Howitt and Fison Papers

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Search for Heart*

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BrendaAugust 25th 1907

My dear Mr HowittIn answer to yoursof the 6th I am afraid Ihave not received anydefinite information.However, what I have found out I will let you hear

The old Ipatha says the customswere kept up till after (inher own words) the 90 floodWe had a very high flood in1890, and it was after thenshe remembers the tribebecame lax in theircustoms. The whites beganto gather them in reservesthen they [??] missionstations. Re in Brewarrina

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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CannibalisimCeremonial fight

TurrbulWhere in one of the ceremonial combats which followthe Initiation ceremonies, one of the men is killed, he iseaten by those of his tribe present, each tribal group siitingat its own fire. A great medicine man (Kūndri) singethe body all over with a firestick (a piece of dry sap wood)- the skin then turns copper colored - the body is laid thenface downward; and is opened down the back by a stoneknife, then opened down the front, and skinned. Allthe entrails with the heart and lungs are buried, andblackened sticks tied with grass are placed over the burialplace which henceforward is so sacred that no one goes nearit unliess it may be some of the old medicine men.

The skin is blackened with the burned branchof a young blood wood tree, and hung up on spears todry before the large fire, in which the backburn and ribs are burned. The leg bones, hip bone and skinare kept and carried about in a dilly bag formonths and finally put in a cave in a hollow tree.

Although the deceased was killed in their presence thetribe say and believe that some one has caused him to bespeared by magic. An old woman, most probably hismother taps the hip bones with a tomahawk and mentionsthe names of [people - crossed out] men of the suspected tribe - [and when the - crossed out][fine cracks- crossed out] and the name of the man, at the utterance ofwhich the bone is fractured is the name of their culprit.This is repeated with the other hip bone and whenwith the same results they are sure.

The medicine man who has cut up the body - cuts offpieces of the flesh which he throws to the several parties sitting rundwho cook and eat it. The principle medicinemen rub the fat over their own bodies. They eat himbecause they know and were fond of him, they now knowwhere he is and his flesh will not stink. His mother carriesthe skin and bones for months with her and when hertribal group meets others, the old woman will liftthe 'possum rug off the skin placed in a "humpy" (hut)and the deceased's friends would commence to cut themselveswith tomahawks; the others restraining them from injuring themselves.Thos Petrie

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got. I dare say wombat meat would be considered the best in fact Muk jeak. The term Muk is a very meaning[?] one. It is something very decided. I should say it is very really great and decidedly so. I think Nga would be equal to ["]I heartily agree with you”, or decidedly yes. Muk then would be my very or real name as a man was not called by his name but was usually referred to as the father of so and so to the Brother of so and so +ccc. With regard to the Birrarark I have not been able to find that there was any society among the Blacks who professed to hold commerce with spirits. There was seldom more than one of that class at at [sic] time among the Blacks of one part. I dare say he was generally a knowing

Last edit about 2 years ago by J Gibson

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wife he would claim her [but?] if not hewould have to run off with one if he could notfind a friend to get him a wife. The fact is a[?]man who had a sister or two could alwaysget a wife as he could exchange but incase he had no one to exchange he wouldhave to win the heart of some rather[?] beautyand go off with her.

9. The custom of keeping particular food forthe old men was only observed at the makingof young men. They then preserved the porcupine female kangaroo or any femaleanimal. These would not be touched bythe young men till they had gone throughtheir probation.

10. In cases of blood food the Blacks wouldnot be particular what member of thetribe they caught. but they would alwaysprefer to get the real criminal.In case of a supposed death by bulk theywould try the same means to bulk theperson who did it. But in case ofregular murder they would have revengeupon the tribe as it would be difficultto get the right man *

I will shortly send you answers to the restof your questions. you need not fear iftiring me as I will always be ready to assist you as far as I can.With kind regards to Mrs Howitt & MissArmstrongI remain faithfully yours

John Bulmer

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a Dairgo man, and Flannae speared him.. We let him lie there and did noteat his skin because he was a Kurnai man like ourselves. (p ). As he wasa friend of the Braiaka we went up to the Heart)I), to look for them. Wefound anumber of Dairgo, Braiaka, and Brataua there and we found them,but we were beaten because they had guns as well as spears, and werehelped by two black police, and one police trooper. We ran away and leftevery thing behind us, our blankets and clothes taking only ou spearswith us. We had left our women near the Lakes Entrance at Metung,where the wild dog turned the Kurnai into stone. Our enemies and the policefollowed us up as far as Lake Tyers, but they could not cross and so weescaped. For a long time we were quiet, but at last we went up to Manerooto get the Brajerak (p ), to come down and help us. By this time the whitemen had brought so many Brajerak from Maneroo , and Omeo. with theminto Gippsland, that we and they had become friendly. So we got the Maneroomen to promise to help us and with them went round the mountains intoOmeo. There we got Nukong (p ), also to help us, and we left our women there,Nukong sent lewin (messengers), to the men at Ovens River and Mt.Buffaloeto send help, and it was arranged that we should meet them at Kut-bun-taura (p ), that is Bushy Park station. Then we went down by way ofDairgo but found no one there. At Bushy Park the men from the Ovens Riverand Mt.Buffaloe]] met us. We had gone there to get some food and to see someof the Brabralung from Wuk-Wuk (p ), who were living there pretending tobe friendly with the Braiakalung and the Dairgo men. There could not havebeen less than tweo hundred of us, at least the white men there so counted us

(I) The name of a stsation property near Sale, where when first occupied,the shape of a heart was found cut in the ground.(2) The Kurnai had a belief that the Dingo sometimes speaks in theirlanguage, and that any one hearing this is turned into stone. The narratorrefers to a belief that at Metung, a camp of Kurnai were literally petri-fied by having one of their tamed Dingos say "you are eating fish andhave not given me any". A Kurnai man once told me that when a boy, hewas out hunting with his father, and heard one word "bring", that is bone, when he and his fatherboth ran off as fast as they could, and this aved their lives.(3). Brajerak see p(4) Nukong see p(5) Wuk-Wuk see p

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

XM159_ICDMS_lowres Fison to Howitt 10 June 1884

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problems. My wife and I calledat the Pres. Ladies Coll: yesterdayand saw Miss Howitt, who waslooking exceedingly bright an well.She has promised to come outto us next Sat week. She could not come on Sat next.. Mrs Howitt would have been pleased to hearthe words in which the imporession'her daughter made upon mywife was conveyed to one on ourreturn.

I will bring your [apes] of theDeme and the Horde with me onFriday. Will you note down thetitles of the most important worksyou know of? There is not much in the galery of the P.L. as far as I have been able to see. The bestworks will be downstairs I sup--pose, amongs Travels etc. Wil itnot be well to read up theNew Zealand literature also? [?]While we are about it, we might

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XM226_ICDMS_lowres Howitt to Andrew Lang 1 September 1902

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classes. "This is manifest from the fact ..... that they subdividethose classes into two non-intermarrying triplets," (Emu, Bandicoot,Black Snake, --- Kangaroo, Opossum, and Iguana.) (*) Now certainlythese totem groups are within the two [classes - crossed out] phratries, but they need not belater subdivisions of the two [classes- crossed out] phratries, made for no conceivable reason.No legislators can have made totem groups, by splitting any kind ofcommunity into sets and by giving each set a name from a plant, animal,or other object. Nor do we see why groups which may have split spon-taneously off the old groups should take new totem names. The totemnames, however they came. "came otherwise."

I suggest, therefore, that totem names and totem groups arosefirst, and that they became exogamous in the manner already stated.First of all, each small local group, with the exogamous tendencieswhich we have mentioned as probable, accepted a totem name. It was nowthe Emu, or Opossum, or Kangaroo, or Black Snake local group. But, whenexogamy became sterotyped, in the way already indicated, each local totem group, say Emu, came to consist, through exogmay, of persons who, bymaternal descent, were Bandicots, Opossums, Black Snakes, Bats, Rats Cats,and so forth. By totem law, as it now exists, persons of different to-tems in the group, the Emu local group, might have intermarried. But,after all, they were all Emus, and of the Emu local group. This fact,with their membership of the same hearth, may have carried a scrupleas to intermarrying. If they did not, they has to raid other lo-cal groups for wives, ( that is, if these groups were hostile, and would

(*) Kamilaroi and Kurnai, pp. 33-34

[written in left side margin]in this case the very own authors deny thatthis is thinkable

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This song is as follows Then is now - [Eunagourea?] [nūng?] [line crosse out] [ngallourm?] [ma?] [barrein?][with a crow?] me [track?][mŭrneen?]gūrūk ba = [mŭrnein?] blood[būrūn=bai?] [ngannūng ba?] [oh?] you [had? me?] [meself?] chipped tomahawk [lil-lirri?] = [mŭringa?]

You cut across and he coming at me in the road ahead

I want to go to thefoot of the ranges and you coming & hit

[next page]

me with a tomahawkand give me in my heart bloodrunning to my heart

[Diagrams of club warra-warra, tomahawk mŭrring and boomerang]__________________________________________[mūriwŭn?] [or?] garik[finebur? or fonebur?] [natuput?]

reedspear ajerrŭr{ [mŭrmmŭk?]{ [nan kuk?] turn back long [dŭrrinŭng [?] [?] ditto[Maeka? or Macka?] = shield Keerin = spearle-ŭng-al. ________[bŭrnagūlŭng = [Kŭnnin?][Kŭnnain?] = yam stick= [command?] = [ngūk?] [?]next [mine?]

Last edit over 1 year ago by J Gibson

hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages

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5 22the swamp hawk (ngarang) to go after themand get back the fire. The swamp hawkflew off about three miles and then soaredand swooped down at them. - he knockedsome fire out of their tree and set the grasson fire. Baukan then put it out. The Swamp Hawk soared up and while hewas rising to make another swoop, Baukanthrew up some Kangaroo sinew up to thesky and tried to climb up but it broke.They then threw up Emu sinew, [then - crossed out] but it brokethen the sinew of the little red wallaby. -Justthen down came the swamp hawk and knocked out the fire. - All the grass began toburn but Baukan climbed up into the sky with the burning He oak log.This was how the Kŭrnai nearly lost theirfire.

Brewin and the moonOnce the moon (narrŭn) was a young manHe went out hunting and found an Emuon the other side of a creek. When he wantedto cross over a log to get at his game Brewin twisted the loground so that Narrŭn fell into the water.Each time narrŭn tried to walk overBrewin turned him over. The Emu iswhat you call the Southern Cross.

The Kurnai ancestor.Old Morgan the Gwera-ale Kŭrnai(Gweraale = great) told me that long agothe old Kŭrnai walked across the Sale plainsto the [?Heart?]. He crossed the river there andwalked down to Port Albert. He carried acanoe on his head. As he walked alonghe heard a tapping on the canoe - helooked up at one side then at the otherbut could not see any one. The fact [one - crossed out]

[written in left side margin at bottom of page]and Someone put woman into the canoe

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47W Montgomery

BurialIn the year/44 when Robinson (Protector) came overto see the district. [with - crossed out] In riding down [??] at Heartalong back of [?morass?] - his two Murray Black policefound a skeleton doubled up in a [??] tree- eight feet from ground not wrapped up in anything.[Another time the - crossed out] The blacks [??] [one ?? - crossed out] a ginat the Heart in [??] made in an Ant heap.Scooped out the inside [??] [??] She was wrapped up inher possum cloak and tied up. They mourned for her fromtwo or three days. Bobby the Blackfellow was buriedin hole in the ground - did not carry him about- because they were then about the station - were not travelling about except periodically.-

CorroboreesWere painted - eyebrows white, [??] white + red + white stripe. And had a kilt + budda budden.One dancer was representing Kangaroos. Representingthe actions of Kangaroos. The gins sang and oldmen beating time. Some [songs - crossed out] corroborees weremerry + some monotonous.

WomenWhen stranger came the women used to carefullycover themselves up with their rugs.Women generally wore possum cloaks. The mensometimes went about naked but also equally worethe budda + kaiang - perhaps more often than not.Montgomery brought them in - in 1846-47 at theHead + had no more trouble after - Jimmy Scottwas a little boy about 10 years old.

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hw0437 W.T. Dawson and H.W. Pettit Gippsland place names and vocal

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6Weeandween - Grand fatherMoongan, Monghun - FatherYuckun, Yuccan, Youckun - MotherCarrajung - SisterCurramoi - OrphanJaigong - FatherlessOmigorn - MotherlessYunki - FriendGillbranging - mateLourn, Loon - white manLournakis, Loonikin, Lournagill - white woman

PHYSICALGoundul (O) Ming eyeGoundiloonana O - eyesNowdna (O), Ghoong, Nourdna - noseGurnuic - mouthNirrang (O), Keerang, Nunduc - teethThaan - lipsWing - earLid - Hair Yarn, Lid - BeardPeundull - shoulder jointNucbindun - right armWarrungun - left armBoon - wristBreert, brait - fingersYuccan-breert, Youckun-brait - thumb (mother of fingers)Bingee (P) BellyNarbruc - ribsLairnburk - beautiful breastsCraook - entrailsBoulgan-doolet - heartWullong - kidneyWulla-wulluck - liverNulluc - skinNends-buttagwanga - tube connected with paunch

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hw0391 Notes by Howitt on Kulin from Barak

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55 The Tribe was governed by the old men and there were head men called Ngŭrŭngaeta. [These head men beam - corssed out] If a man was "sensible and spoke straight and did no wrong to any one the people would call him “ngŭrŭng-gaeta” and listen to him and obey him. Billy Billarythe father of my cousin was a Ngŭrŭngaeta. So was also Capt. Turnbull at Mt Macedon and Billy Lonsdale and Mr DeVilliers in Western Port.”

It was the Head man who summoned assemblies for ceremonial, or for arranged fights or for war. The messenger carried certain articles which were appropriate to each kind of message as his credentials and he carried the message in his mouth. As an example maybe taken a message sent by a ngŭrŭng-gaeta to assemble the people to a [ceremonial an - crossed out] festive gathering at which there would be corroborees and ball playing. The messenger would then carry the [following - crossed out] yarŭk = message stick + The message itself was called “Pai-ara”. The meaning of the Yarŭk is “to bring up every man in the bush – even if a man were living with a settler he mustcome. If I sent such a Yarŭk I should say to the Wirigiri – take this and give it to the Ngŭrŭngaeta at such a place and tell him my Paiara. – that Ngŭrŭngaeta would then show it to his [people - crossed out] men and then send it on”. In company with the Yarŭk would be sent also the Mangūrt which is a ball of about 2½ to 3 inches diameter made of opossum skin with fur outside sown up tightly. This ball is used in the favourite game of Ball play at which the different totems take different sides. With the KūlinBūnjil and Waa took opposite sides. The Mangūrt is also used to send to a friend as a token of regard. It was pointed out to me by William[that - crossed out] when I expressed a wish to send by him a small present in money to an Omeo black of my acquaintance who lived in thesame hut with him; that my present ought to be accompanied by a “Mangūrt” in order to make “Charley's heart glad”. This was accordingly done. Together with Yarŭk and Mangūrt the messenger

[written in left side margin] 6"The messenger was called Wir-i-gir-i and would be a young man, “the ngŭrŭng gaeta would say to him go to [such - crossed out] that mob and take the word to meet us over there”

The Headman makes the Yarŭk

Note here McAlpine's account of howOld Darby sent offa messenger

This word Yarŭk[??] [wrong?]Yarūk is magic -message stick is mūngū kalk orbarndana

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17This man was a Būnjil (Thara) hisown name was Kŭrbūrū (native bear) and he got it because when once he killed a native bear its mūrŭp went with him. After that it taught him a “gūnyūrū” which was a follows: -Enagourea nūng ngalourmaThere is now cut acrossbarein gūrūkba = mŭrneintrack bloodbūrūnbai nganūng ba hurt myselflil-lira = mŭr-ing-achipped tomahawk.

of this William gave the following free translation.“You cut across my [and - crossed out] track where I wasgoing to the foot of the range and you cominghit me and spilled my heart's blood and broke your tomahawk on my head”.

A second illustration of the statement that animals have a mūrŭp as follows: -Waa (crow) has a mūrŭp. It is very good and never touches anyone to hurt them. If a Waa comes over you and cries out Wa!-wa!-wa! then you know that your enemies are about. Then you say to him “Kūlindat mela?” (Blacks – where?). Then he says wa wa wa! again over you and flies off saying still wa! wa! wa!. Then you run afterhim to escape”.

When I asked him whether the Eaglehawk (Bunjil) ever gavewarning he said: -“As to Bunjil he does not come nearus but I remember that once when

[written in left side margin]note thatWilliam is a waa himself

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hw0139 John Fraser to Howitt 26/4/1882

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to enjoy himself for a time. He may now eat kangaroo, snake +c which before was not allowed. He is not supposed to take a wife for 3 years after this ceremony.

(13) The game taken whilst hunting usually divided equally. The king chooses the camping ground.

(14) I have heard of infanticide being practised but cannot give any information on the subject

(15) When my Father came here 50 years ago this tribe werecannibals - but not heard of since

(16) Signals by smoke were used and understood years agoand sticks stuck in the ground pointing in a certain direction indicated the course taken by the tribeto their friends.

(17) cannot find out

(18) Many amusing stories are told amongst them of oldentimes over which they laugh heartily but I have neverbeen able to get them translated to me.

(19) (1) Man "Cooree" 2. "Motongs" 3 "Walluck" 4 "Chutrick" 5 "Meecock"6 "inoorop" 7 "Bullung" 8 "[??]" 9 "Mudduba" 10 "Tungani"11 "Dinnal" 12 "Corrah" 13 "Geroong" 14 "[?Watt?] 15 "Beddoo"16 "Wingin" 17 "Keeroong" 18 "Bumabak" 19 "Gunush" 20 "Gree"21 "Bunakah Dinnah" 22 "Warckulboo" 23 "Pluraboo"24 "Pluroo Warckul (25) "Pluraboo Pluraboo" 26 Gian Gainoo"27 "Gian Gianboo Gian Gianboo" 28 Gian Gianboo repeatedfour times - 29 "Buanga" 30 "Kinga" 31 "Nungaroo"32 "Nungiwanba 33 "Bingi 34 "Nunecu" 35 "Geebanah"36 Cowan 37 Cumming"Never heard of blacks being "forbidden" to speak to theirwives, Fathers or Mothers"Knows nothing of "message sticks

I amDear SirYours faithfullyJames W Boydad

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hw0327 Gason to Howitt

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17theseYoung girls was most heartrending, the cruel and barbarouspractice of forcing a passage, seemshorrible to relate and the old dec-repid old villianous [sic] Hags, encouragingthe young ones and useing all theirinfluence [??] to the Ceremonybeing carried out - This ceremony iscalled ""[?Willpadrinna?]"

(4) answer ot question "wither the threatsof the old woemen [sic] to the young girlson coming to maturity, at the ceremonyof circumscision [sic]. No, sertainly [sic] [?with?]circumscision [sic] is a distinct cerem-ony. The threats of the old women arebrought to bare on the Girls of matureage at the ceremony of "Wilpadrinna"

(5) answer to this question disguishingmarks of the natives at the

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hw0340 Notes title 'Pompey'

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Pompeycontinued from page 8 of M S onPompey the Chief of the Hill TribesThis Pompey had three wifes equallyferocious as himself, naturallycruel, and a terror to the womenwho dared crossed their path, inword or argument. These womenat the [??] of many other womenwould frequently be be sent perhapsfour times in the yearws, asambassadors, to the Heart of theDieyerrie Tribes. Loaded withpresents of skins, wallabyEuro + Kangaroo for presentationto Jalina [?Pirramuduna?] (The [?front?] man)either as [??] offerings, or forto settle some important question[?Only?] once have I know Pompeyto penetrate into the heart ofthe Dieyerrie Country. The [?frontman?]frequently spoke about him to meafter he was shot, and often told me that he had to thankhim, for his [?position?], he admired him as a speaker and[as - crossed out] a man who was an adept [sic]with the shield but condemnedhim for his wanton [?curiosities?] to

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hw0367 Dieri Parental and Filial Groups

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[Table of 3 columns - column 2 for Gason has no entries - column 3 Meyer word]

Fraternal group [underlined]

45 Elder brother; negi46 Elder sister; Ka Kū47 Younger brother; ngatata48 Younger sister; ngatata49 Fathers Pirauru's son; negi or ngatata50 Fathers Pirauru's daughter; Kaku or ngatata51 Mothers Pirauru's son; neji or ngatata52 Mothers Pirauru's daughter; Kaku or ngatata/njatata53 Husbands sisters husband; neji or ngatata/njatata54 Wifes brothers wife; Kaku or ngatata/njatata55 Fathers brothers son; neji or ngatata/njatata56 Fathers brothers daughter; Kaku or ngatata/njatata57 Mothers sisters son; neji or ngatata/njatata58 Mothers sisters daughter; Kaku or ngatata

59 Fathers sisters son; Kami60 Fathers sisters daughter; Kami61 Mothers brothers son; Kami62 Mothers brothers daughter; Kami

Am I correct in thinking that 49 to 58 inclusive maybe elder brother or younger Son - and elder sister or younger sister as the case might be? - You have not given me term. I have added there but seem to be required.

The construction of diagram A shows that the word brother has a much wider significance among the Dieri than any [crossed out ' natives eg. the'] the [?] European [?]. It instructs not only the [?] of in 1 & 2 or 3 & 4 respectively, the whole of the [sons?] of both parents collectively. WHy are they all elder or younger brothers. [crossed out 'And there is no'] But is the [same?] with 'sister'. over the action [?] further, the fraternal group, comes to include [?] among the childrenof [heart shape] groups of brothers or of a group of sisters, but it also includes in the same group all the children of the piraurus if/of their brothers or sisters. Such a group may be a very large one in numbers.

When we [consider?] relation 59 to 62 in [?] in [?] with diagram -A, It becomes [?] that they cannot [be a?] the

I am [relate?] to each other of those he [?] [?] connected. 7 & 8 are fraternal because they have their parents in common. But the parents of 7 & 8 are such that no possibility of [?] relativecan extert [?] them. Therefore their children should in a different relation [?] each other. The relation cannot be a fraternal one but is [?] that [cannot read last line]

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XM302 Siebert to Howitt 1/June/1898

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Killalpanina, d. 1. Juni 1896

Sehr geehrter Herr Howitt! Fur Ihre freundlichen Zeilen und besonders fUr Ihr groBmutiges, ehrendes Anerbieten kann ich nicht umhin Ihnen meinen herzlichsten Dank auszusprechen. In der That, ich wiirde es fUr eine Schande, fUr eine niedertdichtige Gemeinheit halten, wollte ich auf einen solchen Vorschlag, wie Sie Ihn mir stell ten, mit "Nein" antworten. Freilich muB ich Sie bitten, zuweilen etwas Geduld mit mir zu haben, einmal meiner schwachen Gesundheit halber (tagelang bin ich oft nicht imstande meine Gedanken auf etwas Bestimmtes zu conzentrieren, ohne die heftigsten Kopfschmerzen davonzutragen)

Most esteemed Mr. Howitt!

I can scarcely express my heartfelt thanks to you for your friendly lines and especially for your generous, honourable offer. As it were, I would consider it a shame, a low meanness, if I wanted to answer 'no' to such a proposal as you have put to me. However, sometimes I must ask you to have some patience with me, (einmal) on account of my weak health (for days on end I am often not able to concentrate on anything definite, without suffering the heaviest headaches)

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teilung der Murdus wie die Dieri etc. in Materi und Kararu, sogar dieselben Worte dafiir, wenigstens die ,,Parnkalla", wenn ich mich nicht irre, auch die "Kukata ", ein ungemein starker, gefiirchteter tribe, des sen Manner weit iiber ihre Grenzen hinaus als die besten Speerwerfer bekannt sind. Das Weitere und Spezielle will ich versuchen, so bald wie moglich auszukunden und so in Gottes Namen in Gemeinschaft mit Ihnen und geleitet durch Sie, den mich urn Vie1es in Erfahrung iiberragenden, an die Arbeit gehen. Ihnen nochmals fUr das Vertrauen dankend gruBt Sie herzlich Ihr treuer

Otto Siebert

classification as the Murdus in regards to the Dieri etc. in Materi and Kararu, even the same words (for that), at least the 'Parnkalla', if I am not mistaken, also the 'Kakuta', an exceptionally stronger, feared tribe, whose men are known far outside of their borders as the best speer throwers. I want to get to work as soon as possible and in God's name in communion with you and led through you, [illegible. who have (taught? shown?) me many exceptional experiences]. Ever grateful to you for your confidence/trust, heartfelt greetings from your faithful,

Otto Siebert.

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tip70-10-33-17 Howitt to Fison 3 April 1875

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I used to know Prof Irving very well and shall not hesitate to call upon him for help ifyou will kindly write to me precisely what it isthat we should ask him. If you willexplain I will call upon the oracle andI think he will respond. If not - thenI will try Elkington who is lecturer I think in history +c at the University andwho is much interested in such enquiriesas ours. I think he would go heart and soul with us. I don't wonder at Irving'sniffing' at the H.C.

re Thurston. Quamby = camp egI have often heard a stockman say "I'm goingto quamby here for the night".Bullerwang I will enquire as to thisCarpentaria we have two correspondentsNormanton - and Cloncurry River -or had - they have been swallowedup by silence during the past twelvemonths. I shall stir them up by and byewith many others. I intend to purchaseDirectories of all the colonies and send outcirculars!Yours faithfullyA W Howitt

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tip70-10-33-18 Howitt to Fison 20/9/1878

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terms which might arise under a welldeveloped punduan family systeminto the pairing family. In the Kamilaroiwho [I - crossed out] are I suppose in a fully developedgroup = marriage system it seems to mewe might expect to find a redundancy of terms expressive of new relationships - i.e. if theyhave been developing that system fully fora long period. This is only a "suggestion" asmy friend Baron von Mueller would say.

I shall draw up and send you thestatement of relationships which you mention.I do not as yet see any additions to make to them.In the matter of chieftainship and what you say about "polygamy and descent through thefather bringing disintegration and reqaining controlauthority" - I must say a few words. I do not think I can assent to that view. I may as shortly as possible - I fear not as clearly as possiblesummarise my views.Among the Brabrolung (Kurni) I find authority centredin the father - in the elders of the division - in the elders of theclan. I find a belief that the spirits of the ancestors not onlywander about, but visit their descendents in dreams andin [?silent?] forms for instance in charms against the sorcery ofothers. I might extend this but this much will suffice for mypurpose. It is conceivable that the pairing system of theKurni might become fixed as monogamian, the fatherswith power of life and death as regards his wife + children mightdevelop into the "house father" with jus vitae necisque as regardshis family and he would be aswerable to none but to hisancestors. The belief which I have referred to as regarding themmight develop into the belief in the presence of theancestors as the sacred hearth the "Lar familiares"who would watch over his descendents. This system wouldbe that of the Aryan progenitors of our race; and sucha development would not have passed through

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-33-21 Howitt to Fison 11 October 1878

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out some way or another.

But at any rate we must notbe in too great a hurry - I have sooften "whipped the cat" - if you knowthat expressive colonial expression athaving started before I was ready thatI have vowed a solemn vow never todo it again.

If we can amalgamate you must permit me to cross out part of yourpreface. I think we could do that any way, atthe same time I thank you very heartily for your kind expression.

I now send you some more information whichI shall embody as illustrations in my "monograph" of theKurni and as part of the evidence in which Ifound my statements and I shall send youmore as get it until I hear from you.I expect we may use the terms tribe, clandivisions as I have done giving an "interpretationclause" as the acts of parliament have it.I am inclined to do so in "Definitions" inthe introduction much as I give definitionsin my geological papers e.g

"Diorite, a crystalline granular or porphyriticcompound of a triclinic felspar, and Hornblende"(or some other similar definition)

- Division an aggregate of families owning commondescent from proximate ancestors- and in which marriage is forbidden +c, +c

clan an aggregate of divisions having commonlanguage, and a common descent and wheremarriage may be among the divisions

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-34-14 Howitt to Fison 2 August 1880

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Written in left hand margin:[?] manuscript arrived under cover of [?] but no "Eucla" - did you not send it? I have not yet had time to do more than glance over his work.By the bye I do not think the [word crossed out] Kurnai class names are[?]. They are not named after individuals eg. Hercules - Pelops - but

Written in upper margin:from locality. eg. North, East, South - West - as now I find someof these [?marriage class.]Will [?] now fit in as part of your paper on change of descent. Of course [?] will not fit in with our view - but will a review of his views fit into our work? If so I will propose a precis for you in "change of descent" as [?] to [?]

I shall very soon send you some notes upon the paternal group of terms of relatgionships.

Sale Aug 2 1880

My dear Mr Fison

You will be overwhelmed. I now write to say that I posted to you today with otherthings of which you have been advised. -McLennan and two pamphlets on the [?] which I hope will return to youin safety and for which accept my heart feltthanks. I shall put this with a precisof [?Back] open views which I think willinterest you and also a precis of what hesays in the case of Erinyes v. Orestes. Theview he takes is well worked out - but itis a pity it is not the correct one - so faras he is concerned I mean. I have beenlately going through the [?Orestean] trilogy carefullyand I see several points which no doubtyou see but [word crossed out] some of which I have not seenremarked.

1. The whole is a sequence of a blood feud.2. Aegisthus aids in murderingAgamemnon to avenge the murder of hisbrother by his uncle Atreus.3 Clytemnestra murders Agamemnonto avenge his [?] of his daughterIphigenia

Last edit 2 months ago by HelenB
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(1) banishment in this life(2) with retribution hereafter

That the [?] : (as I make oiut the passage)(1) The sacrificed Agamemnon to [?]and the Erinyes of her daughter.(2) that she fears the [?] not so long as Aegisthus "burns fire onher hearth." -In other words she has not committedan [?impious] act which would bringthe Erinyes upon her track but arighteous vengeance upon the murder of her daughter - one of herown [word crossed out] blood. -----

I think there can be no doubt (asBachofen puts it) that is the [?Orestian]trilogy the conflict between Mother = rightand father = right has been [?delineated]dramatically by [?]. Bachofen has got hold of the stick but he has got holdof it at the wrong end. --------

Whenever I can get a little time- most likely when I am ridingalong or at some wayside hotelI shall have a try at Antigone.

Last edit 2 months ago by HelenB
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