Howitt and Fison Papers


Search for Tatung* Tatungalung* "Tatung Kurnai" Tatoonkolong* Tatŭng*




CannibalismKurnaiIt was only the flesh of enemies that is of blacks of othertribes that the Kurnai eat - Kurnai did not so far as Ihave even been able to learn eat Kurnai.

It was not the whole of the body that was eaten but themuscle of the arms and legs and the skin of the thighs andof the sides of the body.

An instance [which - crossed out] occurred long before the white men came into Gippsland was handed down in the tribes. A large number of the Brabrolung, Krauatalung and Tatungolung had gone up towards the Maneroo tableland in a war party. [At Gellingall, about - crossed out]On the Buchan River west of Gellingall they left theirwomen and following up the River to [Fann where - crossed out][Fanwick now is - crossed out] a place called Fanwicktheir spies surprised two Brajerak (see p._), an old man and his son. The former was killed, but the latter escaped. The skin of the slain man was eaten andhis legs cut off and carried to their camp, where the old men roasted the meat and shared the flesh among the boys, in order that “when the old men were dead, the boys might know what to do”.

Though the Kurnai Tankowillin + Blair where I have mentioned elsewhere were of these boys and they told me that the flesh was "verygood and much sweeter than Beef."

[On an - crossed out] When the Kurnai were on anotherexpedition under their Head man Bruthen munji to attack their Enemies the Omeo Theddoraon the Upper Tambo River, they surprised a camp thenkilled [some of the - crossed out] the men and some children, but kept [keeping -crossed out] thewomen. The skin of these Brajeraks was flayed from the thighs and from the sides and was roasted and eaten.

Women were not permitted to see this or to participatein the feast [??] of the spoils of the slain.

[In this instance- crossed out] Tankowillin the [?taster?] of the last mentioned was an actor[also - crossed out] in this [cannot] case and was one of the spies whodiscovered the two Brajeraks.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie





Name, Native Place, Division of Tribe, Wife's division of tribe

William McDougall, Raymond Island, Tatoonkolong, BrabolongTuleba, Bruthen, Brabolong, BrabolongWilliam Thorpe, Bairnsdale, Brabrolong, *Ngrangit the entrancal Blacks.Neddy O'Rourke, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, Braberry worcutTommy Johnson, Snowy River, Kroathun, Yacktoon worcutDick Cooper, Tatoonkolong, Tatoonkolong, Lowajerak Buffalo womanLarry Johnson, Snowy River, Kroatunkoolong, NrangitTimothy, Snowy River, Kroathun, TatoonkolongBilly the Bull, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, Yacktoon worcutJacky Jacky, Lake Tyres, Warrnangatty, Yacktoon worcutBilly Jumbuck, Lake Tyres, Warnangatty, KroatoonYelmi, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, BraberryDan, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, KroatoonKerlip Tom Snowy River, Kroatun, NgrangitBig Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Yucktoon worcutLamby, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Brabeerry Brathu (turee)*Charley Rivers, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, BraberryBobby Brown, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Ngrangit Ngrangit (both wives)Charley Muir, Bruthen, Braberry, KroathunKing Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Lowajerak BrabolongBen Jennings, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Warrangatty Charley Alexander, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, LowajerakSinging Johnny, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowajerakMunday, Maneroo, Brajerak, BidwellJohnny the plater, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, KroatunMurray Jack, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowerjerakLawson, Scrub black, Bidwell, Bidwell. Jack Hay, Maneroo, Brajerak, Brabrolong taken by theftJimmy Thompson, Maneroo, Brajerak, Braberry Paddy, Sale, Brajerak, Kroatun worcut has girls - to himdid not marryHanner, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon worcutKing Tom, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon

Ngrangit means belonging to the Entrance to Lakes. Lambys +c and wife Ellen are Tara

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie





if by his skill in defence, or by good fortune he still is uninjured,by gujerung, kulluk, or kurning (I) (???) If it is a case in which the Wait-jurk isalso armed with spears, he may throw them, or he may throw back those weaponsof his adversaries, but it is seldom that he has the chance of doing soif his adversaries are numerous. When he has been disabled his friendswill almost certainly interfere, or if he has had enough, and gives in he mayrun to them for protection. It not infrequently happens that in such acases the Nungi-nungit became a general combat in whichmen and women of both sides fought furiously. In such fights awoman was no always at a disadvantage, against a manarmed with aclub and shield, for an active woman armed with her Yamstick, is as formi-able an ooponent, as a man with a quarter staff, and she uses it much in thesame manner.

When the Nungi-nungit has ended either by the single ordealof the Wait-jurkor by a general fight, the matter is set at rest, andfriendly relations are restored. There is a great difference betweensuch legalised fights as the Nungi-nungit and such cases as those wherein (??) the prosecution of blood feuds without these ceremonies,

The shields were paintedas shown in the subjoined plate, Theshields used were either the Bamaruk that is one for turning aside thespears or the (?) which is used in club fighting. The latter areshown in the hands of the teo Kurnai who are represented in the act ofengaging in one of the individual ordeals for some offence.

A good instance of the Nungi-nungit was one where the man Bunbra, otherwise Jetbolan, (p ) was the defendant, and which occuredabout eh year 1850.

A brother of the Tulaha before mentioned, awoke in the night andobserved that Bunbra was standing over him, who said that he had come forsome fire. The next day the former fell sick and told his friends thatBunbra had "caught him" that is he had placed smoe magical spell onhim. By and bye he died, and his male kindred sent a message to Bunbradesiring him to come to a Nungi-nungit. At the time and place appointedhe dult appeared accompanied by many of his clan the Tatungalung,

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie




Minyūng languageN. E. coast of N. S. W

suffie-gal = to or from(4) pai-gamm-gal = from the man

AwababalKal = "part of""of this" "part of this" "here of"eg Awaba-Kal - "of Awaba"waring - water Gippslandwaring - sea [??] MelbourneBimbang

(5) real name is (5)memering gūrahl

[next page]Woollongong, Illawarra water ngartyungShoalhaven

Mt Dromedary sea = burra burra

eg Morning [and then - crossed out][Sou, Cap,- crossed out] Twofold Bay to Moruya=Katŭngal = (2)Benagal

Lake MacquarieAwabakal (3)

[??] Tatungal = (1)Waringal

Bega Katŭngal (2)Bemegal

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages




Languages There are three languages in Gippsland(1) Thángūai which was spokenby the Krauatun at the Snowy River and to the Eastward.(2) Mukthang which was spoken bythe Braha and the [Bialaua - crossed out] Baiaka includingthe Dargo [?Mountains?](3) Nūlīt spoken by Brataūa andTatŭng.King Charley speaks Mukthang,Thanguai, Twofold Bay languageand Ngarego

Blue Mt ParrotBlue Mountain Parrot - Blēn mūrūk

E. Oblique = Laú-ŭn-gerŭt - the largeE. goniocalyx is calledBūnjil Binak

LanguageLook at that = Deála mundattiLook at that child = Deálla leet mundittiSit down here = Būnŭngali ditta

Last edit 29 days ago by J Gibson



Rain makersThere were old men who were called"Bunjil Willŭng" who could make raincome. They obtained their powers in dreams.To produce rain one of them went down intoa water hole and filling his mouthsquirted in that direction which wasappropriate to his tribe. He then "sang [his - crossed out][so- crossed out] the rain". Braiaka squirted waterand sang towards the West the Krauŭn,the Brataua towards the west also, theTatūngalŭng towards the South - the sea,the Brabra and the Krauatun to the Belling - the South East wind.From these quarters their several rainscame. When for instance a nearby raincame to the BraBra - it was the Braiakawho sent it and so on. -The same "Bunjil Willŭng" could bring thunder.

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie


59Australian Aborigines

Maneroo BlacksBurialWhen a burial was concluded they moved campacross some river.

StormsKilling a crow brought stormy weather.

Kurnai languageThe Krauatun [Tatung, and – crossed out] speak Mŭkthang;the Braiaka, Brataŭa and Tatunga speakNūlart. per King CharleyPūtchi-māl = come here!The Flag root is dūrūk and the cabbage tree istabbár – per King Charley

Borun = jagspear, waal or ganŭt = reed spearMurriwŭn = throwing stick, Bamarŭk = shield spearTŭrnmŭng = waddy, spear, [shield? – written above spear], Tundiwŭng = [diagram]Kŭnnin = [diagram], Kallŭk = [diagram]per Big Joe

Tūmŭng = mountain messmateRiver white gum at B’dale = gūra-binnakor daubal-daubal (white) binnakIronbark = Yírik

Billy Woods’ Nakŭn was Bunjil Dauangŭnand Bunjil Barn was his elder Brother

Blápan-wŭrt-mokogo all of us there

Let us all go there.Ngarūgal mūndū bŭrrang mokocrow there flying thereThere is a crow flying

[written along right side margin at bottom of page]mundu [?indintē?]the bird moko [?indintē?]the place

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie


68Krauatun KurnaiThe Krauatun speak a languagevery near to the mŭk-thāngThe Braiaka, Brataua and Tatungspeak Nūlart.The Cabbage tree tabbár andthe flag root – dūrūk were usedfor food, baked and eaten; King Charleysays that the tabbár was very likethe head of the ferntree- gárūk-i.e. of that one which has smallhooklets on the under side of themidrib of the frond.The root of the “convolvulus sepium”- ngūrŭng – was eaten.

King Charley says that the [?Oluade?] were called“Laúeri” = the women but that theother stars only were “Brīl” = stars.

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie


70Bony Point – warke [jilly – crossed out] jirry[??] [??] – [??]Nicholson – Jurtūng Brabra – a [?rock?][??] – Bruthen Brabra

Tatung Kurnai Bernda Wunuk – at Boul BoulWuk Wuk Brabra

Mouth of Tambo River [near – crossed out] Gnannŭmbrŭrn - Pelican [?Diving?]

Bunjil Kurnai – belonged to Kut wutthat is Brataualung.Gwanndura Tambo mouth Ramrod Creek

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie


Ki yukka [??] - din dāka Bunjil BowlKhee an goong. Fath gave name.Pallung - nakun - gave it - it belonged to him- Sent name

Jackey - Father youngest north - of [??] - his name wasZoby - will not use for a long time. If he had no othername would give him a new one - some oldman a [??] [??] if none narkun.

[Bowl - crossed out] Raymond Island wife from Turtgwunungnot Krotun - because Kūkun BruthenDrelinnot Tatun go by because same like Yowunga Bunjil [??] Kurranot [??] [?much?] - difficult to go Wy yungin [?Dargo?] [?the?] [??] Munju

Mother [??] Lake Tyers [?cast?] for them, [??] [??] LakeTyers - it is my country. Bowl belongs to me + my father.I could have visited at Lake Tyers but my country to livein would have been Bowl (Raymond Island)I am half Tatūngulung + half [?Kurtau?] -could not get wife from Eagle Point [??] [??][??] from West side [?milikea?] in [??]But could from this side.

[written at bottom of page]woornin-gingin an ga ganwrokut?

[written in box on right side of page]Tatūnguluna fromWy YungBruthenWūrungaltno [??]Tartgwunningno [??]

[written sideways at bottom of page]give [?wives?] to Dargo who alwayscame doe to Lakesnot old mentoo far

no lake men did not go farfrom lakes -did not go in thebush far away.

near KurnungKurni - [??]men

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie


wūnin-ginyangi wūnmatū brawa she says mūnanūnjieKiKanat lūlūi yak

Charly RiversYanji - wūn matū brawa - [mūnda - crossed out][taerta - crossed out]

aun nng - mūnda Berra watūn (Bruthen)don't know there atnabbūnda - brebba? tūe ntu yakhow many more that way (west)

mūndu - them - passivetūntū them active

[?tintakka?] - here - near at handtintaingaga - here - active walking

[Brabra Ng - crossed out] Wūrl ngin gegan - where are you going?

Bruthen - Boul Boul - or all Tatungulung[?Nūnung?] [??] or Brit Brittior Wy Yang - [null] [null] - not muchfrom [??]

Wy Yang the samevice versa[??] [??] the same Dargo Brunager? [Tatūngulung - crossed out] [?Bunanger?] Tatūngulung (half) atShaving Point

Last edit 6 months ago by J Gibson

hw0406 Notes on Eucalypt names from Gippsland Aboriginal people



Names of the Eucalypts given to them by the Gippsland Aborigines---------------------------------------------------------------------------Kurnai names for the Eucalyptsin the Mŭk thāng Dialect (2) ------------------------------------------------------------E. Amygdalina - [tick] ChūnchŭkaAmygdalina - (b) Katalalak or Yertchukamygdalina - (c)-------------------------------- wang-ngara (2)Botryoides - [tick] BinakCapitellata - [tick] [crossed out Dūmŭng Gūyŭn-gūyŭn] [dūmŭng?]Eugenioides - [tick] [crossed out Dūmŭng] yangūraGlobulus - [tick] [crossed out Binak] (Balūk) - wang njara (2)([Brataua?])Goniocalyx - [tick] BálūkGunii - [tick] Gūra binak Hemiphloia - [tick] Dēn or Dérn [word crossed out]Leucoxylon - [tick] Yirik or BwŭrawiMacrorhyncha - [tick] [Káta katak?] or [(Yūróka)] (3) [Thang quai?]Melliodora - [tick] DárganObliqua - [tick] Káta katakOdorata - [tick] DarganPauciflora - [tick] Bŭndagra3 -Piperita - [tick] YángūraPolyanthema - [tick] Den (or Dern)10-Pulverulenta - Bindŭrk [(word crossed out)]

[On LHS Bindŭrk (Mukthang)

Sieberiana - YauŭtStellulata - YīmbitStuartiana - Bŭt BŭtTereticornis - Yūro5- Viminalis - Binak

11- [four lines bracketed crossed out] wang-ngara

[Line crosssed out]

Tristania laurina - Gūyŭr

[circle with dot] Mŭkthang (i.e. Excellent speech) was spoken by the [Brabolenj? or Brabolung Kurnai whoinhabited the country [upon?] Mitchell, Nicholson Tambo River; [near? or the?] Kruatun Kurnai camp[?] [try?] [Dr?]. camp & spoke the [word crossed out] Thang-quai or " broad speech"; the[Brayakalung?] Kurnai inhabited the south of the Avon, Macalister, Thompson [fl?] River & spoke the Muk Thang or variations of it with Bratàua [two words crossed out]--------2------and Tatung Kurnai who inhabited the country between lakesand the sea in South gippslandsea [Nulit?] spoke the Nūlit

[writing on LHS]

(2) E amygdalina is [Erica?] [rest of line crossed out]The bark of the tree is extremely tough and can be stripped up the bole in long stripes. That of E globulus

is not so tough but hangs at times when falling off from the limbs & [trunk?] in long strings from which [perhaps?] the South Gippsland black called it Wang ngara. [rest of line crossed out]

But wanj = bark and ngara = string or tough [as?] [?] [ngarang]] = sinew the application of such a term is much [more?] [appropriate?] E amygladina [(4)?] than to E globulus.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0436 Notes by Howitt on Omeo 'tribe' and letter from Bulmer



Notes 30/9/81 - Burial of [?Junorn?]curryjong tree - Poondin (Ngarego)Honeysuckle - Tarra - Gippsland

Tŭndūn made with tea tree wood [?Brt?] and stringngūrū.

Omeo [plains - crossed out] tribe - on plainsMetoko Head medicine manCockey Head Doctor Gibber = Joëa There were not more than 100 people in the tribeMŭk-than = thin speechMūk-Krauetan-thannūlet - Ralbutnūlet - Braiakamūk-than - Tatūng and Dairgonotes on the Omeo tribe - by Jenny Cooperbefore Dec 21 in book commencing Nov. 1881

Tharang-Kawai- Snowy Rivernūlet - Braiaka-Bratauamŭkthang - Brabra-Tatung-Raymond IslandBack water - Kau-ŭngEastwood Tūt-wŭrkMerriman's Sea song - note bookMay 17-1883East- Bo- móin- also naua-or Kraui - North = Woorunina - west=GūyaSouth = meringámTall boy name is Būnyūan = a Lagoon at Bega - totem Tiska = small owl20/5/83 Charley Brūpin - ngarrigan = BatMerriman - Ūmbara = black duckHarry Cook - Jarūat = an owl; name is ngangal

10/6/83In Wiradjuri - exchange of wives - whose sisteris called gŭn-gŭn-mur Bidga-bidga= old manJīr=ghost

[written in left side margin]Ngal-al-balDaramulun's wife

Last edit 29 days ago by J Gibson

hw0437 W.T. Dawson and H.W. Pettit Gippsland place names and vocal



5.[MITCHELL RIVER- crossed out]Merrindal - a large mountain on the Maneroo RoadMerrindal-mungie - a small river running from Maneroo RoadBoulong-dirra - Dargo Station, MackintoshTail-waddy - Mount EwingToorn-dung - Pretty Boy MountTulloo-bowie - Yellowman's nobRecamermetta - Cobbler's CreekBooloongwall - Mt. TaylorBullumwaal - two spears: Mt Taylor Mt Lookout (AWH)Tooculerdoyung - Point on RiverBerpercutty - Callaghan's SwampToon-toon - Creek from McLeod's MorassBunk-un-wal - mouth of Lguana CreekDoogooree - GlenaladaleCurl-wun - Bluff at Mt TaylorNibber - LucknowWyong (duck) - BairnsdaleNarran (Eagle) - Eagle Point

PERSONALTRIBAL NAMESBraberwollong – Mitchell River and Bruthen BlacksDulungalong} – Lakes Blacks Tatungolong}Crow-widgingolong – Snowy River BlacksBradolong – Buckley’s BlacksBriagolong – Macmillan’s Blacks

RELATIONSHIPCunni, Kanni, Gooni, Kurnai - Black manBullaru (O) - Black womanWermberooket - Black womanJerribung (O), Bourdan, Bourdi - old manBullurn-machu - old ginMilung (O) very old ginTallu-bordine - little old manTallu-murt, Talla-mart - young masterWarrumbull (O) young fellowCoungulla (O) Coungulla - wild blackfellow

[written in left side margin]BuchanMitchellRiver

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-33-21 Howitt to Fison 11 October 1878



for the rest. It seems to me [that - crossed out] tobe an example in which the advancein family has been exceptionally morerapid as regards the language than elsewherein Australian tribes. It forms a completecontrast to the Kamilaroi - in the formerthe husband jealously keeps his wife tohimself while in the latter she is thewife of a group. I have agian today askeda lot of men - Brabrolung + Tatungolungwhether the Kurni ever lent his wife to afriend - they all positively said "We would notdo it - we have heard of such things among the Brajerak" Will it not be well whena sweeping statement is made as at p. 30as to marriage, to shew that there may be otherexceptions such as that of the Kurni. I shallgo on making enquiries as questions arisebut I do not expect to vary or contradictwhat I have written but to confirm andexpand. I shall be anxious to hear what[?items have?] struck you after reading mycontribution. I do not at present seehow the two parts can be interwoven- I think we can amalgamate in thegeneral statements - that is if I can do sowithout taking too much of your labours.We shall see - things always work

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie
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