Howitt and Fison Papers

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established a priviledged family, such as some of my correspondents have spoken of. (p) Berak, the son of Bebejern, certainly has inherited some authority, which I have never seen disputed by the few survivorsof Kulin tribes.

In tracing out these connections between the several Headmenit became clear to me that they exercised much influence in makingNgurung-aeta. Thus it was Ningulabul the Ngurung-aeta whose influence madeBebejern and Bili-billeri Headman. Bili-billeri and other old men madeBungerim a Ngurung-aeta.

The right to hunt and procure food in any particular area of country belonged to the group of people born there, and could not be in-fringed by others without their permission. But there were placeswhich such related groups claimed as theirs, to the exclusionof others and ?????????????. Such an instance is that ofthe quarry at Mt William nearLancefield, and from which the stone used for the heads of tomahawkswas procured.

At the time whenMelbourne was established the head of thefamily which claimed this quarry was Bili-billeri whose wife was thesister of Ningulabul, who was the brother of Berak's maternal grand-mother, (crossed out - in other words according to the aboriginal system of relation-ships his (tribal), paternal grandfather)The family propriatorship in this quarry included [???] and had wide ramific-ations. On the one side it included the husband of [Bili-billeri]'s sisterone of the [Headmen] of the [Kurning-ilun] who lived at [Bacchus Marsh],named [Nurrum-nurrum-biin] or "moss growing on decayed wood". On another sideit included Ningulabul, and again in another direction it included Bebejernthe son of another heiress of rights in the quarry, and through heran interest came to Berak by his father Bebejern. But it was Bili-billerithe head of the family, whose food country included the quarry who livedon it and took care of it for the whole of the Wurunjeri.When he went away his place was taken by the son of his sister, the wifeNurrum-nurrum-biin, who came to the quarry to take charge. I do not know??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

Last edit 27 days ago by ALourie

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Ovens [underlined] [?] [opped?] meallike [mine?]found similar but eaten strings - older lease only [slowly?] Caucolar - & ng [meaj?]

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Mr Disney [underlined]

Eucalyptus cinerea?for Pilot - I [?] [?] the with propper species upp [lenas?] (only) and named [lanceola?]

Last edit 25 days ago by Christine
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To Neerim 9 Feb 1901

Myrtaceae [underlined]

Back housea - myrtifolia. [Crossed out - Calyx] [?llum?] [hel?] Eucalyptus& TristaniaCalyx tubes [?] about [Somer?] [?] with short soft greyish hairlets. Leaves opposite not on short stalk from almost the node to [?] [?]by always acute then secondary [?va?] [?] -[?]. Flowers in cymes. [Tubes?] of the calyx [?] [?] from ovate to elliptic - [leaves?] [?], [?] under [?] long or up to [?] almost orbicular petals. Fruits [?] for [?] [?] - Wood classgrand of a light yellow colour and often marked with dark walnut stains.

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[words at top of page]much water layer was must be given

Fagus cupulifera [underlined]Leaves small, flat, crenulated mostly glabrous; then lateral venules faint. Leaves form from ovate to orbicular - a deltoid [?] [?]; [involcural?] tracts fringed; staminate flowersmostly orbitery [star?] several; fruit hanging [calyx?] minutely lobedat the [?]nut: fruits often triangular than triangular -

Eucryphia moorei - Rosaceae [all underlined] A tree finally rather tall, Leaflets in 3 to 5 pairs, accompanied by a terminal add one, mostly from oval to to lanceolar eliptical; firm, flat

Last edit 25 days ago by Christine

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To Moe November 9/97

In the gum tree - the leaves in thelower branches [??] are brod lanceolar - to lanceolar-ovatebut in the extreme end of the upperbranches the leaves are long lanceolar, or falcateScattered on some of the extreme twigson other apparently an appendagement+ in some with a pair of terminal leavesindicating a further intermediate shootsample 7[Large - crossed out] Gum trees have the smaller branches smoothand brown - of terminal shoots

Sample 7Gum tree branch the smaller branches are smooth and born on terminal shoots

See also collection of fruits

At this date there are buds well formedfor bloom probably about xmas or new yearSome trees appear to have flowersabout July - to judge from the fruit

To Moe Nov 9/97

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Berwick to[??] on Flats E. Gunii.Banfield on flats E. Gunii - on creek bank. E. [??] onhigher ground + ridge E. Gunii + E. amygi (or L)there E. Amyg - preponderate except on ridgesOfficer there are level low lying clay flats with E. Gunii[??] [??] E. Gunii on all low lying banks where timberedPakenham but where there is a rise E. [??] makes itsappearanceNar Nar Goon there the sameTynong The same and at Tynong there arethe first hills coming into the [??] some E. Obliquaand E. pulverulenta appear alsoGarfield To here a few E. gunii in [??] placeon ridge. E. amyg ([??]) E. obliqua E. pulv.Bunyip The same to here - but then appear to bealso some E. [??] ?Langwarrin E. gunii on rising ground E. [??]E. [pulv.?] some E amygdalina to [to Bunyip P- crossed out] Drouin timber [such?] at about[??] E. [??] E. [??] E. capitellata

Last edit about 1 month ago by Christine

hw0048 Fison to Howitt n.d.

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old friends Butura, Parula,Panangka, Kumura, of the Ante-keriya Tribe, given me by Giles.

Of course it is nonsense to saythat the woman becomes a memberof her husband's class. The statementthat "blood relations intermarryconstantly" may perhaps be trueif the tribe be so reduced in numbersthat the old rules cannot be observed.

Of course the Aldolinja are of theLost Tribes of Israel. Judith, Paula.+ Miriam prove this. Taplin foundWilliam in Wullume, + my Aryan-Maori friend discovers Leviathanin the N.Z. Taniwha.

I suppose the Emu-god +c are,or were, totems. Malbunga + histwo wives are identical with theDarling River [?Adoree?] + his wivesKilpara + Makuara. Of coursethe Erinja is the Devil himself, asseen by our Lutheran friend.

3. Cameron's letterThis is important, because itconfirms Lance's statement about"the privilege of Ipai". It is a

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie
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