Howitt and Fison Papers

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Narrau the moon

Narrau, the moon when out hunting one day caught an Emu, which however was so strong that it pulled him along while he was plucking out all its feathers as he ran. Brewin who saw this said to him "What are you doing that for?" and took the emu from him and carried off. Narrau going back to his camp had to cross a creek on a big log. Brewin then told the log to roll over and threw Narrau into the water, but he got out and still wanted to get back his emu. Brewin then ascended up to the sky taking the emu with him and Narrau never saw it again - When Narrau goes down over the edge of the world turns round and walks back [.....] [.....] and comes over the other side in the morning. It was Brewin who put him up in the sky. The star shown as Narrau is [symbol for alpha] Centauri.

Last edit over 2 years ago by nburgess

XM21_ICDMS_lowres Charles Barrett to Howitt 28 September 1907

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Mungo Lake Victoria. I have three girls hereas house servants their father is a Darling Black from Polia + mother a Murray Black . I was much interested in your inauguraladdress. I have read about Babbage and WarburtonH. Brookes [sic] who with Coulthardt [sic] and Willie Scottwere exploring on the Bede Creek and Brooks+ Scott fell in with Babbage's party + got a pint of water from him + saved their lives Coulthardtperished Brooks was manager on Moorara foryears for my father. When I came on the Darling in '64 Burke + Wills were fresh in peoplesmemory and they did not speak well of Burke as a bushman. I knew Wright he did 18 monthsloaf at Culhero till he was or ordered off. Ofcourse you the story of Burke touchingGrey on the head with a revelover [sic]. William Maiden is the oldest resident of Menindeeand might give you some information yourequire. All the old Blacks are dead that resided about here. I am suffering from a bad attack of influenza which makes my writing a bit shaky. I am Yours faithfully Charles Barrett P.S Warrego is the local name for Eagle Hawk

Last edit 21 days ago by ALourie

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[Hand-drawn image of a map of the river system at the Queensland -NSW border.]

[Left column]

Paroo }Warrego } Darling tributariesWidgee }Nebine } TributariesNungalala } of Narran into narran lake + overflows perWallan } Culgoa Hospital creek into BokahraBirie runs out of Bokahara into CulgoaBokahara runs into Cabo Creek + billabong of Barwon

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie

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found black fellows prowling about their camp at night would certainly shoot them after this notice.

[The old men were induced to treat the matter as a - crossed out][joke, but after some further discussion they agreed- crossed out] after some discussion the old men pronounced that some oftheir people should go near our camps at night, and that when doing so in the day time, they would lay down their arms at a little distance - and on my part I promised notto do them any hurt. I must say that This agreement was kept by them and I observed that not only they but also their fellow tribesmen in future laid down their weapons when visiting us.

As the Dieri send missions to the surrounding tribes so do these send them to the Dieri when occasion requires it and proceedings are such as I have described.

It may be here noted that a Dieri man who is of no noteor influence, arriving as a messenger at a camp [after a unavoidable absence -crossed out]sits down near without saying anything. After remaining for a few minutes in silence the old men gather round him and ask whence he comes andwhat has befallen him. He then delivers his message and details his news, and often with embellishments.

Two of the principal old men then stand up one retailingthe message [news and- crossed out] the others repeating it in an excited manner

The newcomer if he is a friendly stranger is hospitably entertained, living in the hut of some man of the same totem as himself.

I remember an instance of such a visit which was camped [near- crossed out] close to a small number of [encampment these friendly -crossed out] [Yercrossed out] some distance to the north of Cooper Creek [2 words crossed out] [spoken?] ofand with whom ˄ I was on friendly terms. [under?] the [?] above A stranger had arrived from the [south?] and as far as I remember was a Dieri. I could watch all their movements by the light of their fires, [two words crossed ou]and hear what was [spoken?] in a loud tone for we were separated from [them?] only by a narrow though deep water channel. They spent the evening in great feasting and the women were busy till late at night in [pounding?] [2 words crossed out] for foodand grinding [seeds?] [rest of sentence crossed out]. The stranger [3 words crossed out] related his news and it was repeated in a loud tone to the [?] tribes men sitting or standing by their fires. I was unable to understand more than the general meaning of their amusements but my black boy was [?] with the Dieri speech explained that this man was a "walkabout black fellow" in their lands a messenger who was telling them his news. The place was [in?] are of the [flood?] [diamond?] Cooper Creek which turned northwards [?] [?] the [?].

of a friendly tribeA man of influence arriving at a [?] of the ˄ camps [2 words crossed out]is received by the inmates with raised weapons [a?] of in defiance. Upon this the visitor rushes towards them [making?] a pretence of striking them, they [?] of his feints with their shields. (p - ) [Immediately?] after this they embrace him and lead [him?] What camp where the women shortly after bring him food (1) from [2 words crossed out]

Left margin next to: 'The newcomer' p74-----p75

'some distance' [yaurorkos?]

Before 'A man of influence' ( [?] [Cl?])Refer to the news brought byme about[McKin?]-here

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

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In the Dieri tribe, as in all thoseof the Lake Eyre (Basin) (crossed out)the oldest man of a totem is its (xxxxxxx) Pinaru or head, in each horde there is also a Pinaru, who might happen to be alsothe head of the totem. But it does not (necessarily) (crossed out) follow that thehead of a totem or of a [?] division had necessarily much, orindeed any influence outside his totem or division. I remembersuch an instance at Lake Hope where the Pinaru was by reason of his great age, the head of theEaglehawk totem, but he had otherwiselittle personal influence, for he was not a fighting man, or medicine man.The pinarus are collectively the headmen of the tibe, andof them someone was superior to the others. At the time when Iknew the tribe, in the year 1861-2 The principal headman was oneJalina Piramurana, the head of the Kunaura totem, and he wasrecognised as the headman of the wholeDieri tribe.When going northwards from my Depot at Coopers Creek, onthe occasoion of my second (xxxxxxx) expedition I obtained the servi-ces of a young Yantruwunta man who knew the country as far north asSturts stony desert. He belonged to the small tribal group in [?]country

Last edit 13 days ago by ALourie
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carry, if he killed another it would be given to the second one, and itwas only when he obtained a heavy load that he carried anything himself.when I speak of these Headman in connection with the tribal (?) Ishall again refer to the henchmen.

The account given of these Headman given by Mr William Thomaswho was the protector of the Blacks in the years (?) , falls intoline with the particulars which have given. I have condensed his statement as follows! (1)

"Each tribe had a chief who directs all its movements, and whowherever he may be, knows well where all the members of the communityare. The chief with the aged men makes arrangements, forthe route eachparty is to take, when the tribe after one of its periodical meetingsagain separates.

Besides the chiefs they have other eminent men, as warriorscounsellors, doctors, dreamers who are also interpreters, charmers a whoare supposed to be able to bring or to drive rain away, and also to bringor send away plagues as occasion may require."

Such are Mr. Thomas's statements. Hehad great opportunitiesof pbtaining information, for as he says he was out with them for months";but it is much to be regretted that he did not more fully avail himselfof his opportunities, or if he did, he failed to record the results withthat detailwhich would have been now invaluable.

The Wurrunjeri clan of the Woeworung is a good example of thelesser tribal divisions, andof their Headmen. In order to make what Ishall say as to it more clear, it is (?) (?) (?) that (?) (?)(?) (?) (?) (?) (?) it was divided into three parts. One called Kuraje-barring, was subdiviedinto those who occupied the country from the Darebin Creek tothe sources of the Plenty River, under their HeadmanBebejern, and those who lived on the east side of the saltwater river up toMount Macedon (1) under the Headman Bilibellary. (8). the second division

Last edit 21 days ago by ALourie
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The following account of one of the ordeals in expiation wasgiven to me by Berak who was present at it. It was so far as I am able tofix the time somewhere about the year 1840 and the locality was theMerri Creek near Melbourne.

It arose out of the belief by the WesternPort tribeBunwurung, that a man from Echuca on the Murray River had found apiece of opossum bone from (?) remembered that he which one of their tribe had been eating and then thrown away. Taking this bone up between two pieces of wood, aman had put the piece of opossum bone into its hollow and tieing it tothe end of his spear thrower set this up in the ground and roasted itbefore the fire. He and others then sang the name of the Bunwurung man

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for a long time over it, until the spear thrower fell down into the fireand the majic complete. Some one brought this news down to the Bunwurungans some time after the man died. His friends did not say any-thing, but waited till a young man of the Echuca tribe came down to theWestern Port district and they then killed him. News of this passed fromone to the other till it reached his tribe, who sent down a mess-age to the Bunwurung saying that they would have to meet them at a place nearMelbourne. This was arranged and the old men said to the men who had killedthe Echuca man, "Now don't you run away, you must go and stand out andwe will see that they do notuse you unfairly." This messagehad been given by the Meymet (1), to the Nira-balluk (2), who sent it on bythe Wurrunjeri to the Bunwurung. It was sent in the interim,so as to give plenty of time for the meeting, which took place on theMelbourne side of Merri Creek. The people present were the Meymet,whose headman had not come down with them, The Bunwurung, with theirHeadman Benbu, the Mount Macedon men with their Headman Ningulabul, the Werribeepeople, with the Headman of the Bunwurung (of the coast Benbow) (crossed out), finally,there were the Wurunjeri with their Headman Bili-bileri.

All these people except the Meymet and the Bunwurung, were onlookers, and each lot camped on the side of the meeting groundnearest to their own country, and all the camps as was usual looked to-wards the morning sun.

When the meeting took place the women left in the campsand the men went a little way off. The Bunwurung manstood out in front of his people armed with a shield. Facinghim were the kindred of the dead Meymet man, some nine or ten in number,who threw so many spears and boomerangs at him that you could not countthem. At last a (?) spear went through his side. Just then a Headman

(1) the Woeworung called the natives by the Murray River about the junctionof the Goulburn Campaspe (??) Meymet, as they called the Gippsland nativesBerbira, thus distinguishing both from the Kulin tribes who were their friends.(2) The Nira-balluk were the tribe about Kilmore. Nira = a deep gully, balik =people, and of (?) and probably adjoining the (?) tribe at Echuca.

Last edit 3 days ago by ALourie
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The Kurnai tribe also affords good instances of the manner inwhich kindred avenged the killing of one of their members, and howtherby a blood feud, ramifying on all sides may arise, finally involving not only the whole tribe but also neighbouring ones.

Such a blood feud arose usually out of homicide eitherby violence or the supposed affects of eviul magic. I carefully traced outone case of this taking frim its commencement to its end in a battle betweeenthe Kurnai clans about the year 1856-7.

When the Gippsland and Omeo natives had come better aquaintencewith eachother through the white settler, and this had becomemore or less friendly to each other, one of the Theddora men named BillyBlew obtained a Braiaka woman for his wife. When on a visit to hiswifes people he illused her and in consequence her father Kaiung foughtwith and speared him. Billy Blew's kin in return came down from the moun-taines and killed Kaiung, together with a Braiaka, they were assistedin doing this by another Braiaka called Lohni, the brother of Budawal, mentioned elsewhere. (p ). In revenge for this a man of the Dairgo (?) of the (?) clan, the sisterson of Kaiungs wife killed a man called Johnny Flanner (p ). the brother of Gliun-kong (p ), he and other relations of Johnny, finding his skin hanging in a tree at Aitkin's Straits, at the Gippsland Lakes, followed Dairgo Johnnyand killed him at Brin vale on Merriman's Creek in South Gippsland.

At this point I take up the account given of this feud as toldby Bunda-wal, which continues this history to its end. I give his account asI toook it down during his narrative to me. "I had two wives, bothfrom Brt-britta (p ), One of these had been married to the man who killedmy brother Johnny at Aitkin's Straits. I then collected asll the men fromBruthen, Wy-yung. and from Binnijeri (p ), for all my own men had died orbeen killed, so that there were only boys left. But these others were likemy own people. We all sneaked round to Merriman's Creek where we found

Last edit 3 days ago by ALourie

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6B[Table]

The Kurnai Tribes (continued)Row 1Column 1 - Clans(4) Bra-taua-lŭng claimed all their country from the Latrobe River to near Cape Lip Trap (where it joined the country of the Būnworung tribe of the Western Port district & also from the Southern watershed of the Latrobe River to the sea coast.

Column 2 - Lesser divsions(o) Kŭt-wŭt - the [Tynes?] River flowing into the Corner Inlet.(p) Yau-ŭng - Warrigal Creek South Gippsland(q) Orelin - Merrim [aus? oreid?] South gippsland

Row 1 Column 3 Wives from(o) - m(p) - n(q) - p.i.tRow 1Column 4 Wives to(o) m(p) - n.q(q) p

Row 2Column 1 - Clans(5) Jatŭn-galŭng from Jat - Southaln = Sea. All the country west of the Krauatun Kurnai (1) and east of the Bratana [or Bralana?] Kurnai (4) and lying between the Gippsland Lakes, excepting Flannagan Island which belonged to the Bit-Brita division of the Kraualungalung clan.-

Row 2Column 2 - Lesser divsions(r) Yūnttrŭr - adjoining and east of (q)(s) Ngara wŭt [Ngara wŭt?], the south side of Lake Victoria(t) Bina-jera - the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland Lakes & the sea (Baulbaul) as far as the Entrance to the Lakes -

Row 2Column 3 - Wives from(r) - m(s) - e.m.q.t(t) - d.e.f.g

Row 2Column 4 - Wives to(r) - m(s) - e.m.t(t) - d.g

This information might have been made far more complete so far as relates to the lesser divisions, that is the smaller groups of Kurnai which formes any one of the lesser divisions of the clans.

Last edit 4 months ago by Christine
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Eaglehawk and lived in the Ovens River near Wangaratta and from the Wŭdthau-worŭng speaking people who lived at Geelong. While [crossed out - they] women camefrom these places as wives, their sisters went to their places as wives also.

[left margin note - Faira? Creek]

(or tabulated-thus)Table showing the intermarriage of the [Kulin] clans and tribes

Name of the tribe - (1) Urŭnjeri Ballŭk Locality - KewClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (2) Būllŭk-wilŭmLocality - CranbourneClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (3) Nira BallŭkLocality - Kilmore, BendigoClass - WaangLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (4) Kūr-ŭng-jang BallŭkLocality - WerribeeClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (5) Yau-ŭng-ilŭm BallŭkLocality - Between Mt Macedon, Kilmore, HeathcoteClass - WaangLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (6) Būn-worŭng BallŭkLocality - Cape SchankClass - WaangLanguage - Būn-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (7) Ngarūk-ilumLocality - DandenongClass - BunjilLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (8) Būn-worŭng Locality - MordiallocClass - BunjilLanguage - Būn-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (9) Gūnŭng illum balluk Locality - Mt MacedonClass - BunjilLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (10) Būthera balluk Locality - SeymourClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (11) Waring ilum balluk Locality - Yea RiverClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (12) Yiran-ilum-balluk Locality - Goulburn River, Seymour to BenallaClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (13) Ngūr-ai-ilum-balluk Locality - MurchisonClass - BunjilLanguage - ngurai-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (14) Ben-ben-dora-balluk Locality - MorupnaClass - BunjilLanguage - ?

Name of the tribe - (15) Wŭdtha-wurŭng-balluk Locality - GeelongClass - BunjilLanguage - Wudtha-wor-ung

[14 insert here]

Column 5 - Remarks - Urŭn = white gum treeballuk = people a number ofWoë = noWillŭm or ilum = campNira = cave or hole in a bankthagun = noyan-ŭng = stone būn = nongarūk = stones

A My informants stated that the people were either bunjil and waaug as far as the Avoca River [crossed out - where] beyond which the people were [Ganulih?] and [Krokitch?]. To the north eastward along the flanks of the mountains and up the rivers as far as the Buffalo River Bunjil and Waaug also extended. [Similar?] they extended to [crossed out - about] near Colac.

To this I may add that [Gamuch?] & [Krokitch?] extended over the extreme north west of of Victoria [?] Mt [Gambier?] (1) On the upper Ovens, the Kiewa, the Mitta Mitta Rivers I have found that the classes were [Matiau?] (Eaglehawk) and Yuthembrŭk (crow) thus [?] in [law?] confirming the statements of my Kulin informants.

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The second great division [crossed out - of] was the Kangandora-mittung who occupied the Omeo Plains, Livingston River and the Tambo River above somewhere about Ensay.

To the southward the Kandangora came in contact with the Brabralung clan of the Kurnai in the Tambo River and it is with ??? the old [crossed out: ???? of] road from Omeo to Bruthen was ??? the [crossed out: haul] [written above: ??? of ????] which the Omeo and Gippsland Blacks followed ????tively into eachothers country, to the North their boundary was about the Cobberas mountain and thence down the Indi River w about Tom Groggin then ????? ???? being the Ngarego.

Very little is known as w the class system of the Omeo tribe. That country was discovered and [something crossed out] settled by McFarland about 1842. In 1852 gold was found at Livingstone Creek and [the -crossed out] a great rush of [diggers - crossed out] miners set in to the "Omeo Diggings"; in 1862 there remained only [on - crossed out] no more than four or five of the once numerous Omeo tribe.

Last edit 17 days ago by Jacqui Durrant

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Barterand as to [all underlined]

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On Some Native Trade Centres [All underlined]When at Cooper's Creek in 1861-62, I observed that the blacks there used shields made of some wood which was not known to me in that part. Subsequently, when I was able to obtain information from them I found the following particulars. [them partly through a blackboy I had - crossed out][obtained from Blanchwater, and also personally when I had - crossed out][acquired some of the language, I ascertained the following - crossed out][particulars - crossed out] The Yantruwunta in whose country my Depot was estab-lished, told me that they obtained these shields from their neighbours higher up Cooper's Creek, who got them from tribes further to the north east. [The yantruwunta - crossed out] They on their part exchanged weapons made by them, and stone slabs used for pounding and groinding [sic] seeds [seeds, which they - crossed out] which were procured from tribes to the south. I also saw [with them - crossed out] among these tribes, although rarely, a portion of a large univalve shell worn suspended by a string from the neck, and which I was told [heard was - crossed out] was bought fromt [sic]the north. Enquiries made later from the Dieri who inhabited the country to the southesast of the Yantruwunta, showed that [that tri - crossed out][tribe traded- crossed out] they bartered with the Murdula or hill tribes to the south of them for skin rugs.

This information [pointed to suggested - crossed out] indicated an extensive system of intertribal communication and barter, [The intertribal relations This was - crossed out] which was [were -crossed out] apparently carried on by men who were the recognised means of communication, [and - crossed out] it was through these men who were in fact messengrrs [sic] that information was continually brought down from beyond the Stony desert of Sturt to the Yantruwunta near my Depot, [who - crossed out] [They them - crossed out] I was thus kept [me - crossed out] informed of the whereabouts and the doings of McKinlay the explorer although this was not at the time when the events spoken of happened. I was told of a great inundation which had surrounded him beyond the "Greatt [sic] stones" that is the Stony Desert; then that the waters having fallen, he had "thrown away" his cart, and had gone [away -crossed out] off to the north out of their knowledge, All this I subsequently found to be subst-antially correct, [as - crossed out] partly by my own observation of that country [subsequ- crossed out][ently proved, as well as - crossed out] and part from McKinlay's/McKinlay own account of his Jorney [sic]. [are being made in I have learned in the couse [sic of] The systematic investigations which are

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

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[There is a vertical line through this page]

[In circle ' Bisect at B reverse if p3']

A Head man of the Dieri tribe attains to power and influence by personal bravery, by eleoquence or by having many relations (būyūlū marapū) that is to say many near relatives who would give him a strong following.

[1st parargraph underlined]

A to p5. [underlined] When going northward from my Depot at Coopers Creek on the occassion of my several Expeditions, I obtained the services of a young yautruwunta man who knows the country as far as Sturts Stoney Desert from the small tribal group in whose country my Depot was establishhed. My first stop was about thirty miles down the course of the Cooper, where there was a [?ates?] from which I [?] that northwards. Here the Yautruwunta man ran off in the night, being alarmed as he afterwards told me of the precautions I took for guarding the party. With my own black [crossed out 'fellow'] boy I traced the absconder to a camp of Yautruwunta about two miles distant at a small pool in the River bed. Here the Pinaru or Head man after being satisfied that no harm was intended by me to his people or to the guide sent two of his men to bring him from where he was concealed and handed him over to me with an admonition that he should not run away again.

Here was an exercise of authority, and an obedience [?]

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He was one of their great [Kū?Ki?] or medicine men but would not practice his art excepting on persons of note, such as Heads of totems or his personal -friends.

He was the son of the [famous?] Headman, who was still living during two [?] [?] in the Dieri country and who although too infirm to join in the ceremonies, gave advice to the [other?] the old men. He boasted that he had had command of the tribe before his son Jalina acquired it. He was believed to be proof to majic such as [crossed out 'the'] "striking with the bone".

Jalina [Piramurina?] had [crossed out 'thus'] suceeded to and in deed eclipsed his father; he was the head of the Kŭnaura totem and boasted of being the "tree of life" the "family of life", for this seed forms at times the principle source of vegetable food to these tribes. [crossed out 'The seed'] I have also heard Jalina spoken of as the head of the "[Mauyura?]" totem, that is of the [planet?] itself.

I observed that there were such Pinarus in the tribes to the north and north east part of the Dieri, such as the [Yaurorka?] and Yautruwunta who inhabited the country lying in and to the [western?] end of the Queensland border north and south of Coopers Creek.

[Left hand margin]A here reverse of p 4

When in the country of the Yerawaka and in the southern edge of Sturts Stoney Desert, the "[Murda -p nia?]" or great strong place of the natives, I camped for a night near one of the local groups of that tribe. A party of old men the Pinarus of the place came to see me, and asked me to go with them to see the [Jina - Pinaru?], the great -

[Underline](1) [?] clap - p- [mūkūchi Kŭkana?]

Last edit 13 days ago by ALourie

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Mūkjarawaint[written at side of Mukjarawaint] Werpil = EaglehawkYūrn= Native CatBūnjil = StarWūrabil = Iguana

[written on side of page] Ya-tat-[??]Ngun un [??]

Half mile N of Dimboola - down riverto Pine Plain Lake past Albacutya Lakethen cross to Lake Coorong, thenceWarraknabeal creek to Warracknabealthence to Dimboola.wot-tchjo = manLai-ya-rūk = womanBobby's tribe - Wot-tchjo=(men + women) Ballaiūk

Gartchŭka = [?cratters?] cockatoo with red cheeks[??] Jallup - mussel(a) Grookit - no meaning

[Bobby - crossed out](b) Grorkit = Kilpara Kilpara = wartwŭt = Hot wind

[next page]

2Grookit can marry Makwara = {Gammatch gūrk{F. Black cockatoo

Bobby Father - Djallan = Deaf adder[Bobby] Mother - wartwŭt = deaf addergŭrŭk grorkit

Bobby - moiwuk-wartwŭt = Bobby wife - wūrant gŭrŭk = Djallan

[written on the side]:wartwut - hot windkrorkit

Kilpara

moiwŭk = carpet snake belongs to ?wart-wŭtmirndai = a snaketikomai = a dangerous snakemoiwil = large snake

Last edit 26 days ago by ALourie

XM187_ICDMS_lowres Hagenauer to Howitt 15 February 1880

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Ramahyuck Febr 15th, 1880

W.A. Howitt EsqSale

My dear sir,

I have some blue gums here at the station and am therefore able to giveyou the name from the blacks correctly as follows: Ballook - blue gum.

I also made careful inquiry about your other questions and can give youreliable information on question No. I.* When a baby was born by a native womanthe navel string was not separated from the afterbirth under at least 4 hourswhen the string already showedsigns of getting dry, then it wasgenerally cut (not broken) with a shell from the rivers or creek.The navel string, after being cut was

Last edit 20 days ago by ALourie

XM188_ICDMS_lowres Hagenauer to Howitt 1 May 1880

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There is still another name for this locality, which you gothere from old Emma and Louise when you was here. Thisname included Tom's Creek and of course old KangarooJack's country Dighton

In my letters to Mr. Smyth in 1862 I omitted Bushy Park and Top plains (Bragolong) as I then thoughtall the four above families or tribes were includedin the Bragolong or men of the West. I found, however,that there are a number of Blacks still left out:

Billy Wood - Edward -Mackay. The Clarks, Montgomery,but I suppose they should belong to those here or Toms Creek,all of them, however are the Bragolons. With best compliments,Yours truly F.A. Hagenauer

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

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reed groundWerribee - Kūrūng jang5 ballŭk(mob)

Mt Macedon - gūnŭng willŭm6 ballŭk

Kilmore neera - ballŭk7 neera = deep gully[Kilmore and Seymour bracketted together]Seymour - Būthera ballŭk8 Alexandra - yowŭng illungMansfield balluk 9Head of Muddy Creek - Warring-illum10 ballŭkBig swampBelow Benalla - [Yarrun - crossed out] Yeerŭm illŭm11 ballŭkCape Schank - Būn mūrŭng12 ballŭkcannot [??] them much good friends

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Wangaratta - Ballŭng Kara13 mittang[crossed out - ballŭk]būlla14. Wŭdthewrung ballŭkGeelong[1 from Geelong - to Geelong + Seymour - crossed out]1 to 14 - 3.8.11.12.4.8.7.10.5. from Bacchus Marsh Grey BallŭkThallin Willŭn-at Bullingerook6. from same as five7. from of Bacchus Marsh & fromDandenong8. from [Ngouranglŭng būllaat MurchisonNgouranglŭng būlla fromEchucha are called[Baingerang]

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie
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and putting it in the ground, and then looked to see --- it was gone ----[He? or they?] said a big lump there - none now. [Now? there?] was man lying covered with earth all but his mouth. It was open and the fire had gone in it.

Bye and bye they say Something there - they got a little spear and speared it.

A voice in the ground said what do you do that [?] for?The old man jumped

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up and caught the the boys; and the old people said there was no [putting?] up in [yarra?] nor any creek -the old man was testing the two boys along the [yarra?] and [hid? or had?] his campwhere the ships lie in the the [yarra?] at Melbourne. He next made a drain after [time?] a [?] the way. The Water [ran?] after [him?] and covered the ground.

Bunjil saw the old man and put things like [?] in

Last edit about 1 year ago by Christine
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The Colonials in South AfricaCapt John Stirling-----------------------------------------------In Gum fruit on [?] [there?] are E. [?]; E. rubida, E. muzzlewoodon sedimentary rocks - E. [amyg.] when[Good?] loam?], E. pauci., E. rubida[Banksia [spin?]

Gums [?] [road?] at the same to "[Muz? abutt?] [?] - by many - boxE. albens, Yellow Box - E. pauci.E. gunii; at the mine - E. globulusE. Rubida, at the creek in thefern forest common also [word crossed out] Yellow box, E. albens, -

At the mine they use for props 1. E. [macrorhyncha?], E. obliqua, [word crossed out]E rubida, E. [amyg.] hard leaf - there are [?] in them [?]

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of merit. [E. vim?] is brittle -----------------------------------------22 May 1907paid Cusack 9/-up long gully - E. vim. in creek E. globulus - in places up gully E. rubida, E. albens - In full bloom. E. vim, E. albens.--------------[Near?] Muzzlewood in bloomat [Dargo?] [Bruthen?] --------------------------------------------------------------W. H. [Blakeby?] & co.115 Collins StreetMelbourne-----------------------------------------23 May[?] [hill?] [?]--------------------------------------------24 may[Misery?] [Ck?]

Last edit 14 days ago by Christine
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25 May - to HinnomunjieE. muzzlewood in full bloomE. macrorhyncha on gullies hillsideof morass, also E. globulus, E. rubida E. viminalis; E. amygdalina narrow leaf ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Oscar Ryan - Omeo-------------------------------------------------------------------[?] way to Moyay? 26/5/07at [I?] [tree?] [stream?] of [?] [?]about 2 mile below Quin's at turn off of old road by a new [arc?] -In left bank - where again rejoin the old road before arriving is black box

2/26.5/07 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

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27 May Moyay or Moyang?1/27.5/07 - near junction of [Nav. ck?] with Tambo /[?] 150 - 200 - yds small boulder in [creek?] [?] ---------------------------------------------------------2/27.5.07 - Mt [Nyabath?] Ckdyke intrusive into g.m. [?] also [granite?] vein[heavy?] dyke.--------------------------------------------------------------[3. crossed out] contact of ['with' crossed out] granites & Felstone -

3/ 27 5.07 4/27.5.07

[calculate?] - 4 - adjoining it at [say?] 20 ft

[diagram of geology showing dyke]

Last edit 14 days ago by Christine
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Same left hand branch of creek--------------------------------------------------above [continual?] here [thus?] (5)[aureous?]5 [Stratigraphy? diagram under 5]

5/27.5.07 [next to diagram][2 lines crossed out]

6/27.5.07 - boulder in creek

(7)/27.5.07 - [line crossed out][spotted?] cherts[spotted?] schists at lunch camp

8/27.5.07Returnlunch camp [diagram down rest of page of hills creeks, north arrow etc.]Returned [next to cross on diagram]Black & oftenspherulitesall [form?] [?] & [?] glassgranite rock

[In box on left side]7/27.5.07layerspherulesMt StrezleckiCk [End of box]

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Follow up the left hand branch nearly to where it rises behind the southern [word crossed out] point of the creek of Mt Strezleki Range.

Where the [head?] branch the [rock?] by [central?] black [?] [place?] - or [prickly?] [trip?] [word crossed out] included in a[?] [basis?]. Black in hut but [continually?] [when?] [blacks?] were in [situ?] [about?] [show?] cold [?] [numerous?] frequent of layeredfelsite.

Much of the rock [was?] [spherulites?]

paid ]no/-?] [underlined] [?] 76 top James [Clamey? or Clancy?] [underlined]

Arbur Creek [underlined] Bluey! CreekMt Strezleki Ck[?] Bluey Ckby Mt Kay [but?] [back?][ship?] who has [?] [?]

[Diagonal lower LHS] [Mt?] Rose [underlined][a?] [?] where[?] [Buck?] [?] [finely?][?] [?]again

Last edit about 1 month ago by Christine

XM765_ICDMS_lowres

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Where is track[?] in whichbayles new[?] land

Follow Rail[wa]y from Dandenongturn to left about 6 miles

Redgum - bialwhat is the Wrunjeri treewhite gum

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Mernda = Mt. St.LeonardsMonulaui Healesvilleside of [Fishers ???] CreekKan

Last edit 19 days ago by Christine
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William and Dick saidthat their people thoughtthat whitemen were murupcomeback.Major said that [??] likethe looleen of his people

Gardner Ck at River Koyūng-bort

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

XM775_ICDMS_lowres

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To Moe November 9/97

In the gum tree - the leaves in thelower branches [??] are brod lanceolar - to lanceolar-ovatebut in the extreme end of the upperbranches the leaves are long lanceolar, or falcateScattered on some of the extreme twigson other apparently an appendagement+ in some with a pair of terminal leavesindicating a further intermediate shootsample 7[Large - crossed out] Gum trees have the smaller branches smoothand brown - of terminal shoots

Sample 7Gum tree branch the smaller branches are smooth and born on terminal shoots

See also collection of fruits

At this date there are buds well formedfor bloom probably about xmas or new yearSome trees appear to have flowersabout July - to judge from the fruit

To Moe Nov 9/97

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Berwick to[??] on Flats E. Gunii.Banfield on flats E. Gunii - on creek bank. E. [??] onhigher ground + ridge E. Gunii + E. amygi (or L)there E. Amyg - preponderate except on ridgesOfficer there are level low lying clay flats with E. Gunii[??] [??] E. Gunii on all low lying banks where timberedPakenham but where there is a rise E. [??] makes itsappearanceNar Nar Goon there the sameTynong The same and at Tynong there arethe first hills coming into the [??] some E. Obliquaand E. pulverulenta appear alsoGarfield To here a few E. gunii in [??] placeon ridge. E. amyg ([??]) E. obliqua E. pulv.Bunyip The same to here - but then appear to bealso some E. [??] ?Langwarrin E. gunii on rising ground E. [??]E. [pulv.?] some E amygdalina to [to Bunyip P- crossed out] Drouin timber [such?] at about[??] E. [??] E. [??] E. capitellata

Last edit 26 days ago by Christine

XM746_ICDMS_lowres

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Dick Richards

[Pooi-pooit - crossed out] Boi-Boit-yan -little hill and railway tunnell [sic]Bullock-creek; thence to Kyneton (at a littlewater hole - called neaṝ- a little watefall;thence to Kilmore. Dick Richards home;From side Campaspe; down to Goornong -Kilmore to the other side Dabyminga ck - then down to junction - Talarook is his country;then McIvor - thence to Campaspe and down it to Goornong - then acrossto Inglewood - then a little from Lodonto west side to Dunolly - then to Castlemaine

[crossed out -All called Logal-lik]These are all Nier-ballŭknier = cave

Watershed of Campaspee River from source

Last edit 21 days ago by ALourie

XM270 Muirhead to Howitt 19/3/1908

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2about 20 remain. Of those Aborigines taken toIslands by Government, not more than five or sixbelong to Wakelburra or Cowan burra - of thenatives taken from Central districts to Reserves, the mostwere Terraburra - Yengaburra - the undermention [sic] tribes(members) are all gone = Mutheraburra - once about 100 strongWandilla Burra (extinct) once about 80 strongTo your question = do you know [of - crossed out] any cases wherea fresh law, was made to suit such circumstancesmeaning to allow a Kurgilla man to take others than a baowoman. Answer No = At any time if I can help youin your work I shall only be too pleased to do so -Though we only know one another by correspondingYet, your labours are not unknown to me -though the nearest we ever were to one another wason the day the remains of the "ill fated Burke + Wills"were being buried when you brought them infrom Coopers Creek = and your father's work "Exploreation [sic]of Australia" are among my valued books.Hoping to soon hear that you are strong andhale again, with good wishesI RemainYours faithfullyJ.C. Muirhead

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

XM462_ICDMS_lowres

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[Direction marker with arrow pointing north]

Plan of Jeraeil Ground

McLellans Straits

Creek tea tree scrub

Shallow area of the lake

dense tea tree scrub

scrub. scrub.

open ground with [?] gums& branches

Sun [?]Creek scrub

Last edit 11 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-5-1 Fison to Frazer 29/8/01

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actually thanked me for it. So youwill doubtless receive copies of the "Leader"with the illustrated articles in them.May I suggest that when you get them youwrite a line of acknowledgement to himdirect? It will make him amiable, + wemay want to get something more outof him. (David Syme Esq. "Age Office, Collins St., Melbourne)

I have no recollection of the parts ofyour Golden Bough (new Edn) on which I sent you afew notes. I have marked a number of places,but cannot remember which of them I annotated in myletter. If you will send it back to me, I will try to send you something more.

I had a letter from Spencer dated July 15They were then at Barrow Creek + on the eve of going farhternorth. He gives his new address as PowellCreek via Port Darwin, + a letter fromyou would give him great pleasure. But I daresay you also have heard from himlately.

My sister, Mrs Potts, after a year of wandering among out Kinsfolk, has settledagain in rooms at Cambridge - 52 TrumpingtonSt. opposite the Fitzwilliam. I am sureshe would be glad if Mrs Frazer would callupon her. Her late husband gave £1000 toTrinity.Yours very sincerelyLorimer Fison

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie
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