scrub which were made

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