Howitt and Fison Papers

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the totems (Bai-Kain) of theKongalu tribe descend frommother to child. The [usual - crossed out] proper question ininquiring for the totem of an individual of thistribe is "ye ngundi uno bai kain"?" that is "ofwhat flesh is your totem?

While linear the descent of the totem, as well asof the class and subclass is from mother to childthat of the father is used by the male child as itsBu-in, and [that - crossed out] is the name by which it is addressedby the young people. But this is not the [personal - crossed out]group totem - which is the Bai Kain.

Here we may perhaps recognise one of the stepswhich have led to the [transfer- crossed out] introductionof male descent.

The thundung gave warning of danger to its bunang younger brotherwho had some song perculiar to himself by which he[??] his elder brother when sick. Such was thesong of [one man - crossed out] the man figured in illustration here -whose Thundung is Yalmerai or shark. The songis as follows (1) Thurwaang ngarndok - clean yourteeth, ngurka bunda [the open sea, There - crossed out][last two words mean- crossed out] Ngurk is the back of anythingas ngurka-wurka - a ridge or hill - or awide space as in this case the wider or open sea.

The Revd John Bulmer, who kindly made furtherenquiries for me, said that the term "clean your" teethrefers to the Shark's teeth which were tied to theforehead of the patient when this song was sung.

In the game of Dilk [that is ball play - crossed out] the ballwas thrown to a person of the same "Jiak" or flesh, that[otherwise the - crossed out] was of the same totem.

[written in left side margin]GirrornbahQueenslandDec 28 1895

?J Bulmer

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Barter

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At the end of the Bunan, when the boys have goneoff themselves and before the different lots of peoplesreturn to their own localities, a kind of marketwas held, in some clear space near the camp whenthe people laid out the things they had brought with them.A man would say "share such and such things" another would bargain for them. A complete setis one ngulia (belt of possum fur [?]) four Burrian (kilt)one gumbrum and one complete set of Kubbutguruthat is corroboree things. It was the rule that a completeset went together. Weapons might be given in exchange.A complete set of weapons was the fighting boomerang[(.........)?] Warangun, ten grass treeand jagged wood pointed spears (Bembaia) -for club fighting (Millidu), one [....] club [(gud-ju-rung)or (Bundi) and one spear thrower (wommera).The women also enjoyed in this trade exchangingpossum rugs, bags - yam sticks (tuali) [...] -[......]

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NgarigoA messenger was called Gūnū milli and a messenge MabunHe might be any one chosen by the old men or the Headman.

NgarigoA messenger who merely carried a verbal [friendly greeting- crossed out] messagefrom some person to another would probably also carry with it a ball made of strips of opossumpelt rolled tightly together, as a friendly token fromthe sender.

[The messenger was some one selected by the old men - crossed out][or old men. He was of pemb chosen specially for - crossed out] A man was chosen [for the office of- crossed out] as messenger[the reason that if he- crossed out] for tribal matters who had relatives at the place to which he was to go.(1) If the message related to a meeting for ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------corroboree he carried a Kilt (Bŭran) a Headband [Birkumba - crossed out] (Ngūnūmila) and a nosepeg (elūngantū). If [in respect of war - crossed out] the message related to an expiatory fight he carried a shield for spear fighting (Birkūmba) [and - crossed out] but if [he take-crossed out][message - crossed out] it was to call a [part - crossed out] war party together he carried a Jag spear (Jerŭmbŭdi). [For - crossed out]In relation to the Initiations Kuringal (or) (Būnan) he carried the [Mu - crosse out] Bullroarer (Mūdji) and also a spear, boomerang and shield. [The following will serve as an example of how these messages - crossed out][are sent were sent in old times for a long- crossed out][distance between the tribes. Mr A MacKeachie of - crossed out][Delegate when travelling in 1840 on the Upper Snowy- crossed out]----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(1). The man who acted as [my - crossed out] messenger [for the - crossed out] between myself andthe Murring [in the matter of as to- crossed out] about the holding of their Initiation ceremony (see p. )was one of the Snowy River Clan of the Kurnai tribes but his mother was a [of the Wolgal tribe of Maneroo and - crossed out] Ngarego woman He was then [so to say - crossed out]free of her tribe, and [He was - crossed out] was the recognized means of communication between [this tri- crossed out] his the Kurnai + Ngarego [tribe + his mother's tribe and- crossed out]. He spent [about as much time- crossed out][at one place- crossed out] his time mostly between the two places and had therebybecome known as the [coast -crossed out] Murring of the Coast.

[written in left hand margin]see foot note

cases

[the - crossed out][the one used for - crossed out][direct fighting]

A messenger carrying tidings of the death of some person had his face painted with a streak of whitefrom each eye down to thelower jaw. (2).

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being much enragedwhile the others were outhunting [?commenced?] todance and to sing untilhe caused a furiousgale of wind to arise.Whirlwinds swept leavessticks and dust highup and torrents of rainfell and drowned thewhole country and allthe people in it exceptsome who turned intofishes and some whocrawled out on the dryland and became menand women. Some say that two only a man and

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a woman survived byescaping up Mt Dromedaryand that from then all theMurring have descendedDaramulun with his wife and his motherNgal-al-bal went upinto the sky where he nowis.It was Daramulun - theBiamban (Headman-ruler) who taught the Murring and who instituted the Bunanand its ceremoniesand gave his laws toold people who first livedand who handed it downfrom father to son to these times

[written in side margin] Women and children are not told of Daramulun.

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Eld Brother - ThathungYoun Broth mainjungEls sister Mamungyer sist mūrnūng

son - worūndja father - pāngmother - meengamothers brother - Kauaugafathers sister - mūrringaM-sisters son - combanga

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F brothers son - murring M-F.M. son - wurjaMMF son - combanga

goodjin = messgrBurrain = kilt of [??] Kang. Rat, Wallaby, Native Cat.Oonder=beltNhorlia = beltarmlet of ringtail possumKulluluja = head bandrooked up in - ngabūn rabbit rat

carry this at the Bunan -

For war a bag with pipeclay

Gommera order people to be killed[????]

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a great Bunan bringout of himself numbers ofsmall quartz crystals which he placed in a bark [?vine?]and the [??] swallowthese to make them "clever men" - i.e. wizard for it wasbelieved that "in [?favorable?] soil" these Krugulungwould breed like eggs in a nest until the man wouldbe full of them and ableto bring them out of himself.The Gommera could throwthese Krugullung at people,like the wind, invisibleand [?impalpable?] so thatthe victim could notknow that he was [?sick?].

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A man killed by a Joeahmight be able to tell his friend by whom he had been [??]- but often some one else would be able to sat "I sawso and so behind himthrowing Joeas".The Gommeras also in theolden time used to go up in the air to the sky.The dead leave their bodyand are called tutugal.When a man died his body wasrolled up in bark and laidat the root of a tree after whichthe Gommera climbed - allthe women + children remaining in the camp - and the menbelow him. This was at night

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The Gommera cooeed and after a time the Tutugal answered and the Gommera talked with him. Either he sent the Tutugal out of the country and came down or else the Tutugal pushed him down the bole of the tree - came rushing down with him making a noise like a bird flying and got into the bark with the dead body. The moon is a man walking across the sky and the sun a woman. When a shooting star is seen it indicates that some

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one is dead where it falls. (Rainbow + Aurora nothing) When a man meets a snake in his path with its head up looking straight at him it means that blacks are ahead looking out for him either with weapons or with Joeas and he must go some other road. No message sticks or gesture language used. good jin A messenger was sent by some Gommera to another - say for the Head Gommera to call a Bunan. He carried rolled up in a Rabbit Rat skin (ngabun) a (oonda ngoba) belly of possum fur twine - a Kelt Burrain made of the tails of wallaby, of native cat

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of Kangaroo rat. Armlets of ringtail possum skin, a headband (Kullulugga) This bimale he open before the Gommera and delivered his message - "this tail for so and so, this one for so and so this one for +c + until he had mentioned all the Gommeras who were to attend. The Gommeras then announced to the people the message and said when they should start. Such a messenger (goodjin) was never injured in any account. [crossed out - For into] call [??]

[written in side margin - At Bunan ?? ?? ?? ?? ??]

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For war the messenger carried a bag of pipeclay with his message. No message sticks were used.

What was [??] with the body. Food at grave umbilicus - counting days of travel Katung gal = sea men paiendra = climbing (men) paien = torn [?bark?]

Johnny Carter Care of Mr Foster Wogunga Tilba Tilba [?Faro?] = [?Rock?] Lily

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Boorbung = ceremonies

[crossed out - mumbai] [crossed out - Duranduran = essenger] Duran-duran= messenger goes from the old men from that side which has most boys Carries Tundun + [?Lectin?] Mudjigang (Boboo) belt = gulir Kill of [?? - looks like Kangrat] = burran or talla-bulga headstrip = ulung-gai-ir white headstrip = [??] ngulubul = [?council place?] He goes to the council place and shows the tundun

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to the old man he is sent to. If Kubli send it to a Kubli up there of same budjan the Mudjgang is sent [?in or on?] the various messengers wait till come up + all join. The man who sends [??] + his people get reaedy the talburgan = the earth mound the bur-bung is the whole plan - the camp. The lesser bunan is called pattagunna, A road is made to the pattagunna tarumbul (like a cattle track) The small plan [could be place] is called gumba/ the sound he sain in the general camp

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4the gesture sign by which in these tribes the nameof the great Supernatural Being Daramulun (1) is inducted - whichit is not lawful for the uninitiated to know nor for the initiatedto speak unless in the Kuringal ceremonies, which it is taught tofirst instituted and taught to the Murring ancestors.

After this ceremony the evening is spent in festive singingand dancing (known to us as the corroboree).

When all the contingents have arrived the old men in concertapart fix upon the day in which the [Kuringal -crossed out] great ceremonie [sic] shall be[crossed out - commenced] held. These commence by a stamping, winding processionof all the initiated men headed by the principal Gommera ([sketch which looks like a Z]) which as before collects all the women and children together on theopen space near to the camp. But now the women are not only crowdedbut crouch close together each boy who is to be initiated being besidehis mother, and these are placed in the front of the group.

The men having danced in a long line to and fro in front of the women now halt in front of them and directed by the principal oldmen closely cover them up with rugs. I was much interested in noting

Where an B earthen mound has been made [the women crouch- crossed out][in the behind - crossed out] it, each mother is in a camp immediately behind her son, who is in the moundundergoing the "fire ordeal"; the other women being still further back. TheWiradjuri follow much the same practice. In Victoria the Wotjoballan of the Wimmera River roasted their boys in a mound which in that way approach to the Bunan ceremonies of G'land. see pp.-

That a very old man of the Biduelli tribe which had no initiationceremonies was at the gathering. He was friends with all, and wasrelated by marriage to some of the contingent visitors. But never having been"made a man" - being one of the uninitiated he was driven crouching among thewomen and together with them was covered up by the rugs.One of the Kurnai - belonging to the Krauatun clan which wasthe neighbour of the Twofold Bay Murring - left before the ceremonies commenced,for he also was uninitiated his clan having no cermonies and not attending the Kurnai Jerail (3)

The women all this time, even when close covered up all droningthe "tooth song".

At a sign for the old man one of the principal gommeras who was the master of this ceremonie [sic]each Kabo says his particular charge by the arm and holding him tightdrags him from among the women and hastens away with him followedby the shouting crowd of men. (4)One old man remains behind to seethat the women behave themselves and do not indulge in any unlawfulfemale curiosity by following the men.

[in left side margin][next to first paragraph] (1) see p.p[next to second main paragraph] (2) see chapter "Headman +c"[next to third main paragraph] Foot note[next to line with (3)] (3) see p. p[line drawn from (4) to side margin] Two Kabos areassigned to each noviceand have been almostfrom that group which isin the relations to the novicesgroup of "sisters husband" and(future) "wife's brother". Thus each arm is held by one of the Kaboswho may for [??] being called "Guardians"

[at bottom of page](4) This shouting is to cover the noise made by the departing men and other noises.the women and children are supposed not to know what has become of themwhen the old men in charge uncover them. At the Bunan the departure of the novices and then guardians along the path for the earthen circle is maskedby the men who continue to run round the inside of the ring making a noise likep-r-r p-r-r and gradually stealing off one by one. During this the women have beenlying face down on the ground outside the earth mound on the side furthest from thepath leading to the lesser Bunan.

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10Some further analogue may be noticed before proceeding with thedescription of these interesting and even impressive ceremonieswhich are common to both the varieties of the Kūringal.

The reception of the contingent arriving the accountsof the localities thus represented, the taking of the boysfrom their mothers' custody by men of the other moiety of theirtribe are all parts of the two procedures differently carried outthe procession of the novice & their guardian with the initiatedmen along the path and by different stages marked by magicalpractices from great Bunan to the lesserBunan is the analogueof the procession from the [crossed out - camp] encampment to the magic camp by a seriesof stages marked by magical practice. The further press from them

Take the underneath account and mark it up with any of the other notes from Ienbin'saccount + my paper on Austr. Initiations

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[7 or 2]Umbara (Black duck) who as thecorroboree song maker, and improvisatore of theCoast Murring had a well deserved reputation.

The tribe people who had collected to this Kuringalwere not only from the coast line but also from Braidwoodand Maneroo and numbered [crossed out - in all] men, womenand children in all 132. My contingent of Kurnaistarted from the Snowy River mouth to cross the wildBiduelli country but their guide lost his sight fromopthalmia when about halfway + they hadreturned. [Thus I was there alone - crossed out]leaving me as the only representative of the tribe.

After speaking with the old men for it [sic] little timeUmbara said that now I had arrived it wouldbe necessary to "frighten the women" - this being theset speech for the ceremony which always attendsthe arrival of a contingent.

The messenger who had conveyed my bullroarerhad some little distance to when he had it concealedunder a hollow log and swinging it round caused aloud roaring sound, at when the men startedfrom the council place towards the camp in singlefile and at a sharp run. Each man held a boomerang on the left and as they [crossed out - came] went rapidly[crossed out - forward] towards the camp, the boughs were systematicallystruck on the ground first on one side [crossed out - and] in frontand then in the other to the loud "Waugh" utteredat each step with great emphasis. This word ismost commonly shortened to Wah and maybe translated as "Halt, cease, finish". In thiscase it sees to be used to prevent the womenbecoming too excited about the boys. It is continually used as the final [??] in themagical part of the ceremonies. The moment thesound of the Bull roarer was heard withthe rapid Wah! wah! of the advancing [crossed out - line] ofmen, stomping in an advancing line among the trees, the women began to [??] aboutwill rolled up rugs and to sing the Bunan song [??]chant [??] [??] cause the tooth to beeasily knocked out of the [??] [??] [??]

[in left side margin]Iam-mukka [written next to line 2]

p. 5 [next to last line on page]

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Initiation Ceremonies

YūinDuring the Kuringal the Iambi looks after his boyand does everything for him. Cooks for him, fetcheshim water +c.Ienbin

YūinEach of the animals and birds which the [crossed out - boy is] boyis forbidden to eat has its Joea - That of the Porcupineis like glass, round like a porcupine + with marks on itrepresenting quills. The Kangaroo Joea is a dull glassy looking thing of different shapes. Emu Joeais like a clear piece of glass, and so on.The boys all told that if he eats any of their forbiddenfood animals the Joea belonging to it will[crossed out - give] get [?into?] and kill him.

I have eaten such animals - and the Joea didnot get into me. But if any one found out that a boy haseaten them the old men would certainly kill him.Ienbin

[written in the left side margin next to discussion aobut Joeas]magicmagic

Yūin If a woman were to find a Mūdthi andshow it, the first man who saw it would kill herand if a man showed a Mudthi to a woman or a child he would be killed and not [??] [?those?]belonging to him at ??. If a woman were to be seenin the little Bunan ground she would be killed.Ienbin

YuinThe old gommeras sometime leave things about the Kuringalground to kill people. I was once crossing one with a friend who trod on some thingsharp. I pulled it out of his foot and it looked like a little bit of a bone.That night he was in great pain + the next day he died. Weall thought that it was a [??] bone it was [??] anddropped there.

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4his message to him at Bega and returing [sic]to me in Gippsland he journeyed on foot over some of the most mountainous country of South Eastern Australiaa distance of about four hundred miles. A second timehe made the journey before the arrangements were finallysettled, which were that Brūpin would send his messenger carrying my "Mudthi"to the Principal Gommera of the Kurial who livednear Shoalhaven and ask him to bring his peopleto a Kuringal in the Hilly country in the northernsideof the Bega River not far from the sea coast. Brūpinwas then to send me word when the Murringwere assembling.[crossed out - Then at the Kuringal when I attended] As being in the position of aGommera of the KurnaiI was to bring to the Kuringal acontingent of my men, and as I arranged it they were toleave the Snowy River mouth under the guidance of "King Charley". [crossed out - Thus when I attended at the KuringalI was in] It is now the place to mention that the general termKuringal includes two [crossed out - slightly] different forms of the same ceremonies, which are resepctively called from the characterof the ceremonie [sic] Būnan (1) and Kadja-walūng (2). Thedifferences between these two ceremonies and their identitieswill be seen from the following statements. Here it willsuffice to say that broadly speaking the Bunan is distinguishedfrom the Kadja-walūng ceremony by the former having a circularmound within with the preliminary ceremonies take place, anda small sacred enclosure at a distance connected with theBunan by a path. This form connects the Kuringalwith the Būrbŭng of the Wiradjuri [crossed out - and] the Bora of theKamilaroi and the Dora of [?some?] Queensland tribes.The Kadja-walūng ceremonies disperse with the circularmound and the small sacred enclosure is represented

[footnotes at the bottom of the page](1) from [?probably?] Bŭning = to knock or strike, having reference to theknocking out of the tooth. (2) Raw, or not roasted havingreference to the absence of the [crossed out - Roasting] Fire ceremony whichis part of the Būnan.

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5by the small cleared space at a little distancefrom the Talmaru or magic fire where the mencamp with the novices after taking them from the charge of their mothers. With these differences the ceremoniesare substantially [crossed out - the same] and in most details identically thesame.

I shall however describe the whole series of the cermoniesbeginning with the Bunan.

BunanThe ceremonial meeting having been called together, thatmoiety of the community which called it, prepares the groundand gets all ready for the arrival of the various contingents.Some spot is selected where [crossed out - there is] a good supply offood is attainable.

The forming of the Bunan ground a large circular space iscleared, so that a low circular earthen embankment is madehaving a diameter of 30 to 50 yards, according to the number ofpeople who will attend it. At a distance of from 400 to 500 yardsa small circle is carefully cleared and is so selected that saplings growing round its circumference can be archedover and make an enclosure with only one entrance facingthe larger Bunan. If there are not sufficient saplingsor if there are not any, [crossed out - such] some are cut elsewhere andbeing stuck into the ground are bent over as before mentioned.

A path is cleared from the small Bunan to the great Bunanand where young trees or bushes border it they are arched overbut this is not essential.

The Bunan is got ready and the proceedings are commencedabout the time when the first contingent is expected to arrive.

Assuming that the Bunan was to be attended by the clans from Moruya, Bega, and Twofold Bay representingthat is both the Kŭrial and Gūyangal, and that the meetingwas to be near Bega, the following would be the procedureas the contingents arrived, and this would be generallyin the following order, according to the distances travelled,Braidwood, Ulladulla and Shoalhaven first, [crossed out - Then theQueanbeyan blacks] and with them occasionally came these from Boro.Next the Queanbeyan people and then [crossed out - therefor] the Gūyangalfrom Shoalhaven with whom people might come from Jervis Bayand all these people were real Kŭrial.

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6The Wollongong blacks [crossed out - did not] would not attend thisKuringal because they went to one further north up thecoast.

The limits inland within which people would come tothis Kuringal can be roughly stated as being marked byJimberer, Kangaroo Valley, Nowra, but at this latter placethere were Bemerūngal people who went to the ceremoniesat Goulburn. Nor did the Bemerūngal people as far out as the Ngarigo come to the Kuringal at Bega.

The Bunan ground having been prepared by the initiatedmen, the ceremonies commenced by a young man whohad been initiated at the last Kūringal, and is thereforeselected to commence this. Walking past a log near the camphe starts back as if in surprise and shouts "gari, gari!" (1)that is "a snake, a snake!" The men also pretendingsurprise, run up to him saying "Where is it?". The youngman replies "In this log" and pretends to be afraid,calling out "Kai! Kai!" (2) as a child might do in alarm.He then runs off, and all those who are "gūmbang yira" (3)that is who have been initiated, run after him in a longline. Each man has a bough in either hand, or as I have observed, some of the leading men may carry a boomeranginstead. The young man with a bough in each hand, runsin a sinuous course, striking the ground alternately witha swaying movement of the body with the branches firstwith the right hand then with the left - and the menfollowing him as a tail, exactly imitate his movement, shakingtheir boughs with a rustling sound, striking the groundrhythmically and at the same time shuting with each blowHai! Hai! (4). The leader and all his following haltat each camp, making a sound which can only be represented by "prrrt prr", at the same time raising thebough, or boomerang with one hand to the sky, whilepointing to the ground with the other. After each camphas been visited, they separate. In the manner the

[footnote at the bottom of the page](1) gari, means any snake (2) As he might say "Oh! Oh!" (3) gūmbang == raw, yira=teeth

[written in side margin]Ulladulla[??] [??]?

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7women are informed that a Kuringal is to beheld.

This of course takes place when it is expected that the first of the contingents is about to arrive. Where itreaches a place about a days journey from the Bunanthey halt for a day in order to give the messenger time togo on and announce their arrival, and also to give [crossed out - enablethem time for the contingent to paint and adorn themselves properly for theirarrival.

When they arrive [crossed out - so near that they] within hearing distanceof the Bunan Camp, the women and children aresent on a little distance, while the men remainbehind. Then two of the strongest men, takeout the two Bullroarers which they carry with themand make as loud a noise as they are able. Theother men at the same time raise a great shoutingso that the noise made by the Bullroarers may be [crossed out - maskedand yet the fact if it being made be] notified to theinitiated at the Bunan Camp, and yet be maskedfrom the women + children by their shouting. In thismanner the men at the [crossed out - Bunan Camp know whento expect them.

The messenger having now rejoined the contingent,they all run forward towards the camp, leaving theirweapons with their bundles. The men each carry boughsor the old men carry a boomerang and the procedureis like that it is supposed that when the "gari" is seen as deserted [?just now?],but in this case the camp is found to be deserted, all the people being assembled at the circular mound. Eachhut having been visited and the newly arrived menhaving as in the [crossed out - former] "Gari ceremony" halted at each andpointed to the sky and to the ground, they finally reachthe Bunan where all the people awaiting for them.

The women and children are assembled inthe centre of the circle, the men standing outside andon the further side from the opening to the path leadingto the Lesser Bunan. Mean while the women and children of the newly arrived contingent have joinedthe other women and children inside the circle

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8When the messenger reaches the circle followed by the men of his contingent he runs round to a point not farfrom the entrance and there leaps over the mound followedby his tail. Then he moves systematically inside the ruground the women and children until all the men are within the circle, when one of them shouts out thename of one of the local divisions of the Bunan makers,to which all his fellows shout in reply "Yau" - that is"come here". Other names of local divisions of the Bunan makers are shouted out, all the time they aredancing. The women + children dance in imitation of themen of the contingent but are silent.

The Visitors now run out of the circle and the Bunan makers run it [sic] to it, the former standingoutside where the latter had before stood. TheBunan makers now dance in their turn, andshout out the names of the local divisions of the visitorsreceiving the names with shouts of "Yau".

This being finished, the women + children go outsideand the Bunan makers join the contingent in thering where all dance a ceremonial dance.The women and children during this sit down outsidethe entrance but with their backs to it and are underthe surveillance of one of the Gommeras, to prevent themlooking round at what the men are doing.

The women and children, the novices being of courseincluded among the latter, sing the Tooth song during this dance, the intention being to cause the novicestooth [crossed out - to be ask] to come out easily. The following isthe song.

Bŭmbe (be)lany a miri WiringyanEel the bush native dog mothers brother

While they are occupied singing the tooth songthe men quietly sneak away, led by one of the Gommeras,out of the circle and along the track to the lesser Bunan.

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9A few men are left singing in the circle for a time tothat the women shall not know [?] the others have left.The [??] re taken long the track and see the several stages [?] by various representations of [?]or [?] , with each of which there iscommuted a magicalsubstance, that us a Joea which is specially [?] withsome thing also [?] the medicine men, indeed certainmen have certain Joeas. The following is [?]of the [?] proceeding at thisBunan. The [?] stage commened with the onenearest to the [entrance to the circle or greater Bunan.

(1) Guraua, that is a "hole" otherwise a grave, at one of the medicine men dances the magical dance peculiar tothese ceremonies in which he almost squatsdown near to the ground while dancing, moving his legs alternately fromonce side to the other, at the same time swinging his armsperpendicularly in front of his body. He seems [?]with a [??] this apparently brings up from within himselfand [?] between his teeth the "joea" paeculiar either to himselfor to the object either [??] or "sung". In the c ase of the Guraua, the joea was a quartz crystal, what is considered one ot the most deadly of the magical substanceswhich the medicine men receive from Daramulun.

(2) Bunung-Gatcht(2) The figure of a spiny anteaterwith sticksfor quills. Here all the men sgand round and make a noise as if blowing something out of their mouths, andthen shout "Whysch" - to rouse the creature up, this being thesound made when digging one out of the ground. He is supposed to distract its attention from digging as to bring itself out ofsight. One of the medicine men [?] this is going in dancesround the figire, producing a white frothy substance out of hismouth, having the appearance of soap. This is belived to be a deadly magica substance, being either blown over a person or secretlyintroduced into his fod. (3) Marumbul, the figure of a Brown Snake (3) made of clay

(1) Wurumbalbul, also called by the Maneroo blacksKrugalung. Yibai-Malian was considered to have especially fatal powers with this Joea.(2) Spiny anteater (3)

Last edit 9 months ago by ALourie
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(10)at this stage one of the medicine men while dancingdropped a small snake from out of his mouth onto the ground while he then held up [??] alive beforeputting into his bag. This Joea is considered to be very powerful, the medicine men being able it was thought to send itat night into peoples camp to bit [??][?] he slept.

4. Daramulun. A figure made of earth representing a man in the attitude of the magic danceand surrounded by weapons. Round they all the medicinemen dance, shwoing the name Daramulun , and each producing his special Joea, among others. One having the appearance of a piece of black membrane, [?]being apparently part of the [??] animal which the medicine man let hang and then withdraw from his mouth.

(5) Finally the lesser Bunan in which one medicine man danced

Last edit 10 months ago by J Gibson
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14pipeclay and with [?large?] headdress made of swan feathers

On the following morning a general council of the men washeld at the Wirr-wirr-than to decide the procedure. Some of the Gommeras were desirous of at once forming this Bunanground which for some reason had been delayed, but to this I objected as my time was now limited to a few days, having alreadylost nearly a week waiting for the Kurnai contingent.

Some of the old Gommeras also held that so much time hadbeen lost that in the little remaining before I left there would not be time enough to prepare the Bunan ground and allow to complete all the other parts of the Kuringal. Finally it wassettled that the ceremonie [sic] should be the Kaya-walungand be commenced in the following morning.

The next morning about ten o'clock the men were allassembled at the Wirri-wirri-than. Finding that we were allready the head man Gŭnjerŭng (1) gave the order to prepareour bundles and take them to a spot hidden by a clumpof titree standing near. This being done two men were left to sound the Bull roarers when the others shouldhave reached the camp. Two bull roarers were used,one which Yibai-malian had made when the one whichmy messenger had carried up and which was used to callthe tribes together, had been accidentally burned, andthe [crossed out - sec] other was one which I had brought with me to showto the Murring. It was one which had been usedat the [crossed out - Dieri Initiation ceremonies of the Dieri tribe (p. -)and was an object of the greatest interest to these coastblacks. According to rule the two men who were leftbehind should have been those who had been entrusted by the Gommera Brūpin and Yibai Malian with theinvitation to the Kuringal sent by them to the other Gommeras.But one of them, the man who had carried my bullroarerround happened to be away getting some [crossed out - food] supplies to take with usand another man took his place.

As soon as we had reached the Camp and the menwere distributed through it, the distant roaring sound ofthe Mudthis was heard and the whole camp was [?instantly?]

[footnote at the end of the page](1)Morning star

[written in left side margin]p1 [between paragraph break between first and second paragraph]

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

hw0153 Precis of information as to the tribe of Aborigjnes inhabiting the country between Mallagoota Inlet Victoria + Shoalhaven NSW

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(4)In this tribe besides the family name each personhas an individual name which is given in childhood.This individual name would be used in speakingas for instance "Ienbin come here" or "I gave itto Mebrin." The animal name (family name) is notused in addressing any one. This animal nameis told to the youth when he is made a young manat the Būnan. For instance my informant told methat he did not know that his animal name wasKaualga= Kangaroo until at the Būnan. OldWaddiman told him.

It is said that the animal of the same name as the individual gives them warnings of danger. For instanceif a Kangaroo (Kaualga) man saw a Kangaroohopping towards him or crossing his path he wouldregard it as a sigh that danger was threatening himand would get his arms ready and alsotake out his bag containing his "Joeahs"and hold it to prevent his enemies throwing their Jo-e-as (magic) at him. It wouldnot be right for a man to kill an animal that was thus giving him warning.

As to the animal names it is desirable toknow whether a man might marry a woman of hisown animal name, or if any other name - orwhether marriage was confined to pairs ofanimal names.

[ written in left side margin](Jo-e-ahs)

Last edit 24 days ago by ALourie

hw0150 Notes on the Guyangal and Kurial

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5This however requires further enquiry for Ienbin's mother was a Braiakawoman of Gippsland or rather to speak more accurately a Lanayak whoseclan name would have necessarily beenSuperb Warbler (Djédjun) and [crossed out - not] could not havebeen Eaglehawk (Mūnyūngar) as [crossed out - of] herdaughters are said to have been.

This woman is said by Ienbin tohave been taken from Gippsland whenonly about 13 years of age to Twofold Bayby the Kroatūn Kŭrnai to whom KingCharly belonged. To have been there givenas a wife to a man of that place,from whom she was taken by Ienbin'sfather by eloping with her on boarda whaler which set sail that night.Her name was Lijū-ūit.

[crossed out - The] A totemic names [sic] [crossed out - are] is said by Ienbin not to beso much "a name as like to a Jo-e-a". This will come out more clearly from the following stements [sic]and also those which are made subsequentlywhen speaking of the ceremonies of the Būnan."The Yūin have personal names [crossed out - belonging to them]given to them as children. These are used inspeaking to each other as "Ienbin come here" or "Igave it to Mebrin". The terms of relationship couldalso be used as "Brother give me that" or "Auntcome here". The animal name would never beused for very few people know what yours is.Waddiman gave me my Kangaroo name atthe Būnan. I did not know it before. Any onemight have told me my father or [crossed out - any men] my motherbut my father died six months before the Būnan.

[written in left side margin]Ienbin now saysthis woman was the motherof his "mate" - and that his ownmother came from Braidwood

?Mebrin

Last edit 6 days ago by ALourie
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12afterwards to Melbourne with cattlehe recognized the place. When they foundout where the enemies' camped they camped. They surroundedit in the night so that none shouldescape. Then at daylight theGommera as my father told me shouted out "you slaughteredour people now we will kill you."Then his men rushed the camp andspeared [all - crossed out] them all except the oldwomen whom they left and the youngwomen whom they took back withthem. I believe they got all theirown women back."

A captured woman would be givento some man who had no wife. She was not the property of the whole lotnor of the Gommera.

I cannot recollect any one who hadmore than one wife. Old Waddimanthe Head Gommera who [is my - crossed out] thinks much of me[grandfather - crossed out] and who calls me his grandson never had one that I knewof and I have heard him say at the Būnan thathe never had one because he islike Dar-ū-mū-lūn who has nowife.

I never knew of any Yūin who had more than one wife atthe same time. They never lent thier wives to each other at any time nor to visitors. I never heard of such a custom.Nor are the girls permitted to the boys when being madeGūmbanyara. This would not be allowed but Iknow that they do get together sometimes on the sly.A young man is not allowed to have a wife until hecan support one. His beard would then be grown.I could not speak to my wife's mothernor look at her. If her shadow fell on meI should have to run away and leave mywife and she would go home to her

[note in left side margin next to paragraph starting 'I cannot recollect]This is incorrectWaddiman wasmarried

for Darumulun see further on

Last edit 9 months ago by ALourie
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16The BūnanWhen the boy is about ten years old thetime has come for him to attend theBūnan. The Būnan is ordered by theHead Gommera. He sends messengersout to the other Gommeras. These messengersare called Jerri-irr and go eithersingly to near places or together to distantplaces and then spread out. Thereis no particular age for a Jerri so long ashe has been through the Būnan.

He does not carry anything to show he is the Jerri. He remembers what istold him and he is generally chosenbecause he can talk well.

When he arrives at his destination hecalls the men together and tells hismessage to them and when they starthe accompanies them. When at about a days journey distant from theplace where the Būnan is to be heldhe leaves them all, men women andchildren and goes on in advance.

All this time the men at the palcefrom whence the Jerri went fromhave been engaged in preparing the place for the Būnan, without letting the women know of it.

The Būnan ground is as follows:-

[sketch]

A large circular space A is carefully clearedand a low embankment maderound it. Its diameter may be from 30-50 yards.At a distance from it of perhaps 15-20 chains

[written in the left side margin next to paragraph about the Jerri]a message is =Gūdjin(See the account ofthe Kūringal - at endof this paper)

Last edit 9 months ago by ALourie
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18[written in left side margin]Insert at A p.

The Braidwood mob brought also theQueenbeyan [sic] people and occasionallythose from Boro; that is the latter came ifthere were a number of boys to be done.

It was principally the coast blacks thatcame to us. The Gūmūgatta mob (Shoalhaven)came from Jarvis Bay to near Wollongong.These were real Kŭrial. The Wollongongmob did not come to us, they went somewherefurther off - I do not know where. I thinkthat people did not come to us from furtherinland than Jimberoo, Kangaroo Valley and up to Nowra.At that place the Bimeringal mob commenceswhich belongs to Goulburn, nor did- The Bimeringal of Narrego [did however - crossed out]come to [us at Moruya - crossed out] our Bunan.

Men could have come to us fromfurther out if they had liked to do so.

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie
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19raise one arm and branch upon one side and down on the other alternately. [sketch in left side margin to show this] All themen do the same. Thenthey run on as before andrepeat this till all the campshave been visited. Thisceremony gives the women to knowthat a Būnan is to be held.

The visitors having arrivedas I have said at a days journey from the Būnan the Jirrigoes on before to announce them.They on their part prepare themselvesby painting and making themselvesfine and arrange so that they thenarrive near the Būnan a little before sundown.

This [is f - crossed out] course is followed by eachmob as it arrives. The Braidwoodmob usually arrived first, the Ulladulla mob next andthe Shoalhaven mob last.

It was the Mallagoota andBega and Moruya mobswho would make the Būnan;for the Head Gommera whoordered it lived at Moruya.

The Būnan which I amgoing to describe was one I wasat and where the Braidwood mobarrived first.

The visitors having arrived near

[written in left side margin between paragraph ending 'Shoalhaven mob last' and the paragraph starting 'It was the Mallagoota']A from p.

See also the table which[see also later when - crossed out]shows that thesewere the twointermarrying triplets

Last edit 9 months ago by ALourie
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21The Jerri has now returned to his visitors andthe [men - crossed out] men run along in a rowafter him, the mūdthe having beenpacked away in their bundles which areleft with their weapons. Each man usuallycarries a bush in each hand butsome carry boomerangs. Now and then the Jirri stops running andturns round. All the others stop.He raises one hand + bough and lowersthe other and cries Hai! Hai! [sketch of this in left side margin] They all do the same. Then they run on apresIn time they reach the camp of thosewho have made the Būnan. Everyone is however absent except perhaps a sick person. The Jirri and thevisitors run through the campgoing to each hut, [shaking the boughs - crossed out]raising their arms and shaking theboughs at each and crying Hai! Hai!This is done to announce theirfriendly arrival. This proceeding may take up two or three hours if theBūnan is largely attended.During this time the Būnan menhave been standing all togethernear the large Būnan (C) all theirwomen and children being in itscentre. While the [visit - crossed out] newarrivals are following the Jiri abouttheir wives and children jointhe other women + children in theBig Būnan. After visiting all thecamps - supposed in the diagramto be at (d) the Jiri runs round

Last edit 9 months ago by ALourie
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22[the - crossed out] Big Būnan and jumps over the moundat the place marked (e) followed by the[his - crossed out] visitors in his charge. They dance roundthe ring between the women and around the mound until all are inside. Theyshout during this time Hai! Haw! Haw!Then one of them, it does not matterwho it is shouts out the name of someplace inhabited by the Būnan makers,and his fellows shout out "Yow!"(come here). This is done two or threetimes. All this time the women andchildren imitate the dances of the men in the Būnan, but do notspeak. Hereupon all the Būnanmakers run in and the visitorsrun out and stand together outsideThe Būnan makers now in theirturn shout out [and - crossed out] the names of places inhabited by the visitorsand also the word "Yow". These ceremonies being complete thevisitors join them in the Būnan and all dancethere. The women and childrenthen leave and go and sitdown [at the outer - crossed out] the outside of theBunan say where marked(f) with their backs to the Būnan.One or two men of the Būnan remain to watchthem so that they shall not look atwhat is going on in the Bunan.

[written in left side margin next to (f)]A Gommerawatches them

Last edit 9 months ago by ALourie
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AThe [nose - crossed out] tooth song is as follows:-Bŭmbe lanya [miri wirin - crossed out]Miri wiring yaBŭmbe = eelbelanya = the bushmiri = dogwiring yau = uncle (?which one)

This song was also sung by the women each evening in thecamp when they heard the mūdthi sounded in the [young - crossed out] single men'scamp which was at 200-300 yards distance from the [main camp - crossed out]married men's camps. While the women sang this the novices had to be with them.

B. The stages were (1) the Hole in the ground Gŭraua = Hole = grave - the Joea of this planis called Wirimbabūl. (2) the Porcupine - Jŭnŭng = clans batch = spikes. Then they cried out Whysh! Whysh! (or wish! wish!) to wake up the porcupine. The same sound is made when digging him out of the ground to attract his notice and preventhim from digging downwards. (3) The figure of Daramūlūn (4) The WarūnbŭlAll these were shown by the same Gommera - Jack Wyaman of Moruya. On other days other Gommeras exhibited their powers, but on each one day thesame Gommeras performed the whole suite of magic except the final onein the small Būnan which was done by one of the visitors - On this occassionit was Narrang Charly a Nelligan man who showed the Brau-ŭn

Last edit 9 months ago by ALourie
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