Howitt and Fison Papers

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Search for Bidwell* Bidwelli* Bidwall* Biduelli* "Biduelli tribe" Biduéli* Maap* Biduell* "Bidwell mittŭng" Biduell-mittŭng* Biduell/Bidwel* Bidwell-mitung*

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sun rising.4 The Bidwell Blacks are not exactly Brajeraks as they are able to understand the language of the Kanis. I think the term is confined to men whose talk is not understood as Barbarian is with us, it is a word made up of Bra a man + Jerra to fear. Consequently the Bidwells would not be among that class. Billy McDougall cannot tell me the exact translation of Neborak. he says it is only meant for the Guiaban. I do not think the term Muk jeak refers to that meat but I should think with you that the term might be translated meat par excellence as it means meat distinguished from inferior sorts of meats. They will always give the guiaban the best they have

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[Table]

Name, Native Place, Division of Tribe, Wife's division of tribe

William McDougall, Raymond Island, Tatoonkolong, BrabolongTuleba, Bruthen, Brabolong, BrabolongWilliam Thorpe, Bairnsdale, Brabrolong, *Ngrangit the entrancal Blacks.Neddy O'Rourke, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, Braberry worcutTommy Johnson, Snowy River, Kroathun, Yacktoon worcutDick Cooper, Tatoonkolong, Tatoonkolong, Lowajerak Buffalo womanLarry Johnson, Snowy River, Kroatunkoolong, NrangitTimothy, Snowy River, Kroathun, TatoonkolongBilly the Bull, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, Yacktoon worcutJacky Jacky, Lake Tyres, Warrnangatty, Yacktoon worcutBilly Jumbuck, Lake Tyres, Warnangatty, KroatoonYelmi, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, BraberryDan, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, KroatoonKerlip Tom Snowy River, Kroatun, NgrangitBig Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Yucktoon worcutLamby, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Brabeerry Brathu (turee)*Charley Rivers, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, BraberryBobby Brown, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Ngrangit Ngrangit (both wives)Charley Muir, Bruthen, Braberry, KroathunKing Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Lowajerak BrabolongBen Jennings, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Warrangatty Charley Alexander, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, LowajerakSinging Johnny, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowajerakMunday, Maneroo, Brajerak, BidwellJohnny the plater, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, KroatunMurray Jack, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowerjerakLawson, Scrub black, Bidwell, Bidwell. Jack Hay, Maneroo, Brajerak, Brabrolong taken by theftJimmy Thompson, Maneroo, Brajerak, Braberry Paddy, Sale, Brajerak, Kroatun worcut has girls - to himdid not marryHanner, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon worcutKing Tom, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon

Ngrangit means belonging to the Entrance to Lakes. Lambys +c and wife Ellen are Tara

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LanguagesNgarego ‘The word ngarego is the name of the language spoken by this tribe – the district name of the tribes men being “Murring” = men.They called the language of the Theddora, Kŭ[n]dūng-orūr and that of Gippsland Kūng-ela.Wild blacks were called Bŭdara [crossed out]’

Yuina lie = Bŭrnam-ganŭp or ?Miraian?Smoke = tūnkū-miláMerriman

'Yuin1 = Mittŭng-ŭlla2 = blageralea3 = Balli-mŭrma4 = Karoungial5 = Yirkūr6 = Karŭng blageralla10 = Ngaru mangalCharley Buipin

Braidwood tribeThe language spoken in [?is] Tarawal. Ridley p. 94 says that the language at Pt Jackson is Turuwul- where tullung = tongue.at Bermagui, Moruya and Bunilee [or Burilee or Durilee] the language is Wodi Wodi.Ridley says the language at Shoalhaven and Wollongong is wudi-wudi [?wadi wadi] - p. 111

MaryboroughThe Booral language is known to all the triblets referred toEach tribute varies slightly in its language (dialect)as you know a man's triplet [??] peculiar words he uses. H.E. Aldridge.

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I of A. T. 6AThe third illustration which I take of the local organization is the extreme case of the Kurnai tribe of Gippsland. In this case theclass system had entirely disappeared, the totems only survived as [the - crossed out] names of animals which were inherited by [the - crossed out] sons from their fathers. The local organization had remained, and having the whole field to itself regulated marriages in the lines of the old customs of the two class and four class and totemic organizations.

This tribe occupied the whole of what is now Gippsland excepting [the greater - crossed out] that part of the country Croajingolung which lies inland from the coast. This great area of tribal country ___ miles in length by ___in width lies between the sea coast and the Great Dividing Range, extending also in a narrow coast strip from the Snowy River mouth to Twofold Bay.

[written in left side margin to go above "This great area of tribal---"]This exceptional hard even now a wild mountainous country mostly covered with dense [?trees?] and almost impenetrable scrub [?hosted?] a small jungle tribe the Biduelli of [unknown?] men elsewhere

It was divided into five areas which were inhabited by five clans of the Kurnai. These five clans spoke dialects of the same language which in the extreme east and next/west were almost unintelligible to the respective speakers. The following table will observe details of this local [?] of this tribe.

[Left margin not - Insert pp 7A & 7B here]

[Table of 6 columns]

LocalitiesRow 1 Column 2 - Coastline of Croajingolong and extending to entrance of Gippsland LakesColumn 3 - Coastline between Gippsland Lakes and the SeaColumn 4 - Central Gippsland between [?] & [?] Column 5 - West GippslandColumn 6 - South west Gippsland

Row 2Column 1 - names of clansColumn 2 - Kranat-ŭn-galŭng[Belingiry?] to the eastColumn 3 - Tatŭn-galŭng[Belingiry?] to the SeaColumn 4 - Bra-bra-lŭnjManly-belinjiry to ManlyColumn 5 - [Bra-ya?][?] [Belingiry?] to the westColumn 6 - [Brata?][Belingiry?] to

Row 3Column 1 - Language spolenColumn 2 - Thang-guai Broad speechColumn 3 - Variation of Thang-guai Column 4 - Muk-thangExcellent speechColumns 5&6 - Nūlit

Each of these clans was subdivided into lesser local groups, each of which had special names which in some cases was derived from the principal locality while in others it gave the local name. For instance a large selection of the [crossed out - ? many of the] western men lived in the Upper [crossed out - pog] waters of the Avon

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34A.

on such elevated plateaux were located certain tribes where the elevation was such within the region of perpetual sun during the winter months, as [crossed out - but such was the case with the Omeo tribe]: at Omeo in Victoria and Maneroo in New South Wales: But even in such cases the mountain tribes usually occupied some of the higher River valleys which [crossed out - lay any?] [prohibit?] the plateaux from either side, or where the tablelands were inaccessible during the winter months, [crossed out - in summer] the tribes which claimed them had their winter quarters in lower lying country.

Thus [crossed out - The Omeo tribe] on the Gippsland side one branch of the Baiaka clan, the subdivision named [Kŭtbŭru-taura?] or Fire carriers? whose headquarters were on the Avon River [crossed out - at the] in the [above - and [??]] foothills bordering the plains, during the summer time ascended the spur of Mt Wellington where at a height of 5000 ft then reached the southern edge of [crossed out - the] a plateau now called the Snowy Plains; which extended northward between the deep valley of the Macalister and Wonangatta Rivers a distance of _____ miles to the Great Dividing Range.

Similarly from the oppposite side the tribe which occupied the valley of the [crossed out - Upper Ovens River and its tributary the] Buffalo River ascended during the summer, [crossed out - the latter] then almost isolated Plateau called the Buffalo Mountain, [crossed out - and the] and was therefore the distant and hostile neighbour of the Braiaka. [crossed out beneath - former the ???? tableland now known as the Dargo High Plains.]

Beyond [crossed out - these] and still following the Great Dividing Range to [crossed out - the] north Eastward lies the vast tableland out of which at successive elevations rise the sources of the Mitta MittaRiver, known now as the Bogong High Plains, and Omeo.

Here lived formerly a mountain tribe which was divided into two great local groups. One was the Theddora Mittŭng (1) occupying the [Cobungra - crossed out] the Mitta Mitta River and its tributaries [from - crossed out] upwards from about the [Gibbo?] mountain, the Upper Kiewa River and the Ovens River above the Buffalo Mountain, thus being the neighbour of a number of lowland tribes in the northern half of the Dividing Range, among which was the Buffalo tribe which was claimed by my Woeworung informant as [the outlying member of the - crossed out] belonging to those who had the ‘names’ (classes) Bunjil and Wang (1)

[Left margin notes]Theddura Mittung

Mittung = a number of people; also = a number, many. this word particularly appears in Mitta-Mitta River in reference to its rise & number of tributaries.

(1) see p.-----psee also as to the [??] also of the [??] & Omeo with some Kurnai ch us. p.

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The second great division [crossed out - of] was the Kangandora-mittung who occupied the Omeo Plains, the Livinestone River [Livingstone Creek] and the Tambo River above somewhere about Ensay.

To the southward the Kandangora came in contact with the Brabralung clan of the Kurnai in the Tambo River and it is worth noting the old [crossed out: line of] road from Omeo to Bruthen was along the [crossed out: back] [written above: line of country] which the Omeo and Gippsland Blacks followed respectively into each others country. To the East their boundary was about the Cobberas mountain and thence down the Indi River to about Tom Groggin then neighbours on that side being the Ngarego tribe.

[Left margin note - ?]

Very little is known as to the class system of the Omeo tribe. That country was discovered and then - crossed out] settled by McFarland about 1842. In 1852 gold was found at Livingstone Creek and [the -crossed out] a great rush of [diggers - crossed out] miners set in to the "Omeo Diggings"; in 1862 there remained only [on - crossed out] no more than four or five of the once numerous Omeo tribe.

All that I can say as to their classes and totems is that among the latter were [Tebuteba?] - (Rabbit rat) and [Najabejan?] (Bat) which also occur in the neighbouring [crossedout - half] Ngarejo tribe with which also the Omeo tribe intermarried. That these two totems were on the opposite sides of the system is shown by [crossed out - them] this, that when the tribes people plaid at ball (1) Tebuteba plaid on one side and Najatejan on the other.

[Left margin note](1)A kind of ''football'' which was plaid in many parts if not eveerywhere in Victoria & South of [??] the ball either being made of strips of pelt tightly rolled up or as in popular if the scrotum of an "old man" Kangaroo stuffed with grass.

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36[Left margin note] Ngarego

The boundaries of the country of the Ngarego appear to have included the whole of the Maneroo plains and also the country beyond the Snowy River as far as the boundary of the Omeo tribe. Their neighbours in the [Western - crossed out] South west were the Kurnai by whom they were much dreaded and whom they called “Brajerak”(1)or ‘Wild men’ [To the - crossed out] South over the coast range and between it, the Lower Snowy Riverand the sea, that is the present County of Croagingoling their neighbours were a wild jungle tribe, few in number, the Bidwell-mitung, the last of [?whome?] only “came in” and became civilized somewhere about 1870.In the south East are the Coast Murring and to the East were tribes of the group to which the Braidwood tribe belonged. Their northern neighbours were the Wolgal.

[Left margin note](1) Bra - male or man yirak or jirak - anger, thus yirakal loän = an angry white man

The class system of the Ngarego/Ngarigo was as follows:-

[Table of two columns]

[Row 1][Column 1 heading] ClassesMerŭngEaglehawk

Colmun 2 heading] TotemsBelleb - LyrebirdNadjabajan - Bat[Būlemba] - Flying squirrel Mundarŭng - TuanNamŭng - Black snake Mŭlan or Mŭnja - a fish Bŭt-[ttie?]-wark - Mopoke Kau-ŭnga - Balck opossum [Wa-at?] - Red wallaby

[Row 2][Column 1 heading] ClassesYŭk-em-brŭkcrow

[Column 2 heading] TotemsBra-a-gar - Small hawk Tehuteba - Rabbit rat Bowa - Flying squirrel next in size to Bulemba [above] Bŭr-rū - Kangaroo Beri-bong - Emu Bŭdalūk - Lace lizardKūa-i-ūr - Native [Companion?] Kau-au - Porcupine Ū-lūn-bau - Sleeping lizard

[Line under table]

The law of marriage was that Merūng married Yŭk-em-brŭk and visce versa as to the totems.

[Left margin note] Wolgal

To the north of the Ngarejo was the Wolgal tribe whose country according an old man who belonged to it and who came from the Hume River Hume River/Murray River somewhere between Tom Groggin and Cudjewa. [He?] fixed the boundaries approximately as follows. Junction of the Walarigari River and the River Murray; - Tumberumba - Adelong - Tumut - Gundagai - Lambing Flat - Yass - Queanbeyan - Cooma - [Gibs? Hole - Kiandra - Thelbingun Mt - and thence around the Indi River near Tom Groggin.

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[Left margin note]Rv J Bulmer Bidwel [Biduel?]-mitŭng

The class divisions of the Wolgal tribe were obtained from this old man who was one of the singers or bards and [crossed out - who] had joined the Ngarejo/Ngarego/Ngarigo of Maneroo.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Title] Class system of the Wolgal tribe

[Row 1][Column 1 heading] Class divisions[Maliaro?] - Eaglehawk

[Column 2 heading] Totems1 Banda - Kangaroo2 Nūron - Emu3 [crossed out - Yubai] Ebai - Hawk4 [Mari?] - Dingo5 Wūthering - Flying Squirrel 6 Belit-belit - Lyre bird

[Line under row]

[Row 2][Column 1 heading] Class divisionsŪmbe - crow

[Column 2 heading] Totems1 Megindang - Wombat 2 Natjauajau - Bat 3 [Maralang?] [crossed out - Wajnalang] - Brown snake 4 Bringal - Star (Venus) 5 Waniyūk - Bandicoot 6 Wandeli - Porcupine

[Line under table]

The law of the class divisions the ususal one. But that of their totems was said to be that the totems would marry as placed in the above lists. For instance another Wolgal man Maliau-Ebai (3) [crossed out - would marry] married Umbe-marakang [crossed out - Wearalang? and to] (3) and the children take the class and totem names of their mother. This I give with reserve. yet this old man - [Mr Agula?] - was so far as I knew him a trustworthy informant, and a perfect mine of songs both festive and ceremonial (Bora) of this tribe.

At any rate the Wolgal as thus defined would touch upon if not include some of the Wirajuri speaking people when class system differs materially from the above, being of the Kind being familiar to us under its Kamilaroi Form.

Before proceeding further into New South Wales it is necessaryto say something of the coast tribes beginning with the Biduell/Bidwel-mitŭngwho I have just mentioned. This small tribe was not counted among the Kurnai although the Krautŭn clan of that tribe occupied the sea frontage from the Snowy River mouth to Cape Everard thus cutting off the Biduell/Bidwel from the [sea - crossed out] actual coast frontage.

Their country is one of high mountain ridges descending from the coast range, which is the edge of the great Maneroo table land, and of lower usually sandy country extending to the coast. The whole country was covered with forests and most with dense scrub which were made

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more impenetrable by the exuberant growth of [the - crossed out] a climbing grass (1) which often [rose up - crossed out] [?embraced?] everything [with in its ?? li - crossed out]for twenty feet above the ground. Even when in some places the country was a more open forest the river flowed with in a belt of almost tropical jungle. Moreover animal life was scarce and the whole area could only support a tribe as small as the Biduell-mittŭng who probably never numbered more in all than a couple of score of individuals. These people called themselves “maap” – men and were looked down upon by all their neighbours. They had no system of Initiation and I saw once at a [Kuriu - crossed out]Bora of the Coast-Muring [sic] that [one of these - crossed out] a Biduell man of probably seventy years of age who was then visiting them on friendly terms was contemptuously driven in among the women and children at the commencement of the ceremonies and left behind as not being a “full man”. -

The Biduell language was compounded from the surrounding languages. They had some of the class names of their neighbours, for instance they hadthe sex totem [here - crossed out] Yirŭng [cut men - crossed out], and I observed the [totem - crossed out] class name "Yukanbrŭk= crow and the totem Tchuteba = Rabbit Rat of the Ngarego and theYalonga = Rock Wallaby - of the Coast Muring [sic]. I even found onefamily bearing the name of Bunjil. Their relationship terms[are - crossed out] were also derived from the same neighbouring tribes, someterms being Kurnai and some Muring as might have been forecastfrom their composite language. The prime facie case of a mixed descent is strengthened by a statement made by a Biduell man who claimed as his country the upper valley of the [upper - crossed out] Broadribb River which flows into the Snowy Rivernear the coast and thus in the Kurnai country. He said that his “father’s father” was a Kurnai of Buchan (1) who left his country and settled in the small piece of open county known as [the - crossed out] Goungra, west of Mount Ellery. (2)His son obtained a wife from the Thedora of Omeo, the son of this marriage, my informant, married a Ngarego woman. This pedigree accounts for both Yirŭng and Yŭkembrŭk. [Such - crossed out] Another case is one where before the settlement of Gippsland by the white man, a Brabrolŭng eloped with his brother’s daughter who according to the classificatory system of kinship was counted as his own daughter. The offence againt tribal law was one of the most serious he could commit and he escaped with her. [and was not seen - crossed out]

[written in left side margin](1)

Is this Marap?

Are they not thenprobably mixedrefugees?

(1) this is not as isusually supposed aScotch name given to theplace by some of the Earlysettlers who were [mostly - crossed out] [??]from North [??] but anative word which should beproperly written Bŭkan, meaninga net bag in which the blackfellowscarried their things. The proper nameof the place is "Bŭkan-munji"or "Bag-there" or the "place of the bag"(2) Būrrūmpa of the aborigines

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most probably into the Biduell scrub which was the nearest refuge to them. The Kurnai who told me of this occurrence said that these two were not seen again until Gippsland was [settled - crossed out]occupied by white men, when they reappeared and went to the Melbourne district under the protection of the Native Police,and were never again heard of. (1)

[written in left side margin](1) K & K p. 348

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Tatati Pūrbŭng - according to Bobby Napier

About 1870 the Tatati sent a Wirigar messenger to the Wotjobalukto call some of them to attend their Pūrbung at Euston.[Bobby's brother's son was taken to be intiated - crossed out] On reaching Euston under the guidance of the Wirigar, the old men decided that the ceremonies should be held next day. Before day break the people were all ready - there werepresent Tatati, Wati Wati, Letchi Letchi - and they waited for the sun to rise. Three boys were to be initiated. Each one sate in his camp together with his mother and father. The old men and the other initiated men were at their talking place. When the sun rose they all ran up to the camp shouting; each boy was seized by his ngierep (wife's brothersister's husband) who dragged him by the arms into the crowd of men. The boy's father remained in the camp. (1.) The boys mother lay in the camp covered over by a rug. The others were collected together in one place.

The ngierap holding the boy by placing his arm under the boy's right arm and his hand over his left shoulder led him about two miles away. The crowd of men surrounded the boys playing all kinds of antics and saying all kinds of funny things to make the boys laugh - which the boys had been instructed by their ngieraps not to do on any account.

Meanwhile some of the men had been busy digging a number of holes in a row, one for each boy. The boy was placed sitting in the hole which came up to his waist. His neirep held him against his breast with a hand over each eye, and his face held upward.

The men were all round dancing. The Medicine Man (Bā-ngal) came running up with a wooden chiselin his hand and a stick about a foot long, [in the other - crossed out], with a knob at one end in the other. He placed the chisel in the boy's tooth and struck it a blow with the stick to loosen it - or sucked it out: my informant could not say which. The boy had to swallow the blood from his gums in order to become strong. If it ran out on the ground he would become weak. This being done the boys were taken to a camp where a bush screen had been made and here the men danced all night and imitated kangaroos, dogs +c to amuse

[written in left side margin](1.) This may perhaps havebeen because he had never been initiated. Such is the case with Biduelli menmentioned at p-

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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for you some tabulated relationshipsfrom the Snowy River and Buchan blacks.The Bidwelli tribe have so far eluded me.I am anxious to meet with the last remainingmembers as it is almost extinct and is interesting as having been secludedin the dense jungle east of the Snowy River and some peculiarities mayhave been evolved.

I also enclose a communicationfrom my correspondent the Revd ABrazier from Lake Condah. It isimproved but is still contradictoryand I have sent him two dozenqueries for reply which I trust willcomplete that system.

I am very glad that I havebeen able to be of some servicein your enquiries. I have takenmuch interest in everything

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4the gesture sign by which in these tribes the nameof the great Supernatural Being Daramulun (1) is inducted - whichit is not lawful for the uninitiated to know nor for the initiatedto speak unless in the Kuringal ceremonies, which it is taught tofirst instituted and taught to the Murring ancestors.

After this ceremony the evening is spent in festive singingand dancing (known to us as the corroboree).

When all the contingents have arrived the old men in concertapart fix upon the day in which the [Kuringal -crossed out] great ceremonie [sic] shall be[crossed out - commenced] held. These commence by a stamping, winding processionof all the initiated men headed by the principal Gommera ([sketch which looks like a Z]) which as before collects all the women and children together on theopen space near to the camp. But now the women are not only crowdedbut crouch close together each boy who is to be initiated being besidehis mother, and these are placed in the front of the group.

The men having danced in a long line to and fro in front of the women now halt in front of them and directed by the principal oldmen closely cover them up with rugs. I was much interested in noting

Where an B earthen mound has been made [the women crouch- crossed out][in the behind - crossed out] it, each mother is in a camp immediately behind her son, who is in the moundundergoing the "fire ordeal"; the other women being still further back. TheWiradjuri follow much the same practice. In Victoria the Wotjoballan of the Wimmera River roasted their boys in a mound which in that way approach to the Bunan ceremonies of G'land. see pp.-

That a very old man of the Biduelli tribe which had no initiationceremonies was at the gathering. He was friends with all, and wasrelated by marriage to some of the contingent visitors. But never having been"made a man" - being one of the uninitiated he was driven crouching among thewomen and together with them was covered up by the rugs.One of the Kurnai - belonging to the Krauatun clan which wasthe neighbour of the Twofold Bay Murring - left before the ceremonies commenced,for he also was uninitiated his clan having no cermonies and not attending the Kurnai Jerail (3)

The women all this time, even when close covered up all droningthe "tooth song".

At a sign for the old man one of the principal gommeras who was the master of this ceremonie [sic]each Kabo says his particular charge by the arm and holding him tightdrags him from among the women and hastens away with him followedby the shouting crowd of men. (4)One old man remains behind to seethat the women behave themselves and do not indulge in any unlawfulfemale curiosity by following the men.

[in left side margin][next to first paragraph] (1) see p.p[next to second main paragraph] (2) see chapter "Headman +c"[next to third main paragraph] Foot note[next to line with (3)] (3) see p. p[line drawn from (4) to side margin] Two Kabos areassigned to each noviceand have been almostfrom that group which isin the relations to the novicesgroup of "sisters husband" and(future) "wife's brother". Thus each arm is held by one of the Kaboswho may for [??] being called "Guardians"

[at bottom of page](4) This shouting is to cover the noise made by the departing men and other noises.the women and children are supposed not to know what has become of themwhen the old men in charge uncover them. At the Bunan the departure of the novices and then guardians along the path for the earthen circle is maskedby the men who continue to run round the inside of the ring making a noise likep-r-r p-r-r and gradually stealing off one by one. During this the women have beenlying face down on the ground outside the earth mound on the side furthest from thepath leading to the lesser Bunan.

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15in a commotion. The women started up and hastily seizing their rolled up rugs and blankets hastened off withtheir children to a space in front of the camp on the north side, singing the Boy's song, which as I have already saidis intended to cause the tooth to come out [crossed out - readily] easilyin the initiation. Meanwhile the men were stalkingabout among the camps, shouting Ha! Waugh! (usuallypronounced Wah! or even Woh!) - commanding silence among the women. In a very short time allthese with the children were huddled into a closegroup surrounded by the men who were stamping a dance,to the word "Wah", finally closing in round the women each one silently raising the right hand pointing upwardsto the sky. This silent gesture signified the word Daramūlŭnwhich it is not lawful to utter there. A singular feature now showed itself. In the camp were two or three ofthe Biduelli men and one of the Krauatun Kurnai,with their wives and children. When the ceremonie [sic]commenced these men with one exception, had gone awaybecause they had never been "made men" - for as I havesaid before neither the Krauatun clan nor the Biduelli tribe had any initiation ceremonies of their own, nordid they as a rule attend those of neighouring tribes. Theone man who remained was the old patriarch of the Biduelliwho was now driven crouching among the women and children. The reason was self-evident. He had never been "made a man" and was therefore no better than a mere boy.

The women and children being driven together the old men proceeded to draw from those boys whowere considered ripe for initiation. The proper time is when thewhiskers are beginning to show themselves and when the oldmen observe that the boy is beginning to pay more attention to thewomen of the tribe than is discreet or proper. The old menpointed out those who were to be taken and they were seized bytheir "Kabo's" and placed crouching in the immediatefront rank of the women. There was one boy a half casteindeed he was nearer white than black about whom opinion

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16was divided. He was in an agony of terrors clinging tohis mother, but by the order of the Head Gommerahe was dragged out and discussed. After a few minutesthe decision was "he is too young - put him back". Thewomen and children were now pushed back into as closecontact as possible, with the old Biduelli patriarchamong them. Blankets and rugs were then placed all overthem so that they were not only completely hidden but were themselves quite unable to see anything. At a signalfrom Gŭnjerŭng [crossed out - each] a Kabo seized his boy from under thecovering and each one holding an arm ran him off to wherethe bundles were left. All of us followed as fast as possibleand as I left I could hear the muffled sounds of the Boys song being sung by the women.

It had been expected that there would have been eight boys ready to be made men, but owing to the delaysand to the non arrival of the Gippsland contingent with severalboys there were only three who were judged ready for initiation.Two were 14 or 15 years old, the other was older with awell marked mustache.

The first proceeding at the trysting place was thatthe Kabo placed [crossed out - a new blanket] on each boy naked, a new blanket, folded twiceso that it formed when fastened down the front a conethe apex of which was over the boys head and the base nearlytouching the ground. The wooden skewers with which the sidesof the blankets were fastened to each other were so placed that[crossed out - the boys] the boy's face appeared just above the uppermostone. This being all arranged Gŭnjerŭng gave the signalto start and out procession began to ascend the steepside of the grassy hill leading up to the mountain. Someof the old men led the way, then came the Kabos, each oneholding his boy by the left upper arm and in deep [?converse?]with him as he went. All the rest followed as we liked, eachone carrying his bundle, and the Kabos carried not only hisown things but those of his boy likewise.

The Kabos duty is to take charge of his boy during the

[written in left side margin]swag? [next to paragraph about the men and Kabos taking their charges and their own bundles]

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0149 16/11/1881 Hobbes, Merriman to Howitt

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1/Division of Tribes + Sub Tribes - correct"Katungal = means Sea coast - i.e. Twofold Bay to Sydney - andnorthwards - includes 90 mile beach to South."Murrin - means Sister in law - and country inhabited by them isas described - extends to Gippsland - beyond this in the moun-tains men are called Gundunrook [Gundunrook is underlined] -"Bimeringal and Gundanrook - almost identical in meaningthe former extends from Parramatta and round the limits of the Murrin or Marriwan country Woradjeri - the name of the tribe - Kunamildan (meaning "come inthe night" being the name of the sub-tribe - this people onlycame down to the coast, sneakingly not boldly at night - Kill a Murrinman and go away again directly, Merriman's father - named Ugaridgeroo - (meaning Flood-tide) was thus killed, he was Biambun(old man, or King) of Wallaga tribe of MurriwanYuin - is a general tribal name of aborigines from Sydney to Merimbula = beyond this to Cape Howe - [?Maru? - could be Mairu] [Maru underlined] but all areKatungal"In the Katungal country the names of animals +c are thusKangaroo - Booroo Bream - Buri* Bush rat or Bandicoot = Merrijigga Mullet - WarigilaCrow - Wa go-ow Wild Duck - WombaraFisherman Jack - Birimbamin Native Dog - MerriKongwari [Gunimbil crossed out] is a general name for dogs of all kinds wild aswell as tame = Gunimbil is not known" names of animals were not general amongst the YuinMerriman can only remember two - one a Broulee man namedWarrigal [Warrigal underlined] (native dog) and another Murrira [Murrira underlined] (Emu) other nameswere Burruwalwa [Burruwalwa underlined] (one who know s everything) Ouwiti [Outwiti underlined] (canoe) Kumbo(marrow) Nyerriwang (thunder) Bulleer [Bulleer underlined] (dust) Kayan [Kayan underlined] (very top peak ofthe Dromedary) Mundu pira (stone tomahawk) Merriman's name is

[written under a line drawn at the bottom of the page]* The other names in your list are alike

Last edit 4 days ago by J Gibson

hw0152 Jiringal language at Bega from Bega Charley

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Jiringal language at Bega - per Bega Charley

(j) Jiringal language at BegaBega Charley

Man- PaiūlWoman - ngūligaHead - KábanHair - yárraEye - málbranose - I'gilTongue - ThállūnHand - Káruing-ainThumb - NgákūFoot - Djin-aSun - Nau-aMoon - Thau-a-raFire - KaubiWater - NgokaMy - NgáialluThem - indigalHis - wurtuOne - mittungellitwo - bullakurlathree - pallum urfour - nuriafive - Karroingalsix - Karrinngal-mittingalseven

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

hw0153 Precis of information as to the tribe of Aborigjnes inhabiting the country between Mallagoota Inlet Victoria + Shoalhaven NSW

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2and the Nelligan River [sic]; the Kŭrial from the NelliganRiver [sic] to the Shoalhaven River; and the Bimeringal livinginland about Braidwood. But this latter name seemsto have been applied also generally to the people who livedinland and in the mountains while the term Katŭngalwas applied to the residents of the coast itself.-

More distant tribes who occasionally made warlikeraids over the mountains were called Woradjeri orKūnamildan.

The men living between the Turon River + [?Caujola?] Riverwere also called Yūin.

There seem to have been in this tribe as in other Australiantribes class names, (or family names) of which the followinghave been given me as examples among the Yūin.Kaualgar = Kangaroo Gūragūr = Kangaroo ratWŭngali = Bushrat Mŭnyŭnga = Eaglehawkwa-go-ra = crow Gŭrŭngaba = PelicanBirimbamin = Cormorant Bŭmaga = IguanaMŭrŭmbŭl = Brown snake Bŭrimi = BreamGūmbera = Black snake merigongKongwari = wild doggūnimbil

My informant could not state the various classesor how the various names were permitted to intermarryor how the names were inherited. I therefore giveover leaf two tables showing [crossed out - the] a typical example- namely that of the Kamilaroi tribes - in which thetwo primary classes, the four sub classes, and the family names(totems) are given together with the law of marriage and descents.Can you complete those of the Yūin?

Last edit 4 days ago by J Gibson

hw0150 Notes on the Guyangal and Kurial

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2Boundaries of country

The country of this tribe commences[crossed out - at the Canjola River, thence by Ulladulla,Brumin Station on the head of the]at the Eastern side of Mallagoota Inletthence by Mallagoota northwards includingBondi to near Delegete [sic], thence Northwardleaving Nimitibelle and Cooma a little to the left hand,by Umerella, Biddy devine, Araluen,Jimmycumbene, Braidwood including Queenbyan [sic] thenceround by the Canjola River to the sea.

This was divided between theGūyangal and Kŭrial. The formerhad the part between Mallagoota and Nelligan River - the latter from Nelligan Riverup to Shoalhaven - (a little beyond toCanjola River).

The members of this This tribe independently of [crossed out - there] itbeing divided into two intermarrying sub tribeswere also spoken of as Bemeringaland Katŭngal according as theylived in the [crosed out - sea] mountains or onthe sea coast. More distant tribesnorthwards along the coast werealso called Katŭngal or seacoast men while others [crossed out Nort] beyond the mountainson the great Maneroo plateau and towardsQueenbyand [sic] and Lake Bathurst werealso called Bemeringal or mountain men.

With these tribes friendly intercourse took placewith intermarriages. But there were stillmore distant tribes who were only knownto them as Woradjera orKūna mildan who came at timesand killed the Yūin. These livedbeyond the mountains and Northwards.

[written in left side margin]Bidwell blacksare Bemeringal

Strutt - theBemeringal werethe Maneroo menfor Bemering = high plains

Bemeringal [crossed out -had]went out toKiandra butnot over theDividing Range.

Come by night [next to Kūna mildan]

Melbourne blacks = Gūyangal

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41The Gommeras have people killed whofor instance kill another of the samemob or who have done wrong in shewingthe mūdthi or such like. If a manhad killed a man of another [trib - crossed out] mobany Gommera, not only the one wherethe man was killed might send[the - crossed out] a Jerri to the man who killed himto tell him he must come to suchand such a place and standout. Meanwhile the blacks wouldbe getting their spears ready for himand warming up their boomerangsin the ashes so as to be tough.

On the day fixed the man appearsarmed with both shields. If he haskilled someone he has not got anybacker. If he has only wounded someoneor hurt him with Jo-e-a he willhave a backer. If the other peopleare not fair the backer helps him.In the case where a man had beenkilled the friends of the manwho stands out are with theirGommera a little out of spear range at one side. The deadman's mob stands in sight furtheroff and their Gommera with them.Before the fight comes off the Gommerahas asked the dead man's nearest malerelation how many men he wants togo out to fight. If he said six, thenthe Gommera would order sixgood men to go with him.

[written in left side margin]Moruya mankilled[?Bidwelli?]

re [Boomerang - crossed out] spear shield+ club shieldlook up the names

Last edit 11 months ago by ALourie
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43When a man dies and his friends do not knowwhat killed him the Gommera is called in.[The Go - crossed out] [He climbs up a - crossed out] The dead man is wrapped upin a possum rug. His corroboree things are with himstuffed under his head or any where there is room. A sheetof bark is rolled round him and corded tight. Hisweapons have been given to his real friends. TheGommera then climbs up the tree which must be alarge [bushy one - crossed out] branching one. All the men thenpresent whether relatives of the dead man or notthen climb up after him into the branches.

The Gommera then shouts out "Kai" and looks up in the air. Then they all listen carefully for the voice of the deadman's tūlūgal (ghost).At length it is heard answering a long wayoff "Kai". If [the - crossed out] voice of the tūlūgal is clear and distinct he has died of some sicknessbut if it is dull and choky then he hasbeen caught with Jo-e-a. The Yūin alsothought that some deaths were from [sickness - crossed out][like - crossed out] colds like whitefellows sickness.

The Gommera could then tell them who had caught him. Ir if it were known that he hadbeen at some place before he died, for instance if a Moruya man had been to Bodallathen his father or brothers and a Gommerawould sneak down to that place and look outfor some blacks. It would not matter which onehad [done - crossed out] killed their man. If they could catchany one it would do as well. I remember ina case of this kind that Tumut or Goulburnmen [people - crossed out] came over and killed 25 Braidwoodpeople men, women and children. They putsome "gūbbŭrra" in their grog, and as they were having a drunken spree and allsucking out of the same bottle they all died.

If they killed these people they would not eatany part of them, but would rub their kidney faton the Būndi or gūdjūrū or other weapons.This would be just the same if they killedwild blacks such as Woradjeri.

[written in left side margin]See marginal noteon last page42

31tūlū = hole = cavegal = belonging to

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hw0163 Notes on the Maneroo or Ngarigo

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Frog- Jirry-go-ratSnake- Ji-ju-cungIguaua- Goor-oo-aulLizard- Jirra-brung-anLocust- Goo-lara-joo-larnGrub (tree) Cub-i-pueSleoth (a) Boo-karngMosquito- Meooluck-marMarch Fly-Mroo-nun-jungBlowy Fly- GnarkooShoo Fly- Goon-er-gong-euBulldog Ant-Jab-u-raStingray far out Jal-ba-gungButterfly- Jir-rabin-binSpider- Sua-grahNegro-War-de-addyone eyed- Mobbarah.mittungBlink-Woolloo.thoo bookBlink one time- MittungBlink two times- BoolarlarBlink three times Boolar-wartungGreat Many Pt-long one syllables very longVery Large- Yluuling

Last edit about 1 year ago by Kurnai

hw0164 Notes on the Maneroo and Ngarigo

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Ngarego Tribe

The boundaries of this tribe are well defined bythe limits of the Maneroo tableland; being bounded to the West by the Thed-dora of Omeoabout the Cobboras; the Kurnai aboutGelantipy; to the South West by the Biduelliat the Coast Range, and by the same range to the south from the Coast tribes(Murring). To the East they are boundedabout Bong Bong by [othe- crossed out] some tribe.To the North their neighbours were the Wolgal.

The word Ngarego is the name of thelanguage they spoke - the distinctive nameof this tribe being Murring = men. Thisword however includes the Coast tribesand the Wolgal.

While this [Ngarego was- crossed out] tribe called theirlanguage "Ngarego", they called the languageof the Theddora, Kŭndūng-orūr and thatof Gippsland Kūngela. Wild blackswere called Bŭdara and white menmūgan.

The names of the tribes bordering the Ngarego wereNgai-mŭthc-mittăng at Queenbeyan [sic]; Waral-mittang at Bega; Bondi mittŭng at Bondi;Biduell-mittang at Bendoc; Woradjeri mittūngat the Tumut River; the men along the coast were called Katŭng-gal and thosefurther up than Bega - Kŭrial. TheNgarego-mittang were as far as Cooma.The open plains country is calledBimŭng.

[in left side margin at top of page, next to title]yes = yeyono = mūrū

Last edit 4 days ago by J Gibson
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6Maneroo[The sky - There is another kind of country up above - crossed out][the sky and other blackfellows are - crossed out][there - crossed out]

Initiation King Charley says:- (with him "Neddy Rourke")I was at a Kūring-al which was held at a place near Crisp's station beyond [Blu - crossed out] Buckley'sCrossing - on this side of Snowy River. There werepeople there from Maneroo and some Bidwelli- also one man from the Tumut River.We went away into the bush to a clear spacein thick scrub - the women were all sent away.There were two boys to be made men. The boystood with each foot in a hole - a man stoodbehind him and held him by the arms.Old Murray Jack separated the gum from thetooth with his finger nail and thenplaced a piece of wood like a chisel (K.C hereshowed a length of say 10 inches) and knocked it with a piece of wood. The tooth came outat first blow. It is supposed that when thetooth holds fast that the youth has had intercourse with women surreptitiously.After the teeth were out we went to a camp.There during the day light the menheld games such as chasing kangaroos +c.At night the old man John Giwanshowed them a glass joeah which he broughtout of his mouth. He made a fire and danced and sang round it andbrought up the Joeah. Murray Jackalso did the same and brought up a Kangaroobone. The teeth being tied onto a piece ofKaiŭng were sent the round to Tumut

[written in left side margin]Youths might eatRingtailRock WallabyBk. WallabyKangaroo RatBk. DuckWambatFish[?Quols?]

mith not eatpossumKangarooPorcupineEmuEmu eggBandicootBk. snakeEel

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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(Ngarego Mickey) 2 12Doctors, Wizard A Doctor was called Mŭrimalŭndra.A Wizard was called Būdjan-belanThese men made use of white stones Thagū= Kūrha_Kūri bong (Thagū Kūrha= white) and black stones Thagūk Kūribong (Thagūk= black)

Ghosts A spirit was called Mai-ŭl. A ghost was called Birek-bang.

Burial A dead person was tied up tight – the hands placed on either side of the face = open and the knees drawn up to the head. All was tied up tightly. The grave was sometimes like a round well, sometimes had a side chamber. The lower part of the grave was filled in with wood and stones and the the [sic] upper part with earth.

Dreams A dream was gŭng-ŭng mūn = nūng-ya. It was believed that they could see ghosts (Birek-bang) in dreams.

Bogong moths The Ngarego used to go up the mountains to eat Bogong moths= ngū-e-ang - at the Murumbidgee [sic] and the Queenbeyan [sic] blacks went with them. The moths were found among the rocks.

Names of tribes The Queenbeyan [sic] blacks were called Ngye-mŭbch-mittŭng, Cooma blacks = Ngarego mittŭng.Bega blacks = Waral mittŭng Bondi blacks = Binai mittŭng ≠ Bendocblacks = Bidwell mittŭng, the Tumut blacks = Woradjeri mittŭng. Men along the coast were Katŭng-gal and those further up than Bega = Kŭrial. The open plain country was called Bimŭng

Last edit 4 days ago by J Gibson

hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages

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7The tribes adjoining the Kurnai

Long Harry + McKay say:-The blackfellows over the mountain towardGoulburn we called Ngūr-au-it; thosetowards Melbourne To-tūr-ŭng ([?lū-rūng?])(Black snake) because they were alwayspoking about to kill us; those of Omeoand Maneroo Brajerak, those ofTwofold Bay War-al and those the otherside the Snowy River who werealmost Kŭrnai - Bidwelli.Biduéli?

Ball as a messageCharly Alexander says that among the Krauatanthe Ball - Tootajeraua was sent as atoken for friendship

Note that Old Williamsaid the sameof Woiworŭng

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0410 Frank James to Howitt 6/2/1876

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Genealogical Table

Name of Locality: North GippslandParticualr Part of above locality: Bidwell in locality of CroajingalongName of Tribe: Maap

6. (M) Name unknown, brother to No 1 1. (M) Wothango7 (F) Wife of No 6 name unknown 2. (F.) Loah 8. (F) Māap, sister to No 2.9. (M) Man of Bega (N.S.W.) Tribename unknown3 (F) Māak 4. (M) Makathung 5. (M) Jemmy Lawson (Informant)Not married Not married Not married

No 1 calls No 2 Lowandya i.e.wife or possibly woman, see below what 3,4 + 5 call 7 + 8No 1 [ditto] Nos 3, 4, + 5 Leidt i.e. childNo 2 [ditto] No 1 Māarpka i.e. husbandNo 2 [ditto] Nos 3, 4, + 5 LeidtNos 3, 4, + 5 call No 1 Lung i.e. fatherNos 3, 4 + 5 call No 2 Yeckun i.e. motherNo 3 calls Nos $=% Detyung i.e. brotherNos 4 + 5 call No 3 Lunyuck, i. e. sisterNo 5 calls No 6 KambyNo 5 [ditto] No 7 BambyungNo 5 would call the children of Nos 6 and 7 "Kooman" if male, and "Lowandya" of female and some of children of 8+ 9 if anyNo 6 calls No 3 Atyin, also LeidtNo 6 calls Nos 4+5 Atyung, also Leidt (nephew, child)No 7 calls No 3 Atyin, also Leidt ([?niece?], child)No 7 calls Nos 4+5 Atyung, also Leidt (nephew, child)No 5 calls No 9 KambyNo 5 calls No 8 BambyungNos 3,4 +5 also call Nos 7 + 8 [?Lowandya?]Nos 7 and 8 also call Nos 3, 4 + 5 Leidt, as also do Nos 6 and 8Nos 3,4 + 5 call the Father of No 1 (who would be their Grandfather) "Banyack" Banyack and Bambin both Nos 3, 4, + 5 call the Mother of No 1 (who would be their Grandmother) "Bambin" call Nos 3, 4 + 5 Leidt

Explanation of above Table. Jemmy Lawson was the informant. His Father (Wothango) marriedLoah and their children were (F) Māak, (M) Māathang + (M) Jemmy Lawson, all three un-married. Informant states that the Māap tribe has a subdivision called Māapkoolongand that the territory of both divisions occupies the whole of the Snowy River watershed.

[chart on right side of page]F. B Father F.B.W.Kamby Leidt Lung leidtLeidt Bambyungchild

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie
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watershed.(eastern side river only) from Little Plain River (N. S. W.) to the Coast in Victoria. He alsostates that the only prohibited marriages he is aware of are with the children of thefather's or mother's sister or brother - i. e. first cousins. The wife is considered, aftermarriage, to belong to the husbands tribe and the same of the offspring.

Informant could not give the meaning of the names of the tribe - "Māap" and"Māapkoolong", and that totems and class names are not used in the tribe.

Senr Constable James may state that he regrets that the inform-ation he has been able to supply in the foregoing has been so long delayedand is so meagre, but will endeavour to obtain and forward fuller on thereturn to the district of a number of the Māap tribe who are absent onharvesting work + have been on shearing trips. The Senr Const's informant(Jemmy Lawson) is not very intelligent, altho' he speaks good English. Thefact is he smokes too much Opium and has been so long with the whitesthat the Senr Const fears he really knows little about his own tribe ortheir language or customs. The Senr Const saw + questioned informant's mother(Loah) and his sister (Māak) but could get nothing out of them, they sentJemmy Lawson as better informed than themselves.F. James, Senior Constable of PoliceBendock, 6th February 1876

ToA. W. Howitt Esqr P.M.Bairnsdale

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0411 Notes on Map from Frank James and Tongai-Jimmy

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Maap tribe (Bidwelli)

Maap had a subdivision Maap Koolong.The territory of both divisions occupied the wholeof the Snowy River watershed (eastern side only)from the Little Plain River (NSW) to the coastin Victoria.

Marriage were [sic] only prohibited with thechildren of fathers or mothers brother or sister.Wife belonged to husbands tribe clan? as also the children

No class names or totems used in the tribe.

Classes Old Lawson said that he is Mūntharū= Tuan squirrelbut he professed not to know what his wife was - she haddied lately.

Tongi Jimmy's wife and another [Bidwell - crossed out] womansaid they [were - crossed out] and Tongi's daughter Sarah are allTchūteba.

Mickey said that Jack Būnjil (a native ofBondi) is Tchūteba and he further saidthat part of the people (Bondi) were Tchutebaand part Nadjabejan.

[written in left side margin]Senr constFrank James

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie
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Bidwelli - from Tongai-Jimmy

Bidwelli 101 Class names - the tribal name2 classes + locality3 connubrium4 Headman5 Initiation6 vocabulary

man - map - white man mŭminūgawoman - kŭrgŭthead - tūdūkeye - mé or minnanose - kongtongue - tallingear - wringhair of head - mŭnajākŭlhand - brütthumb - yŭkan brütfoot - jinnungfire - mrütwater - yaansun - nowŭn or wūrinmoon - yártinmy ialli

thy ningalung 11his nungalungmy footone ko-tekitwo - bolŭngthree - [bo - crossed out] bonglalandŭk4 - bolŭng bolūng5 - yotŭt6 yotŭt10 - bolŭng gū20 bolūng ginnūng

Tongy - of Borumpa - at this sideGrandfather of Buchan mittungGrandmother from OmeoFather - born at CannMother born at Buchan Gelantipy[written in pencil - other father shot] my other father was shot at Cannand two cousins - their mother of Bruthen[of Bruthen - crossed out] Willy Bunjil'sfather of Bondi and his motherfrom BegaTongi's wife from Buroopa

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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