Howitt and Fison Papers

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Search for Bairnsdale* B’dale* B'dale*

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Duirsin? of Food

When in the March the Dalebura? tribe they meet at night all the apppointed camping place those who were been unfortunate in the chase. are ? led to partake of the game of the successful ones. When been out upon expeditions accompanied by his black boys only and the food ran short and the division of poritions his only scarity? thet have refused to take their portion ? let ? more in need of it. On previous occasions where be hard ? his own country men with him the contrary was tge case? for the ration bages here loaded ? and when in any difficulties grumbling to the rule.? In them wild state the ? seemed to live peacably? enough.He had seen a camp of 3 or live for three months without a quarreland rations? a the safe contrast to the following, for when a township is formed and before the Eurpean population ? fifty? it to necessary for the ? ?and a ? of Police and a custible? to keep them in order.R. Christisin?

Last edit 7 months ago by Kurnai

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May S- 7 14 21 28 M- 1 M 15 St 29 T- S S Tg S 30 W- 3 10 W 24 F T- 4 11 R 25 F- S B S B S- 6 13 20 27 Sale [??] [??] Walhalla - [?Tongath?] Bairnsdale Foster

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June S -

Last edit about 2 years ago by ALourie

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[Table]

Name, Native Place, Division of Tribe, Wife's division of tribe

William McDougall, Raymond Island, Tatoonkolong, BrabolongTuleba, Bruthen, Brabolong, BrabolongWilliam Thorpe, Bairnsdale, Brabrolong, *Ngrangit the entrancal Blacks.Neddy O'Rourke, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, Braberry worcutTommy Johnson, Snowy River, Kroathun, Yacktoon worcutDick Cooper, Tatoonkolong, Tatoonkolong, Lowajerak Buffalo womanLarry Johnson, Snowy River, Kroatunkoolong, NrangitTimothy, Snowy River, Kroathun, TatoonkolongBilly the Bull, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, Yacktoon worcutJacky Jacky, Lake Tyres, Warrnangatty, Yacktoon worcutBilly Jumbuck, Lake Tyres, Warnangatty, KroatoonYelmi, Lake Entrance, Ngrangit, BraberryDan, Lakes Entrance, Ngrangit, KroatoonKerlip Tom Snowy River, Kroatun, NgrangitBig Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Yucktoon worcutLamby, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Brabeerry Brathu (turee)*Charley Rivers, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, BraberryBobby Brown, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Ngrangit Ngrangit (both wives)Charley Muir, Bruthen, Braberry, KroathunKing Charley, Snowy River, Kroatun, Lowajerak BrabolongBen Jennings, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Warrangatty Charley Alexander, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, LowajerakSinging Johnny, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowajerakMunday, Maneroo, Brajerak, BidwellJohnny the plater, Snowy River, Kroatunkolong, KroatunMurray Jack, Maneroo, Brajerak, LowerjerakLawson, Scrub black, Bidwell, Bidwell. Jack Hay, Maneroo, Brajerak, Brabrolong taken by theftJimmy Thompson, Maneroo, Brajerak, Braberry Paddy, Sale, Brajerak, Kroatun worcut has girls - to himdid not marryHanner, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon worcutKing Tom, Bool Bool, Tatoonkolong, Yacktoon

Ngrangit means belonging to the Entrance to Lakes. Lambys +c and wife Ellen are Tara

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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in the Wiradjuri of Riverina a Headman was calledBidja-bidja whereas I have heard him described as one who "gaveorders to people", and there was such a Headman in each (?)(?) . The Bidja-bidja was always a medicine man.If he were for instance the (?) Kumbo and a medicine man he would be the headof the Kumbo sub-class, but all the other people in the (?)Yilrai, Murri or Wumbi would (?) him. Similay eachtotem had its Headman, probably its (?) (?). (1)(?) had the Bidja-bidja (?) "(?)" -(1) (?) (?)

The office of Headman was in a sense hereditary, because the son wouldinherit the position of his father if he possessed any oratorical orother eminent ability; but if not then the son of the deceased's brotherwould hold the position or failing him the nearest relation, having thesame class name (I). But this was with the consent of the community.Each social division elected its own Headman.

The Headman called his people together for any matter requiringthem to assemble, for instance holding the Burbung ceremonies,. At suchmeetings of the tribe, matters relating to the interests of the wholetribe are discussed, and thecourse of action, as to murders, abductionof women, adultery or war is decided upon. The medicine man commonly hasposition of Headman. (I). (?)

So far as I have beenable to ascertain there was not anyrecognised Headman, as such, in the Wukelbura tribe, but the strongest andbest fighting men were listened to in a debate, and the aged men held (?)little authority. ( )

On the other hand it is said that in the Dalebura tribe the (?)

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie
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As to the southern tribes of the Kamilaror, situated to thenorthward of Maitland, I have evidence dating back to about 1830.there might be two or three {Headmen]] in each tribal division. The position of a Headman was one of influence and authority, and depended on the valor ofthe individual, and it was not hereditary. A man who distinguished himself as a warrior or orator,would become a leader, (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?)

The office of Headman was in a sense hereditary, because the son wouldinherit the position of his father if he possessed any oratorical orother eminent ability; but if not then the son of the deceased's brotherwould hold the position or failing him the nearest relation, having thesame class name (I). But this was with the consent of the community.Each social division elected its own Headman.

The Headman called his people together for any matter requiringthem to assemble, for instance holding the Burbung ceremonies,. At suchmeetings of the tribe, matters relating to the interests of the wholetribe are discussed, and thecourse of action, as to murders, abductionof women, adultery or war is decided upon. The medicine men commonly hasposition of Headman. (I). (?)

So far as I have been able to ascertain there was not anyrecognised Headman, as such, in the Wakelbura tribe, but the strongest and best fighting men were listened to in a debate, and the aged men held aslittle authority. (B)

On the other hand it is said that in the Dalebura tribe the government appeared to be in the hands of Headmen, who were called Bubiberi.(?) (?) (?) this I have not been able to learn anything, even from my correspondent who had exceptionally favorable opportunites of becomingacquainted.

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie
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The office of Headman was in a sense hereditary, because the son wouldinherit the position of his father if he possessed any oratorical orother ability eminent; but if not then the son of the deceased's brotherwould hold the position or failing him the nearest relation, having thesame class name (I). But this was with the consent of the community.Each social division elected its own Headman.

The Headman called his people together for any matter requiringthem to assemble, for instance holding the Burbung ceremonies,. At suchmeetings of the [whole - crossed out] tribe, matters relating to the interests of the wholetribe are discussed, and the course of action, as to murders, abductionof women, adultery or war is decided upon. The medicine men commonly hasposition of Headman. (I). D + B [??]

[Thus - crossed out] So far as I have been able to ascertain there was not any(c) recognised Headman, as such, in the Wakelbura tribe, but the strongest and best fighting men were listened to in a debate, and the aged men held aslittle authority. (B)

On the other hand it is said that in the Dalebura tribe the government [seems to have been - crossed out] appeared to be in the hands of Headmen, who were called Bubiberi.But beyond this I have not been able to learn anything, even from my correspondent who had exceptionally favorable opportunites of becoming acquaintedwith his "faithful Daliburas"

[(I) - crossed out][(2) (1) J Gibson- crossed out](3) (4) (2) Jocelyn Brooke(5)(3) Muirhead(4) Christison

(a) In the Unghi tribe according to Mr ALP Cameron thereare no chiefs. Such a thing is unknown to them, althougha black of more than average courage may be looked uponwith greater resepct than the rest. They are a communitywhere all are equal + their law is communism;whatever one gets is shared with the others [and then - crossed out]But it is communism regulated by established rulesand restrictions.ALP Cameron

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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6A[Table][Title]The Kurnai Tribe

Column 1 - Clans, row 1(i) Krauat-ŭn-galŭngfrom Kanat = east; galŭng= a possessive [postfix?] = of or belonging to the sea coast from near Cape Everard to the Snowy River, all that river with its tributaries up to about [Willis?]; the sea coast from the Snowy River to the Entrance to the Gippsland Lakes with all streams flowing into Ewings Marsh and [Ru?yers?] -

[Column 1, row 2](2) [Brabralung?] - from Bra-bra manly and (ga)lung = if or belonging to all the [crossed out - country waters of the] drainage areas of the Tambo, Mitchell, and Nicholson Rivers with the [?] tributaries to their extreme sources, also to the weir on the Mitchell River to Providence Ponds, with a corresponding frontage to the Gippsland Lakes.

[Column 1, row 3](3) Bra-yak-(g)alŭng = him Bra = man, yak = west - all the country west of Providence Ponds watered by the Avon, [crossed out - River]] Macalister [crossed out - and] Thompson and Latrobe Rivers down to the junction of these into [?] & thence [?] valley the eastern bank of the Latrobe to Lake Wellington thence - eastward by the [?] to [somewhere?] near [?], thence northward to Providence Ponds.

Column 2 Title - Lesser [?]Row 1 - a) Ben – Sydenham Inletb) Dūra – 12 miles up the Snowy River from the seac) Wūrnŭng-gattung – Lake Tyersd) Brt-bitta (= a hollow in the ground)– Jimmy’s Point – entrance to Gippsland Lakes

Row 2 - (e) Bruthen, in the Tambo River(f) Waiŭng = widgeon - near Bairnsdale in the Mitchell River(g) Wŭk-wŭk = Lindeman Flat. Mitchell River(h) Mŭnji = on the north shore of Lake Victoria= There! or "the place of" e.g. -?(i) Dairgo - on the Dargo River

Row 3(k) Kŭtbūn-baura from Kŭtbūn = to have or carry and baura = fire. The name also of a hill or the upper Avon River.(l) Bŭnjil Nŭlŭng - the country between the Avon River and the Eastern boundary of the clan, south of Stratford - Bŭnjil = personal appelates of the older men-Nŭlŭng = mud. Named after the Head man of the division at the time when Gippsland was settled by the whites -(m) Bunjil-clan - the country between the Avon and the Macalister Rivers. Dan = emu - the name of a Head man -(n) Bunjil-Kraura from Kraura = west wind [Northern?] country of the clan west of [north?] to them almost impenetrable forested scrub in west Gippsland from the name of the Headman.

Column 3 title Wives fromRow 1 a) wives from b c d and Mallagoota Inlet and Twofold Bayb) wives from c a t and [p. 13] Bina-jera (the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland lakes and the sea as far as the Entrance to the Lakesc) Brüthen – on the Tambo River – Waiūng Widgeon – near Bairnsdale Mitchell River and Kŭbbūn laura – Upper Avon Riverd) b and Bina-jera (see b) or is it I = Būnjil Nŭlŭng – between Avon River and eastern boundary of clan south of the Stratford

wives toa) b c d k Twofold Bay Mallagoota Inletb) c e g t Bina-jerac) Bruthen Waiūng Widgeon Kŭbbūn laura and Bina-jerad) b or I and Bina-jera

Last edit 5 months ago by Christine

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Friday morning. While I was sitting with Lamby & Jonny Fidgett talking about the arrangement of 1st scene we heard a distant hail from across the river and then a gunshot. The expected contingent had arrived and we all heard their shouts. Four men soon stood [? ? ?] King Charley, Big Joe, McKay & _______ But the sound was very bright & the [? ?] – our canoe both small an . After mending it, it was decided not practicable to cross the stream and the men started out to send for another - [?] which Old Lamby an expert [??]about with some tea & sugar and part of a damper. As the black with the [? ? ?]

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Considering[?] that I had eaten at breakfast I gave the arrivals most of the damper which I had baked for myself. Charley Blair and I went out but only found a possum & no canoe. The other men came back and at 2 o’clock nothing had been done but cross one of the boys they broughtand two swags. The men over the straits had by this time procured a small canoe and proceeded to render it as serviceable as possible. By __ o’clock all were over, i.e. King Charley, Joe and two boys- the others having remained awaiting[?] at Bairnsdale.

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie

XM270 Muirhead to Howitt 19/3/1908

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Elgin Downs Mar 19th 1908

A.W. Howitt EsqEastwoodBairnsdaleVictoria

Dear Sir,Miss M.E.B. Howitthas written to me on your behalf re: Laws and Customsof Aborigines. I am sorry indeed to read thatyou are so ill and I sincerely trust that beforethis, that you are in good health and strengthagain.

Re Aborigines: Wakelburra and other tribes -in the years gone by and in the days of their strengththe tribes that I have written about, adheredridgily to their laws re wives - but since the aboriginalbecame civilised they got careless and lazy, in factdebased loafers - all tribal laws and customs were [??]and there was not any ristrictions [sic] as to obtaining wives -I first became acquaint [sic] with the Wakelburra andtribes near the Belyando + Suttor + Burdekin Rivers about 1874. Wakelburra at that timenumbered about 250 to 300 people now only about50 wrecks remain. Chiefly Result of Opiumand contact with debased whites + Chinamen. Cowan or Owanburra tribe numberedin 1874 about 100 to 170 souls - to-day only

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

XM145_ICDMS_lowres R Christison to Howitt

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Lammamoor Oct 31stAckd 28/11[?]/85 [?]Alfred Howitt, EsqSale Gippsland Victoria

Dear SirI feel quite ashamed to write to you tis so long ago since I got your last letters. I have been most busy: closing a long partnership, selling some runs, and buying others, that I have had but little time for anything else. Dr Beddoe has gone, I regret to say he would not help me to give you the information you required. I have gone over all your queries today and I fear I cannot answer your questions accurately, of course I have an idea of many of your questions, but I refrain from attempting to answer them as I have my doubts as to their accuracy. However, what is in my power, and you can rely upon its accuracy, lies in the dot tracing I have made on your map, showing the boundary lines of the various tribes in this district, and the names of them.

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The only one I am doubtful of is No. 9 I think it lies more to the eastward towards the Alice and Barcoo. I feel I could answer more of your queries if I met you personally and had some of my most intelligent blacks with us, is there no probability of you coming north? Would you like a water color head of two Daleburra male and female? I shall make another attempt and try if I can give you some more information, especially upon the theme [?] of relationship. The drought is ? very bad, if no rain falls before Feb I fear ruin will fall upon many. Griffith’s Land Billis most damaging to Lessees, and must injure the future advance of Queensland much. I hope to go to Tenterfield N.S. Wales in December to escape the hot months here during the rainy season, if we are ever to have another.

Yours faithfullyR. Christison

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

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Northern Queensland

The Daleburra Tribe

[map]

1. Biryabura 2. Boanbura 3. Dorobura 4. Wakelbura 5. Auanbura 6. Tilbabura 7. Terrabura 8. Yanggiburra 9. Mootobura 10. Kumbukabura 11.Ungunburra 12. Kalkadoona 13.Mullomburra 14. Goa

Note I have roughly marked the localities of a number of tribes of which I know more or less. Please correct [?] and add the boundaries of the Dalleyburra”

Last edit over 1 year ago by J Gibson

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1. The Dalebŭra tribe claimed countryhaving a radius of say fifty milesfrom Lammermoor Head station atthe Thomson River in the MitchellDistrict. In 1865 the numbers of this tribe were about 500.

Index - country 1 - class 2 Betrothed 2 Government 3Offences against tribal law 3. message sticks 4 medicine men 5Burial 6 Bora 7 Food - regulations 8Infanticide 9 - cannibalism 9 gesture language 9Smoke signals 9 Customs of the women 10 Self inflicted [?wounds?] 11. 12Cure for snake bite 12 wild blacks 14 [??] 16[?various?] - 17/18

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-33-6 Brazier to Howitt 28/10/1873

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Mission Station, Condah, Oct.28.1873

My dear Howitt

I have been long in sending you thesefew answers, & even now they are not complete. I will however[??] send you the other list "A" as early as possible. It is quitelikely that some of these answers or names may not be covered, asthe aborigines seem to have forgotten many of their words & theyconstantly use English representations for their naive terms. I putthese questions to a number of blacks all being seated at theirleisure round a table in the dormintory, & having obtained thebest answer available, I set it down. We were two hours in going through the lot, & this time was equally disbanded overtwo sittings. Probably you know how difficult it is to makethese people understand what one means in presenting a question.Sometimes also even when the question was understood, theyhad to think & talk before the right word came. I tell you thisin order that you may see that I have done the best in mypower to make these answers correct, & if you find any difficultyin classifying the, the real cause may be that there is some error.However,I have kept a copy of this & you can refer to any wordby the figures, & so get a little cross questioning done. I am notstudying the language of the blacks, as I cannot use it for [??]& the people are fast forgetting it.

My spare time is mostly devoted to classics & elementafy mathematicswith a view to teaching my children. I wish I had a mapping and drawing facility like yours, for my geography lessons.

Can you tell me (1) Into what lake does the Murray River flow (Victoriaor Alexandria or something else) 2. Is Taylor the butcher using or abusing mypaddock in the gully on your side of the river. I can get no rent. When is thenext county court at Bairnsdale.We are all well, & join in kindest regards to you & Mrs Howitt & children

I remain your faithfullyAmos Brazier

Mr. Howitt Esq. P.M.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-33-7 Howitt to Fison 29/12/1873

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EastwoodBairnsdaleDec 29 1873

My dear FisonI enclose you herewith a pedigreeobtained from one of the only Omeo Blacksnow remaining. I have been long trying tocome across one and only succeeded the other day at the Entrance to the Gippslandlakes. I have subjected it to ananalysis after a mode I have inventedsomewhat similar in form to thegraphic method of delineating chemical formula and find it"work" satisfactorily. I think youwill find it contains some points ofinterest in which it differs fromthe Brabralung system. If thereare any obscure points I shall behappy to enquire among them.I hope before long to obtain

The Revd Lorimer FisonMelbourne

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie
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as well as much [??] surveyabout 54 sqr miles round Bairnsdale.Add to this all my evenings occupiedwith examination of the metal mineral+c of that district and I think you willsee that I am at any rate not oneof those who have spare time to devoteto ethnological imquiry and do not avail themselves of it.

The marks I have made uponMr Braziers document will not Ihope be in your way.

Believe me my dear Mr FisonYours faithfullyA. W. Howitt

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-37-8 Memorandum A Howitt

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Memorandum Aon a list (furnished by A.W.Howitt Esq. of Bairnsdale Gipps Land) of terms of Kinship between a family offour brothers & one sister, together with their respective desendants. Tribe, the Brabrolong , Gipps Land.Diagram of decent ManWife

1.Son 2.Son 3.Son 4.Son 5.Daughter 12. Wife 11. Wife 8. Wife

6. Daughter 9. Son 13. Son 21.Son7. Husband 10. Wife 14. Wife

17 Daughter . 18 Son . 19 Daughter 20 Son. 15 Son 16 Son

Native Term given by Degree of Kinship according to sex ofMr. Howitt the diagram speaker

α 18 calls 2 Waintwin [mettel-crossed out] My father's father Mβ " 11 Nallung " " father's wife Mγ " 1, 3, 4 Waintwin waintwin or Brebba " " " brother "δ " 5 Waintjin [down - crossed out] " " " sister " ε " 6 Mummung " fathers fathers brothers daughter " " [sister - crossed out] "ζ " 7 Barbuck " fathers fathers brothers daughters husband " " sister's husband "η " 8 Brebba nallung [mettel- crossed out] " " father's bro's wife "θ " 14 Brebba yuckun [down- crossed out] father's father's bros. son's wife " : bro's wife "κ " 15 Biamung [down- crossed out] father's father's younger brother's son's son " " " [daughter - crossed out] "λ 1 " 7 Gnarribill[a- crossed out] * " daughter's husband "μ 2,3,4,5 call 7 " * " bro's daughter's husband M + Fν 7 calls 12 Qua-a-bund[a-crossed out] * " wife's mother Mξ " 8 & 11 " * " wife's father's bro's wife Note. Terms marked * are reciprocal

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Memorandum Aon a list (furnished by A.W. Howitt Esq. of Bairnsdale Gipps Land) of terms of kinship between a family of four brothers and one sister, together with their respectivedescendants. Tribe, the Brabrolong, Gipps Land.

Diagram of descent.

ManWife\1. Son 2. Son 3. Son 4. Son 5. Daughter12. Wife 11.Wife 8. Wife\ \ \(6. Daughter) 9. Son 13. Son 21 Son7. Husband 10. Wife 14. Wife\ \17. Daughter, 18. Son, 19 Daughter 20 Son 15 Son 16 Son

Native Terms given by Degree of Kinship according to Sex ofMr Howitt the diagram Speaker

α 18 calls 2 Waintuwin [mattel - crossed out] My father's father Mβ 18 calls 11 Nallung My father's father's wife Mγ 18 calls 1,3,4 Waintuwin Waintwin or Brebba My father's father's brothers Mδ 18 calls 5 Waintjun [down - crossed out] My father's father's sister Mέ 18 calls 6 Mummung My father father brother's daughter Mζ 18 calls 7 Barbuck My father father's brother daughter's husband sister's husband Mη 18 calls 8 Brebba nallung [mettel - crossed out] My father father brother's wife Mθ 18 calls 14 Brebba yuckun [down - crossed out] My father father brother's son's wife bro's wife Mκ 18 calls 15 Bramung [down - crossed out] father's father's younger brother's son's son [daughter- crossed out] Mλ 1 calls 7 Gnarribill * My daughter's husband Mμ 2,3,4,5 call 7 " * My brother's daughter's husband M&Fν 7 calls 12 Qau - a- bund * My wife's mother Mξ 7 calls 8 & 11 Qua - a- bund * My wife's father's bro's wife

Note. Terms marked * are reciprocal

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

hw0211 Unsigned letter to Howitt 21 January 1884

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commencement of Sturts Stoney Desert and being an inhospitablehot piece of country it is - after the last 3 weeks, I can quiteappreciate Sturt's account ofit - for 20 days after Christmasthe average maximum temperaturewas 112° - it was twice 116° andonce 120° so it is anything but aParadise in are living in.

The Winter weather here is mostenjoyable. I envy you your cool Gipps Land summerss and pleasant Lake scenery ofwhich my son who lives at Bairnsdalegives me glowing accounts.

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie

hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages

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4The Kurnai

The JeraeilToolaba's first recollection of a Jeraeil was one heldat where Mr [?Bill?] lives on Reeves River beyond Shaving Point.He was there about [twelve - crossed out] ten years old and his elder brotherBarry was made [?Toutwurring?]. There were so many boysthat the row as they were laid on the ground extended from aobut [?twenty?] paces long. Lanky was made a young man then.

The next was at [?Bringjerra or Bringena?] and at that a great number of people attended. The white men hadjust settled in Gippsland at that time. Toolabawas then about fifteen or sixteen. At the Jer reila whole lot of girls eloped - among others [?Tomy?] [?Hoddinch?]Mary + her two sisters; according to Toolaba theremust have been a dozen of elopements of youngpeople. He says this was because the oldpeople would not give their consent to any of thegirls being married.

The next Jeraeil was at Bairnsdale about thetime that "night came about dinner time". -After that there was another at B'dale wherethe township now is - only Macleod + Joneslived at the Mitchell then.

After that there was a large Jeraeil at Bushy Parkand then no more until ours at [?Wenail?]

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18As to the Kŭrnaiper Jimmy Scotta Būnjil Nellŭng Braiaka

HeadmenThe greatest man among all the Kŭrnaiwas Old Morgan - he was a gner-a-ale [(or) el -written above ale] Kŭrnaior a Yirakel Kŭrnai. Morgan was the oldest;Bruthen Mŭnji was next and nextto him was Ke-ŭng. The latter was ofthe [?Talūnjoling?] - the father of Billy Clark.

Among the Biraarka the greatest wasHarry Stevens' father Mūnjerū of Bruthen.(Mūndanŭn Tūlaba says)

Jeraail or Jer-a-elThe Jeraail at which I was made young man, was held justupon the rising ground beyond the little morasson the Lucknow side of the river. Just on therise of the road. It was advice to be held by Bruthen Mŭnji and Keŭng and itwas they and their Kŭrnai who got theground ready. Bruthen Mŭnji had sentLewin (news) by a Bai-aurn (messenger).When we arrived at where Bairnsdale is andcould see across the river, Old Morganwas walking first with his jagged spear and murrinŭn in his hand and his bundle athis back - all of us men and boys were walkinga little behind him, and behind us the women.As soon as he got to the brow of the riseOld Morgan stopped, all the women then spread out in a long line sate downand beat the possum rugs. You could hear it almost to Lindenow. Then the women at the camp over the river answeredthem by beating on their rugs. Then weall crossed. We all camped together.For several days there were games and hunting. Then the Jeraailwas formed. It was made of boughs

[written in left side margin]Jeraeil? if the a soundhave an ee sound (short)after it ē ǐ=ai in aid.

The Bai-aurncarried a Jagged spear(Boron) having supended [sic] to the pointa Kaiŭng (mans belt) and a BuddaBudda of Kangaroo Ratskin (ngallūn)

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(Billy Wambat -2)32

Set fightIn fights people used to send Lewin.At Nibbor I had to stand out to a lotof men about running away with a woman.They sent one Lewin to Bairnsdale andI went to Nibbor. Bŭnha and the old men then saidwhat they were to do about throwingboomerangs and spears at me, [and - crossed out][Bunha stopped the fight - crossed out][At this place (Lake Tyers) - crossed out] I [have- crossed out] hadto stand out to a lot of men (describedhere a row of men about two chains long)who were throwing boomerangs at me which I hadto stop with my shield and dodge as well as I could.Dally ran between and stopped this.He said that I had already fought with him and thatit was enough.

Expiatory CeremonyI remember when a little boy that when theWira came (Aurora [?australis?]) the people were very frightened and used to swapwives to keep themselves from beingburned up. Some of the women did notlike this because there were too many menfor them. The fathers and own brothers werenot permitted to exercise this as to their daughtersand own sisters.

ConstellationsThe southern cross is calledBŭmbra. King Tom was called after this,Old Lanky (Bŭmbra) never was so skilfulas his brother but he could fight well. Heis too old now to fight and is not much listenedto by the others.

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59Australian Aborigines

Maneroo BlacksBurialWhen a burial was concluded they moved campacross some river.

StormsKilling a crow brought stormy weather.

Kurnai languageThe Krauatun [Tatung, and – crossed out] speak Mŭkthang;the Braiaka, Brataŭa and Tatunga speakNūlart. per King CharleyPūtchi-māl = come here!The Flag root is dūrūk and the cabbage tree istabbár – per King Charley

Borun = jagspear, waal or ganŭt = reed spearMurriwŭn = throwing stick, Bamarŭk = shield spearTŭrnmŭng = waddy, spear, [shield? – written above spear], Tundiwŭng = [diagram]Kŭnnin = [diagram], Kallŭk = [diagram]per Big Joe

Tūmŭng = mountain messmateRiver white gum at B’dale = gūra-binnakor daubal-daubal (white) binnakIronbark = Yírik

Billy Woods’ Nakŭn was Bunjil Dauangŭnand Bunjil Barn was his elder Brother

Blápan-wŭrt-mokogo all of us there

Let us all go there.Ngarūgal mūndū bŭrrang mokocrow there flying thereThere is a crow flying

[written along right side margin at bottom of page]mundu [?indintē?]the bird moko [?indintē?]the place

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0397 Bulmer to Howitt 12/April/1899

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[Diagram family relationships]

Bruthen Munjie Brother Bimbing gilwife Bret-thalo wife not known by present blacks

Dead 1st Yallung 2nd Mary Dookalunern
Annie Harry Stephens
died Bridget or Budgel
Lataba
1st Wife unknown
Kangaroo Jack
Jinny Wombat Polly
Old Kangaroo Jack
Joe died
Dinah Coranderrk husband Willie JohsonNew Kong Snowy RiverManero

The wives of the various members of the family were from the following places Bruthen Munjie's were from Lakes Entrance Tuleba's from same place Tuleba's 2nd wife from Bairnsdale. Dookalanern and Yallung were true sisters.

[written on the right hand side of the diagram] The relationship between Kangaroo ack and Tuleba arose from the fact that Tuleba's first wife Yallung was companion wife to a man called Birrarark who also had Mary who was K Jacks Mother. Mary wasafterwards married to OldLamby

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie

hw0410 Frank James to Howitt 6/2/1876

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watershed.(eastern side river only) from Little Plain River (N. S. W.) to the Coast in Victoria. He alsostates that the only prohibited marriages he is aware of are with the children of thefather's or mother's sister or brother - i. e. first cousins. The wife is considered, aftermarriage, to belong to the husbands tribe and the same of the offspring.

Informant could not give the meaning of the names of the tribe - "Māap" and"Māapkoolong", and that totems and class names are not used in the tribe.

Senr Constable James may state that he regrets that the inform-ation he has been able to supply in the foregoing has been so long delayedand is so meagre, but will endeavour to obtain and forward fuller on thereturn to the district of a number of the Māap tribe who are absent onharvesting work + have been on shearing trips. The Senr Const's informant(Jemmy Lawson) is not very intelligent, altho' he speaks good English. Thefact is he smokes too much Opium and has been so long with the whitesthat the Senr Const fears he really knows little about his own tribe ortheir language or customs. The Senr Const saw + questioned informant's mother(Loah) and his sister (Māak) but could get nothing out of them, they sentJemmy Lawson as better informed than themselves.F. James, Senior Constable of PoliceBendock, 6th February 1876

ToA. W. Howitt Esqr P.M.Bairnsdale

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0437 W.T. Dawson and H.W. Pettit Gippsland place names and vocal

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5.[MITCHELL RIVER- crossed out]Merrindal - a large mountain on the Maneroo RoadMerrindal-mungie - a small river running from Maneroo RoadBoulong-dirra - Dargo Station, MackintoshTail-waddy - Mount EwingToorn-dung - Pretty Boy MountTulloo-bowie - Yellowman's nobRecamermetta - Cobbler's CreekBooloongwall - Mt. TaylorBullumwaal - two spears: Mt Taylor Mt Lookout (AWH)Tooculerdoyung - Point on RiverBerpercutty - Callaghan's SwampToon-toon - Creek from McLeod's MorassBunk-un-wal - mouth of Lguana CreekDoogooree - GlenaladaleCurl-wun - Bluff at Mt TaylorNibber - LucknowWyong (duck) - BairnsdaleNarran (Eagle) - Eagle Point

PERSONALTRIBAL NAMESBraberwollong – Mitchell River and Bruthen BlacksDulungalong} – Lakes Blacks Tatungolong}Crow-widgingolong – Snowy River BlacksBradolong – Buckley’s BlacksBriagolong – Macmillan’s Blacks

RELATIONSHIPCunni, Kanni, Gooni, Kurnai - Black manBullaru (O) - Black womanWermberooket - Black womanJerribung (O), Bourdan, Bourdi - old manBullurn-machu - old ginMilung (O) very old ginTallu-bordine - little old manTallu-murt, Talla-mart - young masterWarrumbull (O) young fellowCoungulla (O) Coungulla - wild blackfellow

[written in left side margin]BuchanMitchellRiver

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0187 Cameron to Howitt 30/05/1880

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CanobleMossgielNS Wales May 30th30/5/80see ans to letterfrom [?Miss dale?]

AW Howitt EsqSale Gipsland [sic]Victoria

Dear SirI am in receipt of yourletter and one from Mr[?Burrutt?] of [??] enclosing your letter to himand asking me to give youany information in my power.This I will gladly do as I havelong thought in view of therapid decay of this raceit is important that allthe information possibleshould be collected at once. From time to timeI have written letters onthe subject, and if I remember

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0246 Christison to Howitt 30/01/1887

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Tenterfield Jan 30th 1887

Dear Mr Howitt

I have received yours of the 11th inst. Re [underlined] your question. The custom of the Dalebura tribe was, before our civilizing effects? [was - crossed out] that upon the death of a husband, his widow was by custom and the rules of the tribe handed over to the deceased's eldest brother,not necessarily as a wife, but to place in his care the family, so that the power of managing the tribal customs of the tribe; for instance, any nieces were under his care and his duty was to see that, if affianced by his late Brother to others, he was as it were empowered to act as Executor. If the girls were not affianced then he was empowered to arrange matrimonial alliances for them. Also on the male side Nephews, (if any) would be protected by him. The primary cause of such an arrangement, looking at it impartially, is no doubt manifold. The brother becomes more consequential, and he becomes possessed of another hand to provide the daily necessary food. And altho the survivor may not desire an additional wife, she and her family join his family circle and obtain his advice and protection. He acts as his brother's Executor, and doubtless the deceased, while living enjoys the same satisfaction, as you or I would, knowing that the will which we executed would be carried out by those we had appointed. This information is obtained from our intelligent woman here, when I get back to the tribe, if I find there are reasons to

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-33-3 Howitt to Fison 15/5/1873

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EastwoodBairnsdaleMay 15 1873

Lorimer Fison EsqrBurwood roadHawthornMelbourne

Dear Sir

In accordance with the wishexpressed in your letter in "Australasian"of last week I forward to youover leaf the native words for thelist of terms given by you so faras I am able to procure them.

They are in the language used by the Aboriginal natives of that partof north Gippsland comprisingthe Mitchell, Nicholson and Tambo rivers and the Lakes

I am Dear SirYours very trulyA. W. Howitt

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-33-4 Howitt to Fison 7/6/1873

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EastwoodBairnsdaleJune 7th 1873

My dear Sir,On returning home today I have found yourtwo letters with [??]; as I shall bevery busy on Monday and leave home againon duty on Tuesday I have thought it bestto look through your memoranda at once in order that there may be no delay.

I have gone through the memoranda andhave made notes therein which will I think explain themselves. I have inall cases (I believe) struck out the pers. pro.and ascribed the noun. The various waysin which the pers. pro is written arises thusthat I have as nearly as possible endeavouredto write down the word as spoken and I find the pronunciation very variable andthe pers. pro. seems also arbitrarily used.

Revd Lorimer FisonMelbourne

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-33-5 Howitt to Fison 7/7/1873

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No 14 Appa +} EastwoodOwie BairnsdaleJuly 7 1873

The Revd Lorimer FisonMelbourne

My dear SirIn case you may not have sentoff your letter to Mr Homan I maymention a few facts which possibly maybe of interest in connection with your enquiriesamong the blacks of his district.

The Dieri - or "Deary"which to my mindmore fully expresses the sound of the word arethe Aborigines who live in the freshwater lakeswith which the floodwaters of Coopers Creek flowand also above the borders of the chain ofsalt lakes, known as the Lake Torrens basin.Their principal resort is at Lake Hopethe Bando pinna or Great Lake.You will probably recognize the word pinnain the name for old man or father "pinnaroo". On the lower part of Strelezki's creek [sic] and the salt lakesnear it are the "Tinga-tingana"natives.

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie
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