Howitt and Fison Papers

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The Kurnai tribe also affords good instances of the manner inwhich kindred avenged the killing of one of their members, and howtherby a blood feud, ramifying on all sides may arise, finally involving not only the whole tribe but also neighbouring ones.

Such a blood feud arose usually out of homicide eitherby violence or the supposed affects of eviul magic. I carefully traced outone case of this taking frim its commencement to its end in a battle betweeenthe Kurnai clans about the year 1856-7.

When the Gippsland and Omeo natives had come better aquaintencewith eachother through the white settler, and this had becomemore or less friendly to each other, one of the Theddora men named BillyBlew obtained a Braiaka woman for his wife. When on a visit to hiswifes people he illused her and in consequence her father Kaiung foughtwith and speared him. Billy Blew's kin in return came down from the moun-taines and killed Kaiung, together with a Braiaka, they were assistedin doing this by another Braiaka called Lohni, the brother of Budawal, mentioned elsewhere. (p ). In revenge for this a man of the Dairgo (?) of the (?) clan, the sisterson of Kaiungs wife killed a man called Johnny Flanner (p ). the brother of Gliun-kong (p ), he and other relations of Johnny, finding his skin hanging in a tree at Aitkin's Straits, at the Gippsland Lakes, followed Dairgo Johnnyand killed him at Brin vale on Merriman's Creek in South Gippsland.

At this point I take up the account given of this feud as toldby Bunda-wal, which continues this history to its end. I give his account asI toook it down during his narrative to me. "I had two wives, bothfrom Brt-britta (p ), One of these had been married to the man who killedmy brother Johnny at Aitkin's Straits. I then collected asll the men fromBruthen, Wy-yung. and from Binnijeri (p ), for all my own men had died orbeen killed, so that there were only boys left. But these others were likemy own people. We all sneaked round to Merriman's Creek where we found

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a Dairgo man, and Flannae speared him.. We let him lie there and did noteat his skin because he was a Kurnai man like ourselves. (p ). As he wasa friend of the Braiaka we went up to the Heart)I), to look for them. Wefound anumber of Dairgo, Braiaka, and Brataua there and we found them,but we were beaten because they had guns as well as spears, and werehelped by two black police, and one police trooper. We ran away and leftevery thing behind us, our blankets and clothes taking only ou spearswith us. We had left our women near the Lakes Entrance at Metung,where the wild dog turned the Kurnai into stone. Our enemies and the policefollowed us up as far as Lake Tyers, but they could not cross and so weescaped. For a long time we were quiet, but at last we went up to Manerooto get the Brajerak (p ), to come down and help us. By this time the whitemen had brought so many Brajerak from Maneroo , and Omeo. with theminto Gippsland, that we and they had become friendly. So we got the Maneroomen to promise to help us and with them went round the mountains intoOmeo. There we got Nukong (p ), also to help us, and we left our women there,Nukong sent lewin (messengers), to the men at Ovens River and Mt.Buffaloeto send help, and it was arranged that we should meet them at Kut-bun-taura (p ), that is Bushy Park station. Then we went down by way ofDairgo but found no one there. At Bushy Park the men from the Ovens Riverand Mt.Buffaloe]] met us. We had gone there to get some food and to see someof the Brabralung from Wuk-Wuk (p ), who were living there pretending tobe friendly with the Braiakalung and the Dairgo men. There could not havebeen less than tweo hundred of us, at least the white men there so counted us

(I) The name of a stsation property near Sale, where when first occupied,the shape of a heart was found cut in the ground.(2) The Kurnai had a belief that the Dingo sometimes speaks in theirlanguage, and that any one hearing this is turned into stone. The narratorrefers to a belief that at Metung, a camp of Kurnai were literally petri-fied by having one of their tamed Dingos say "you are eating fish andhave not given me any". A Kurnai man once told me that when a boy, hewas out hunting with his father, and heard one word "bring", that is bone, when he and his fatherboth ran off as fast as they could, and this aved their lives.(3). Brajerak see p(4) Nukong see p(5) Wuk-Wuk see p

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so. From that place we went round the country looking for our enemies.We sent out four spies in the day time, while the main body lay concelaedin the scrub and only travelled by night. Sometimes I was one of the spiessometimes Tankewillin (p ), was one of them. We went all over the countryeven down to the Tarra, but could not meet our enemies. At length we pre-tenede to be friends and returned to Mitchell River. We waited a whileand then sent to the Snowy River men who came to us. But the blackfellowsfrom Maneroond the Ovens returned home, and only a few of the Omeo menremained to help us.

While this was going on the Dairgo and Braiaka men had sentlewin to me saying that we would fight and then be friends. it was deci-ded by the Dairgo old men, that the fight should take place nearDeightonat aplace called Yau-un-dit. We met them and fought but no one was kill-ed. They were too strong for us and ran us back to the Mitchell River.We now waited again for some time till one of the Brataualung brought us amessage from the Headman at Dairgo that we should be friends. it was their custom to do this bysending a spear jagged with quartz asa token. The one he sent by Charley Buchanan was jagged with glass. We saidamong ourselves "we will pretend to be friends and wait till bye and bye.The spear was passed on by way of Bruthen, and sent up to Omeo and so round and back to Dairgo. Then we all gathered, but the Snowy River menwould not come, for they were frightened, two of their men had been spear-ed.

Bruthen-munji (p ), told us "we must send a message to theDairgo men where to meet us, but we must be quick and get to BushyPark"We had with us Omeo men, with their Headman Nukong. Our Headman wasBruthen-munji.

(I) A Brabralung native from the Wuk-Wuk division of that clan.(2) Sometimes one of the skin aprons worn by the men was sent round inthis manner as a token, hung at the point of the spear.

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Thus [crossed out - The Omeo tribe] on the Gippsland side one branch of the Baiaka clan, the subdivision named K?????-??? or fire carriers? whose headquarters were on the Avon River in the? foothills bordering the plain, during the autumn time ascended the spur of Mt Wellington where at a height of 5000 ft the reached the southern edge of [crossed out - the] a plateau now called the Snowy Plains, which excluded northward between the deep valley of the Macalister and Wonangatta Rivers a distance of _____ miles with? ???? Range.

Similarly from the oppposite side the tribe which occupied the valley of the [these crossed out - Upper Ovens River and its tributary] the Buffalo River ascended during the summer, [crossed out ???] the ??? ??? Plateau called the Buffalo Mountain, [crossed out - or the] and was therefore the distant? ???? neighbour of the? Braiaka [crossed out beneath - former the ???? tableland now known as the Dargo High Plains.]

Beyond [these - crossed out] and still following the Great Dividing Range to [the - crossed out] north Eastward lies the vast tableland out of which at successive elevations rise the sources of the Mitta MittaRiver, known now as the Bogong Highlands, and Omeo.

Here lived formerly a mountain tribe which was divided into two great local groups. One was the Theddora Mittŭng (1)occupying the [Cobungra - crossed out] the Mitta Mitta River at its tributaries [from - crossed out] upwards from about the Gibbo mountain, the Upper Kiewa River and the Ovens River above the Buffalo Mountain, thus being the neighbour of a number of lowland tribes in the northern half of the Dividing Range, among which was the Buffalo tribe which was claimed by my Woeworung informant as [the outlying member of the - crossed out] belonging to those who had the ‘names’ (classes) Bunjil and Wang (1)

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hw0150 Notes on the Guyangal and Kurial

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5This however requires further enquiry for Ienbin's mother was a Braiakawoman of Gippsland or rather to speak more accurately a Lanayak whoseclan name would have necessarily beenSuperb Warbler (Djédjun) and [crossed out - not] could not havebeen Eaglehawk (Mūnyūngar) as [crossed out - of] herdaughters are said to have been.

This woman is said by Ienbin tohave been taken from Gippsland whenonly about 13 years of age to Twofold Bayby the Kroatūn Kŭrnai to whom KingCharly belonged. To have been there givenas a wife to a man of that place,from whom she was taken by Ienbin'sfather by eloping with her on boarda whaler which set sail that night.Her name was Lijū-ūit.

[crossed out - The] A totemic names [sic] [crossed out - are] is said by Ienbin not to beso much "a name as like to a Jo-e-a". This will come out more clearly from the following stements [sic]and also those which are made subsequentlywhen speaking of the ceremonies of the Būnan."The Yūin have personal names [crossed out - belonging to them]given to them as children. These are used inspeaking to each other as "Ienbin come here" or "Igave it to Mebrin". The terms of relationship couldalso be used as "Brother give me that" or "Auntcome here". The animal name would never beused for very few people know what yours is.Waddiman gave me my Kangaroo name atthe Būnan. I did not know it before. Any onemight have told me my father or [crossed out - any men] my motherbut my father died six months before the Būnan.

[written in left side margin]Ienbin now saysthis woman was the motherof his "mate" - and that his ownmother came from Braidwood

?Mebrin

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hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages

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12Yenjin - or in the Nūlit (Braiaka) language Yennin

There were men called Bunjil Yenjin whose business itwas to bring about any particular elopement. For instancewhere a young man wanted a wife and fixed his mindupon some particular girl he employed the BunjilYenji to whom he gave a rug, spears +c. This man then lay on the ground, the youth went to him andnext all his comrades. The Bunjil Yenjin thensang his song accompanied by the young men.This might be in the camp - in fact usually was, for it was it seems essential that somefriends of the girl say her female cousin should carryto her the news of what was going on. Indeed everyone knew what was being done and the name of the girl. Such a song is the following:-Bára bŭrni [molla - crossed out] wangūr mollaRoll up the twine [a little way off - crossed out] (Jaw) the woman's name / down there (over there)

Tállo bŭrni tallo KáraganThe little twine little sweetheart

ngellagálli KárnangI go ahead the hollow (in the ground)gōla yinnabefore you.

Where the Bunjil Yenjin considers that hissong has been sung long enough he tellsthe youth - "that will do". But before thisa further incantation takes place.The Bunjil [?Dauangŭn?] is called on,and he's paid by rug, [blan- crossed out] spears +c

Last edit 18 days ago by Stephen Morey
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18As to the Kŭrnaiper Jimmy Scotta Būnjil Nellŭng Braiaka

HeadmenThe greatest man among all the Kŭrnaiwas Old Morgan - he was a gner-a-ale [(or) el -written above ale] Kŭrnaior a Yirakel Kŭrnai. Morgan was the oldest;Bruthen Mŭnji was next and nextto him was Ke-ŭng. The latter was ofthe [?Talūnjoling?] - the father of Billy Clark.

Among the Biraarka the greatest wasHarry Stevens' father Mūnjerū of Bruthen.(Mūndanŭn Tūlaba says)

Jeraail or Jer-a-elThe Jeraail at which I was made young man, was held justupon the rising ground beyond the little morasson the Lucknow side of the river. Just on therise of the road. It was advice to be held by Bruthen Mŭnji and Keŭng and itwas they and their Kŭrnai who got theground ready. Bruthen Mŭnji had sentLewin (news) by a Bai-aurn (messenger).When we arrived at where Bairnsdale is andcould see across the river, Old Morganwas walking first with his jagged spear and murrinŭn in his hand and his bundle athis back - all of us men and boys were walkinga little behind him, and behind us the women.As soon as he got to the brow of the riseOld Morgan stopped, all the women then spread out in a long line sate downand beat the possum rugs. You could hear it almost to Lindenow. Then the women at the camp over the river answeredthem by beating on their rugs. Then weall crossed. We all camped together.For several days there were games and hunting. Then the Jeraailwas formed. It was made of boughs

[written in left side margin]Jeraeil? if the a soundhave an ee sound (short)after it ē ǐ=ai in aid.

The Bai-aurncarried a Jagged spear(Boron) having supended [sic] to the pointa Kaiŭng (mans belt) and a BuddaBudda of Kangaroo Ratskin (ngallūn)

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25KurnaiBilly Wood a Kŭtbŭntaura= Braiaka

The human spiritEach person has a Yambo inside him whichcan go out when he sleeps and walk aboutand go up to the sky and see his fatherand mother.But animals have no Yambo.

Kangaroos in dreamsYet in dreams Kangaroos, & Emus can givewarning. For instance if a man in a dreamsaw a number of kangaroos sitting round himhe would know that some Kŭrnai or someBrajerak were coming after him to kill him.

The Mina bird warningThe "Miner" [a Minah = Millphega ganula - written above Miner] (a bird) gives warning to the Kangaroosof danger and it also warns the Kŭrnaito look out for themselves. It is callednŭna-wŭn

The story of BaukanOnce Baŭkan and her son Būlūmdūt livedon the earth near [Prospect - crossed out] Port Albert.While Būlūmdūt was out hunting KangaroosBaŭkan went out to where a lot of black womenwere catching little fish with their nets "Law-ŭn"As they caught them they put them in their bags andgave Baukan none. Then Baŭkan continued to ask for some fish the women gave her somemud. Then Baukan went home and lookingin Būlūmdūt's bag found some Kangaroo eyeswhich she took. When Būlūmdūt returnednot having been able to kill any game he found hisKangaroo eyes gone. He said "who has been to my bag"Baukan said "I did - those women would notgive me any fish" Then Būlūmdūt said "allright we will not stay down here any more.

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41Kurnai

Rain makersThere were old men who were called"Bunjil Willŭng" who could make raincome. They obtained their powers in dreams.To produce rain one of them went down intoa water hole and filling his mouthsquirted in that direction which wasappropriate to his tribe. He then "sang [his - crossed out][so- crossed out] the rain". Braiaka squirted waterand sang towards the West the Krauŭn,the Brataua towards the west also, theTatūngalŭng towards the South - the sea,the Brabra and the Krauatun to the Belling - the South East wind.From these quarters their several rainscame. When for instance a nearby raincame to the BraBra - it was the Braiakawho sent it and so on. -The same "Bunjil Willŭng" could bring thunder.

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59Australian Aborigines

Maneroo BlacksBurialWhen a burial was concluded they moved campacross some river.

StormsKilling a crow brought stormy weather.

Kurnai languageThe Krauatun [Tatung, and – crossed out] speak Mŭkthang;the Braiaka, Brataŭa and Tatunga speakNūlart. per King CharleyPūtchi-māl = come here!The Flag root is dūrūk and the cabbage tree istabbár – per King Charley

Borun = jagspear, waal or ganŭt = reed spearMurriwŭn = throwing stick, Bamarŭk = shield spearTŭrnmŭng = waddy, spear, [shield? – written above spear], Tundiwŭng = [diagram]Kŭnnin = [diagram], Kallŭk = [diagram]per Big Joe

Tūmŭng = mountain messmateRiver white gum at B’dale = gūra-binnakor daubal-daubal (white) binnakIronbark = Yírik

Billy Woods’ Nakŭn was Bunjil Dauangŭnand Bunjil Barn was his elder Brother

Blápan-wŭrt-mokogo all of us there

Let us all go there.Ngarūgal mūndū bŭrrang mokocrow there flying thereThere is a crow flying

[written along right side margin at bottom of page]mundu [?indintē?]the bird moko [?indintē?]the place

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64Bobby Coleman (Kūlŭtba)I was born at Brt-gŭtta, just over there at theHill Top. My father’s name was Kūlŭtbafrom Bellum Bellum, that is McNaughtensStraits. “Old Morgan” was my Babŭk. I thinkBellum is the name of a small fish. Mymother was a Brabra from nearMūnji not far from Butlers. I am aBrataua – belonging to the Yonŭng – Iam almost half Briaka. My fatherbelonged [the – crossed out] to the same mob as JemmyFidgett – that is Yonŭng. Tommy Hoddinotalso belonged to Yonŭng. The Yonŭng are realBrataua. My country goes down the LatrobeRiver from the bridge. Up the river belonged to the Briaka. I have heard of NollumNollum – I think it is up near the Tanjil.The Brataua had three mobs, Yonŭng atWarrigal creek, Delin at Buckleys, and Kŭtwŭt which is the first river at the [end – crossed out]other side the open country going to the diggingsat Sticky aid creek. The river is in a deepgully and [has – crossed out] there is an island before when itcomes out. The Tarra belonged to Yonŭng.A place called Yonŭng [?Gatti?] belonged to Delin. It is what is now called Tuckerpoint.Yonung get wives from Delin, Bunjil KrauraRamayŭk, [?Kŭtbrŭitaura?]. Delin got wivesfrom Bunjil Kraura, Baul Baul.Kūbwŭt from Yonung gatty, Bunjil Nellung. I know this because I remember women who came from these places.

[written in left side margin, next to line about Sticky aid creek]Agnes River

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65The Briakalūng up the Glengarry fromthis “[?telbut?] wŭntwŭn” were BunjilKraura – he was the father of BillyWood’s wife. He lived up at the countrybetween Morwell, Rosedale, Toongabbie.The [moor- crossed out] mūrmŭng and wŭk wŭkKŭrnai were I think the same.I do not remember any Kŭrnai called Kjatbŭn – Njalbŭn means“none” or “no one” in our language.

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68Krauatun KurnaiThe Krauatun speak a languagevery near to the mŭk-thāngThe Braiaka, Brataua and Tatungspeak Nūlart.The Cabbage tree tabbár andthe flag root – dūrūk were usedfor food, baked and eaten; King Charleysays that the tabbár was very likethe head of the ferntree- gárūk-i.e. of that one which has smallhooklets on the under side of themidrib of the frond.The root of the “convolvulus sepium”- ngūrŭng – was eaten.

King Charley says that the [?Oluade?] were called“Laúeri” = the women but that theother stars only were “Brīl” = stars.

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83Billy Wood - a Braiaka of Kŭtbuntaura

Heyfield = Kluiŭng-wŭrŭk - Kluiŭng=coughYau-ŭn = Acacia MelanoxylonEdible Wit-chun = An orchid (-look up sample)Edible Mlang = "yam" (look up sample)Edible Gūl Kan or Gūng Kan = an Edible fernor [Gūl Kong - crossed out] Gūn Kan - ?Davallia[Water - crossed out] Tára-wŭn= water cycadBálat = Exocarpus capressiformisTartīn = Blue egretMelli = CassiniaTali-yai ŭng = morass [?curk?]Katakátak - E. obliquaMatingára = Yau-ŭt = E. SieberianaKŭrambrŭk = Leptospermum at Morass Ck.Tūmŭng = E. capitellataBinak = E. viminalis, E. gunii, E. stuartianaGew-ŭn = Pteris aquilinaLau a beri = Putty colored snake (?name)Tūnyarūk = Black snakeThūrūng = Brown snake[Gai- crossed out] Ge-lŭngNgiabŭn = Tiger snakeBŭtki-wótŭn = the Paps of DuraNigathorūk = Mt Wellington[Willandūk - crossed out] Welwendūk = Ben CruachanKára-Ke-ŭn = Tomahawk of porphyriteor [?ptrnie?] of dusk colorGweŭn = Tomahawk of light color stone[These - crossed out] The stone for these was foundin the shingle of the Avon River + Ben CruachanCk in the Up Devonian area being fragmentsof prophyrite worn flat by the river action.

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hw0436 Notes by Howitt on Omeo 'tribe' and letter from Bulmer

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Notes 30/9/81 - Burial of [?Junorn?]curryjong tree - Poondin (Ngarego)Honeysuckle - Tarra - Gippsland

Tŭndūn made with tea tree wood [?Brt?] and stringngūrū.

Omeo [plains - crossed out] tribe - on plainsMetoko Head medicine manCockey Head Doctor Gibber = Joëa There were not more than 100 people in the tribeMŭk-than = thin speechMūk-Krauetan-thannūlet - Ralbutnūlet - Braiakamūk-than - Tatūng and Dairgonotes on the Omeo tribe - by Jenny Cooperbefore Dec 21 in book commencing Nov. 1881

Tharang-Kawai- Snowy Rivernūlet - Braiaka-Bratauamŭkthang - Brabra-Tatung-Raymond IslandBack water - Kau-ŭngEastwood Tūt-wŭrkMerriman's Sea song - note bookMay 17-1883East- Bo- móin- also naua-or Kraui - North = Woorunina - west=GūyaSouth = meringámTall boy name is Būnyūan = a Lagoon at Bega - totem Tiska = small owl20/5/83 Charley Brūpin - ngarrigan = BatMerriman - Ūmbara = black duckHarry Cook - Jarūat = an owl; name is ngangal

10/6/83In Wiradjuri - exchange of wives - whose sisteris called gŭn-gŭn-mur Bidga-bidga= old manJīr=ghost

[written in left side margin]Ngal-al-balDaramulun's wife

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hw0391 Notes by Howitt on Kulin from Barak

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Called by Braika and Bratra Wea-wuk the Bad countryThe Bad country called by the Woerwurung language Marine Bek-Bek country the flush of game men Marine-qui-alp? (ji-ak of Kunan .The native men Marine barn (yarn of Kamai)

All the country between the Yarra River[from about Lilyd - crossed out] up as far as Gardner Ck - then by Gardner Ck up to Dandenong then by source of Dandenong Ck +c+c up to Latrobe River; thence by right bank of Latrobe to Lake then by Lake to Lakes Entrancethen by sea coast to mouth of Murraywas called “the bad country” ------------It included the Westernport blacks – the Bratawalung the Talungalang (called by Tommy Hoddenot Katungal)This country was regarded as very injurious to strangers. If a strange black came onto it on a visit it was necessary that he should have some one to “look after him”. It was necessary during this first visit that he should never be left alone without some one to see to him; if his guardian went hunting or fishing he deputed some one in his stead. The visitor was fed with [m - crossed out] food from the point of a stick [which - crossed out] and he took it in his teeth and not in his hands; this food of meat was smoked; water that he drank was stirred with a smoked stick; he was not allowed to sit or sleep on the ground except in a raised couch of branches and leaves which were also well smoked, to keep off the evil influence of the country. [This is - crossed out] The care of the visitor extended even to his being asleep and in calls of nature.

[written at top of page]called by [the - crossed out] Braiaka & BrahaWea-wŭk

called in the Woé-wūrŭng languagemárine Bek – (Bek = country)the flesh of game was márine-quiap (ji-ak of [Kulin - crossed out] Kurnai )the water was márine barn (yam of [Kulin - crossed out] Kurnai)

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

tip70-10-33-24 Howitt to Fison 18 March 1879

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3remarks out again it seems to me however that you intend to say that you hadoverlooked the ghastly description - had referred to the manuscript - and found it there.If so this is all right.8 Please to correct the explanaiton of Briakalung - in thinking it over it flashed uponme that this is the truth. The derivation is Bra=man Yak = west, ie men of the west and pronounced strictly it would be Brai yaka lūng which is the nearestapproach to the true sound of the word. I shall draw Morgan's attention to this.9 Very many thanks for your index - I adopt the idea with thanks. I do not seeanything to add.10 Would it not well to point out in addition to my note on the word Kurnaithat the Narrinyeri are in fact Kornar = men and inyeri = belonging to,and that the word merkani (or whatever the word is) is probably mer Kornar= wild (?) man 11 I do not agree with Morgan as to totems. The relation of gentes andphratries is one of growth, development, evolution and implies a processof segmentation. The manufacture of [the - crossed out] some Roman gentes was entirely abnormaland could never have occurred had not the previous growth taken place.See also the formation of the Hebrew tribes - it was one of segmentation in consequence of natural increases. The original patriarchal family (Jacob) segmentedinto the patriarchal family Reuben and his brethren - these became Gentes - if Reuben had segmented his segments would have been gentes andReuben would have been a phratria and so on.Before we commence our second work we must construct and arrangeour plan of action - at present all is night and thick darkness and I canbarely see the track by the glimmering of the stars. I am waiting for sunriseto gird up my loins and commence the following. I have been thinking ofasking the Government to [make it - crossed out] take a hand in it - to give me their aidand to bring out our joint labours. I have sounded several people alreadyand I think it can be carried out. Tell me what you think.I had a most interesting conversation with Bishop Moorehouse yesterday during six hourssteamboat passage via the Lakes from Bairnsdale here, he spoke almost wholly of the presentcondition of the churches, of the present position of religion as to sciences and of the futureI may sum up his views thus: Religion is a growth and has been developed; its [??] must be very [??]far back in the superstitions of savage tribes; the belief in the literal inspiration of the Scriptureis unfounded and is all "rubbish"; the historical grail of the old testament commences withAbraham - all before that is legend; there is no "brimstone pot" and man after deathwill go on successively improving in other states or until he persistently refuses to be improvedconfucius, [??], Brama, mahamet and others have been all more or less inspired;finally that all the iron bound, straight jackets into which [in the form of - crossed out] people have been thrust and have been told they must remain are doomed and that the new translation of the scriptures now just finished will tend to knock many very pernicious dogmas on the head as being foundedupon mistranslated passages; such for instance as that of the "brimstone pot" and its accompanimentsHe said that if he lived 10 years and was not martyred he hoped to see the change of thought effectedand to bridge the gulf between religion and science which he agreed would otherwisebecome an abyss too wide ever to be crossed. What do you think of this? To me it wassomething perfectly new to find a thorough going evolutionist reconciling everythingwhich seemed inconceivable.Yours faithfullyA W Howitt

Last edit 27 days ago by ALourie

tip70-10-34-2 Howitt to Fison 26 January 1880

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--"At first sight the Kurnai appear to answer +c."

I seems to me that the Kurnai arein fact an Endogemous communityqua tribe but exogemous qua division- can we say therefore thus "it forbidsmarriage everywhere within its limits."?It forbids marriage "everywhere within itslimits as to the divisions but notas to the tribe.Now as to [Capture- crossed out] Marriage by Capture. Should we not consider this. M. by C. existed between the Brajerakand the Kurnai - see what Tūlaba says. It wouldhave existed or did exist between the Kurnai and theBrajerak - [for -crossed out] that is of the latter had been strongenough in their familiar tribe. See also the caseof the slaughter of the Brajerak by the Briakalūngwho took the wives of the slain - the case of the Tatunulungmen who crossed Lake Wellington and stole womenfrom the Bunjil Nellung, the case of Tommy Doughboyand Boljan and finally the case of the Brit Brittawoman who was captured in the Bushy Park battleand alloted to Bundahwaal on the groundthat the captors were "too near" - ie. of a forbiddenclass. I think McLennan will have reason tosay that M. by C. existed among the Kurnai.It did - but the rule was marriage by elopementsand M. by C. was an incident of warfare with the Brajerak and where an incident of warfare[in -crossed out] within the Kurnai community was regulatedby the "class rules." Have you thought of this? I must see to it or else McLennan willl have handle

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie
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