Howitt and Fison Papers


Search for Theddora* Theddora-mittung* Thed-dora* Thedora*





It might however be correct to consider the [hanelbura?] as a sub tribe of a much larger tribe, [?] spread over a wide extent of country lying in the head waters of the Belyando River, the Thompson River and of some [confluents?[ of the Mackenzie River Rivers. The [component?] tribes or/are subtribes or of Hordes which compare the larger aggregate adjoining the Wakelbura and speak dialects of the same language, intermarry with it and have generally friendly relations with it and with each other. The group maybe [crossed out - this given] [?], in addition to the Wakelbura tribes:

1 Kŭmbŭkabura [underlined] from Kŭmbŭka the broad leaved Ironbark tree. From the Belyando River westward across the sources of the Thompson River.

2 [Wian bura?] [underlined] from [Owan?] = a young Emu, - on the Upper Belyando River

3 Dora-bura [underlined] from Doro = the roots of a tree. About the junction of the Belyando and Sutter River Rivers.

4. Mūtherabura [underlined] from Wūthera = a grub formed in the Brigalow tree (1)

[Left hand margin note](1) Acacia harpophylla[Fn m.][underline]A. [?] [?] A. aneuraall [?] except T.& W.G.A. glaucescens [Will?]mountain Brigalow.V. or [w?] Q


In the years 1883-1886 this tribe changed its name to Waralabura from waral = boat. The change was made because the owners of the Run put a ferrie boat on a large lagoon near the Homestead and they called itself after this boat. It sems therefore that any unusual circumstance may cause a change in the tribal name.

5 Mŭngki bura [underlined] from mungki the word used by them for "sheep" .[2 words crossed out] Natal Downs and about the Cape River

Adjoining these there are other tribes related to them. The Mūtobura adjoining the Kumbukabura on the [crossed out - best] sources of the Thompson River to the west. The Tilbabura, who became extinct about ten years [crossed out - ago] or more ago adjoined the [?Waubura?] to the South west, and between the Tilbabura and the [Mūtabura?] were the [Terrabura]] who is now also extinct.

6 The Bithel bura once adjoined the the Wakelbura and [Owaubura?] to the East but have long been extinct, and the [Owaubura?] have taken up their country. Beyond the [Mungkebura?] are the [Braubura?] who are again adjoining the [Bringabura?] at the junction of the Belyando and Burdekin River Rivers.

Last edit 6 months ago by Christine



Eaglehawk and lived in the Ovens River near Wangaratta and from the Wŭdthau-worŭng speaking people who lived at Geelong. While [crossed out - they] women camefrom these places as wives, their sisters went to their places as wives also.

[left margin note - Faira? Creek]

(or tabulated-thus)Table showing the intermarriage of the [Kulin] clans and tribes

Name of the tribe - (1) Urŭnjeri Ballŭk Locality - KewClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (2) Būllŭk-wilŭmLocality - CranbourneClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (3) Nira BallŭkLocality - Kilmore, BendigoClass - WaangLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (4) Kūr-ŭng-jang BallŭkLocality - WerribeeClass - WaangLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (5) Yau-ŭng-ilŭm BallŭkLocality - Between Mt Macedon, Kilmore, HeathcoteClass - WaangLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (6) Būn-worŭng BallŭkLocality - Cape SchankClass - WaangLanguage - Būn-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (7) Ngarūk-ilumLocality - DandenongClass - BunjilLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (8) Būn-worŭng Locality - MordiallocClass - BunjilLanguage - Būn-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (9) Gūnŭng illum balluk Locality - Mt MacedonClass - BunjilLanguage - Woë-wor-ŭng

Name of the tribe - (10) Būthera balluk Locality - SeymourClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (11) Waring ilum balluk Locality - Yea RiverClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (12) Yiran-ilum-balluk Locality - Goulburn River, Seymour to BenallaClass - BunjilLanguage - thagŭng-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (13) Ngūr-ai-ilum-balluk Locality - MurchisonClass - BunjilLanguage - ngurai-wor-ung

Name of the tribe - (14) Ben-ben-dora-balluk Locality - MorupnaClass - BunjilLanguage - ?

Name of the tribe - (15) Wŭdtha-wurŭng-balluk Locality - GeelongClass - BunjilLanguage - Wudtha-wor-ung

[14 insert here]

Column 5 - Remarks - Urŭn = white gum treeballuk = people a number ofWoë = noWillŭm or ilum = campNira = cave or hole in a bankthagun = noyan-ŭng = stone būn = nongarūk = stones

A My informants stated that the people were either bunjil and waaug as far as the Avoca River [crossed out - where] beyond which the people were [Ganulih?] and [Krokitch?]. To the north eastward along the flanks of the mountains and up the rivers as far as the Buffalo River Bunjil and Waaug also extended. [Similar?] they extended to [crossed out - about] near Colac.

To this I may add that [Gamuch?] & [Krokitch?] extended over the extreme north west of of Victoria [?] Mt [Gambier?] (1) On the upper Ovens, the Kiewa, the Mitta Mitta Rivers I have found that the classes were [Matiau?] (Eaglehawk) and Yuthembrŭk (crow) thus [?] in [law?] confirming the statements of my Kulin informants.

Last edit about 2 months ago by Stephen Morey



The second great division [crossed out - of] was the Kangandora-mittung who occupied the Omeo Plains, the Livinestone River [Livingstone Creek] and the Tambo River above somewhere about Ensay.

To the southward the Kandangora came in contact with the Brabralung clan of the Kurnai in the Tambo River and it is worth noting the old [crossed out: line of] road from Omeo to Bruthen was along the [crossed out: back] [written above: line of country] which the Omeo and Gippsland Blacks followed respectively into each others country. To the East their boundary was about the Cobberas mountain and thence down the Indi River to about Tom Groggin then neighbours on that side being the Ngarego tribe.

[Left margin note - ?]

Very little is known as to the class system of the Omeo tribe. That country was discovered and then - crossed out] settled by McFarland about 1842. In 1852 gold was found at Livingstone Creek and [the -crossed out] a great rush of [diggers - crossed out] miners set in to the "Omeo Diggings"; in 1862 there remained only [on - crossed out] no more than four or five of the once numerous Omeo tribe.

All that I can say as to their classes and totems is that among the latter were [Tebuteba?] - (Rabbit rat) and [Najabejan?] (Bat) which also occur in the neighbouring [crossedout - half] Ngarejo tribe with which also the Omeo tribe intermarried. That these two totems were on the opposite sides of the system is shown by [crossed out - them] this, that when the tribes people plaid at ball (1) Tebuteba plaid on one side and Najatejan on the other.

[Left margin note](1)A kind of ''football'' which was plaid in many parts if not eveerywhere in Victoria & South of [??] the ball either being made of strips of pelt tightly rolled up or as in popular if the scrotum of an "old man" Kangaroo stuffed with grass.

Last edit 7 days ago by Christine




The impression made on my mind by theaccount of the Dora is that either the tribe has imper--fect ceremonies, or that your informant has notbeen admitted to the inner mysteries.

p. 12. This is not war upon aliens surely. It wouldbe well to inquire what sort of grievances led tothese set fights. They could scarcely be got up merelyto educate the boys, or for the mere fun of the thing.The amicable corroboree afterwards seems to showthat it is not a case of actual war.

p. 13. Can you get at the meaning of dawa inTundundawa?When the Tundundawa was sounded, wasyour informant permitted to be with the men "in thethick scrub", or had he to stay with the women? Thiswill be a good test question as to his admission to thereal mysteries.

p. 14. The white body under the outer skin. Thisis good confirmation of my conjecture in a footnoteto K& K - was it K & K?

p. 15. "Either dodge the spears, or evade them". Shouldnot this be "either ward off, or evade"?

p. 16. I don't like his expression, "flash about ashunters. There are several other instances of similarexpressions. But I suppose, when you come to writea completed memoir, you will use your own phraseology.

p. 17. (a) "Three fires". Any regulation as to their positionwith regard to the stage?(b). Dead blacks going under the sea to an island.This is valuable as pointing to the time of migration.In Fiji the path of the dead is invariably backagain along the line of migration. The dead go tothe old ancestral home. This is the true explanationof the Polynesian Avaiki, though it doesn't settle whereAvaiki is.

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie




4his message to him at Bega and returing [sic]to me in Gippsland he journeyed on foot over some of the most mountainous country of South Eastern Australiaa distance of about four hundred miles. A second timehe made the journey before the arrangements were finallysettled, which were that Brūpin would send his messenger carrying my "Mudthi"to the Principal Gommera of the Kurial who livednear Shoalhaven and ask him to bring his peopleto a Kuringal in the Hilly country in the northernsideof the Bega River not far from the sea coast. Brūpinwas then to send me word when the Murringwere assembling.[crossed out - Then at the Kuringal when I attended] As being in the position of aGommera of the KurnaiI was to bring to the Kuringal acontingent of my men, and as I arranged it they were toleave the Snowy River mouth under the guidance of "King Charley". [crossed out - Thus when I attended at the KuringalI was in] It is now the place to mention that the general termKuringal includes two [crossed out - slightly] different forms of the same ceremonies, which are resepctively called from the characterof the ceremonie [sic] Būnan (1) and Kadja-walūng (2). Thedifferences between these two ceremonies and their identitieswill be seen from the following statements. Here it willsuffice to say that broadly speaking the Bunan is distinguishedfrom the Kadja-walūng ceremony by the former having a circularmound within with the preliminary ceremonies take place, anda small sacred enclosure at a distance connected with theBunan by a path. This form connects the Kuringalwith the Būrbŭng of the Wiradjuri [crossed out - and] the Bora of theKamilaroi and the Dora of [?some?] Queensland tribes.The Kadja-walūng ceremonies disperse with the circularmound and the small sacred enclosure is represented

[footnotes at the bottom of the page](1) from [?probably?] Bŭning = to knock or strike, having reference to theknocking out of the tooth. (2) Raw, or not roasted havingreference to the absence of the [crossed out - Roasting] Fire ceremony whichis part of the Būnan.

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0149 16/11/1881 Hobbes, Merriman to Howitt



1/Division of Tribes + Sub Tribes - correct"Katungal = means Sea coast - i.e. Twofold Bay to Sydney - andnorthwards - includes 90 mile beach to South."Murrin - means Sister in law - and country inhabited by them isas described - extends to Gippsland - beyond this in the moun-tains men are called Gundunrook [Gundunrook is underlined] -"Bimeringal and Gundanrook - almost identical in meaningthe former extends from Parramatta and round the limits of the Murrin or Marriwan country Woradjeri - the name of the tribe - Kunamildan (meaning "come inthe night" being the name of the sub-tribe - this people onlycame down to the coast, sneakingly not boldly at night - Kill a Murrinman and go away again directly, Merriman's father - named Ugaridgeroo - (meaning Flood-tide) was thus killed, he was Biambun(old man, or King) of Wallaga tribe of MurriwanYuin - is a general tribal name of aborigines from Sydney to Merimbula = beyond this to Cape Howe - [?Maru? - could be Mairu] [Maru underlined] but all areKatungal"In the Katungal country the names of animals +c are thusKangaroo - Booroo Bream - Buri* Bush rat or Bandicoot = Merrijigga Mullet - WarigilaCrow - Wa go-ow Wild Duck - WombaraFisherman Jack - Birimbamin Native Dog - MerriKongwari [Gunimbil crossed out] is a general name for dogs of all kinds wild aswell as tame = Gunimbil is not known" names of animals were not general amongst the YuinMerriman can only remember two - one a Broulee man namedWarrigal [Warrigal underlined] (native dog) and another Murrira [Murrira underlined] (Emu) other nameswere Burruwalwa [Burruwalwa underlined] (one who know s everything) Ouwiti [Outwiti underlined] (canoe) Kumbo(marrow) Nyerriwang (thunder) Bulleer [Bulleer underlined] (dust) Kayan [Kayan underlined] (very top peak ofthe Dromedary) Mundu pira (stone tomahawk) Merriman's name is

[written under a line drawn at the bottom of the page]* The other names in your list are alike

Last edit 9 days ago by J Gibson

hw0152 Jiringal language at Bega from Bega Charley



Jiringal language at Bega - per Bega Charley

(j) Jiringal language at BegaBega Charley

Man- PaiūlWoman - ngūligaHead - KábanHair - yárraEye - málbranose - I'gilTongue - ThállūnHand - Káruing-ainThumb - NgákūFoot - Djin-aSun - Nau-aMoon - Thau-a-raFire - KaubiWater - NgokaMy - NgáialluThem - indigalHis - wurtuOne - mittungellitwo - bullakurlathree - pallum urfour - nuriafive - Karroingalsix - Karrinngal-mittingalseven

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

hw0153 Precis of information as to the tribe of Aborigjnes inhabiting the country between Mallagoota Inlet Victoria + Shoalhaven NSW



2and the Nelligan River [sic]; the Kŭrial from the NelliganRiver [sic] to the Shoalhaven River; and the Bimeringal livinginland about Braidwood. But this latter name seemsto have been applied also generally to the people who livedinland and in the mountains while the term Katŭngalwas applied to the residents of the coast itself.-

More distant tribes who occasionally made warlikeraids over the mountains were called Woradjeri orKūnamildan.

The men living between the Turon River + [?Caujola?] Riverwere also called Yūin.

There seem to have been in this tribe as in other Australiantribes class names, (or family names) of which the followinghave been given me as examples among the Yūin.Kaualgar = Kangaroo Gūragūr = Kangaroo ratWŭngali = Bushrat Mŭnyŭnga = Eaglehawkwa-go-ra = crow Gŭrŭngaba = PelicanBirimbamin = Cormorant Bŭmaga = IguanaMŭrŭmbŭl = Brown snake Bŭrimi = BreamGūmbera = Black snake merigongKongwari = wild doggūnimbil

My informant could not state the various classesor how the various names were permitted to intermarryor how the names were inherited. I therefore giveover leaf two tables showing [crossed out - the] a typical example- namely that of the Kamilaroi tribes - in which thetwo primary classes, the four sub classes, and the family names(totems) are given together with the law of marriage and descents.Can you complete those of the Yūin?

Last edit 9 days ago by J Gibson

hw0150 Notes on the Guyangal and Kurial



43When a man dies and his friends do not knowwhat killed him the Gommera is called in.[The Go - crossed out] [He climbs up a - crossed out] The dead man is wrapped upin a possum rug. His corroboree things are with himstuffed under his head or any where there is room. A sheetof bark is rolled round him and corded tight. Hisweapons have been given to his real friends. TheGommera then climbs up the tree which must be alarge [bushy one - crossed out] branching one. All the men thenpresent whether relatives of the dead man or notthen climb up after him into the branches.

The Gommera then shouts out "Kai" and looks up in the air. Then they all listen carefully for the voice of the deadman's tūlūgal (ghost).At length it is heard answering a long wayoff "Kai". If [the - crossed out] voice of the tūlūgal is clear and distinct he has died of some sicknessbut if it is dull and choky then he hasbeen caught with Jo-e-a. The Yūin alsothought that some deaths were from [sickness - crossed out][like - crossed out] colds like whitefellows sickness.

The Gommera could then tell them who had caught him. Ir if it were known that he hadbeen at some place before he died, for instance if a Moruya man had been to Bodallathen his father or brothers and a Gommerawould sneak down to that place and look outfor some blacks. It would not matter which onehad [done - crossed out] killed their man. If they could catchany one it would do as well. I remember ina case of this kind that Tumut or Goulburnmen [people - crossed out] came over and killed 25 Braidwoodpeople men, women and children. They putsome "gūbbŭrra" in their grog, and as they were having a drunken spree and allsucking out of the same bottle they all died.

If they killed these people they would not eatany part of them, but would rub their kidney faton the Būndi or gūdjūrū or other weapons.This would be just the same if they killedwild blacks such as Woradjeri.

[written in left side margin]See marginal noteon last page42

31tūlū = hole = cavegal = belonging to



Last edit 11 months ago by ALourie

hw0163 Notes on the Maneroo or Ngarigo



Frog- Jirry-go-ratSnake- Ji-ju-cungIguaua- Goor-oo-aulLizard- Jirra-brung-anLocust- Goo-lara-joo-larnGrub (tree) Cub-i-pueSleoth (a) Boo-karngMosquito- Meooluck-marMarch Fly-Mroo-nun-jungBlowy Fly- GnarkooShoo Fly- Goon-er-gong-euBulldog Ant-Jab-u-raStingray far out Jal-ba-gungButterfly- Jir-rabin-binSpider- Sua-grahNegro-War-de-addyone eyed- Mobbarah.mittungBlink-Woolloo.thoo bookBlink one time- MittungBlink two times- BoolarlarBlink three times Boolar-wartungGreat Many Pt-long one syllables very longVery Large- Yluuling

Last edit about 1 year ago by Kurnai

hw0164 Notes on the Maneroo and Ngarigo



(Ngarego Mickey) 2 12Doctors, Wizard A Doctor was called Mŭrimalŭndra.A Wizard was called Būdjan-belanThese men made use of white stones Thagū= Kūrha_Kūri bong (Thagū Kūrha= white) and black stones Thagūk Kūribong (Thagūk= black)

Ghosts A spirit was called Mai-ŭl. A ghost was called Birek-bang.

Burial A dead person was tied up tight – the hands placed on either side of the face = open and the knees drawn up to the head. All was tied up tightly. The grave was sometimes like a round well, sometimes had a side chamber. The lower part of the grave was filled in with wood and stones and the the [sic] upper part with earth.

Dreams A dream was gŭng-ŭng mūn = nūng-ya. It was believed that they could see ghosts (Birek-bang) in dreams.

Bogong moths The Ngarego used to go up the mountains to eat Bogong moths= ngū-e-ang - at the Murumbidgee [sic] and the Queenbeyan [sic] blacks went with them. The moths were found among the rocks.

Names of tribes The Queenbeyan [sic] blacks were called Ngye-mŭbch-mittŭng, Cooma blacks = Ngarego mittŭng.Bega blacks = Waral mittŭng Bondi blacks = Binai mittŭng ≠ Bendocblacks = Bidwell mittŭng, the Tumut blacks = Woradjeri mittŭng. Men along the coast were Katŭng-gal and those further up than Bega = Kŭrial. The open plain country was called Bimŭng

Last edit 9 days ago by J Gibson

hw0411 Notes on Map from Frank James and Tongai-Jimmy



Bidwelli - from Tongai-Jimmy

Bidwelli 101 Class names - the tribal name2 classes + locality3 connubrium4 Headman5 Initiation6 vocabulary

man - map - white man mŭminūgawoman - kŭrgŭthead - tūdūkeye - mé or minnanose - kongtongue - tallingear - wringhair of head - mŭnajākŭlhand - brütthumb - yŭkan brütfoot - jinnungfire - mrütwater - yaansun - nowŭn or wūrinmoon - yártinmy ialli

thy ningalung 11his nungalungmy footone ko-tekitwo - bolŭngthree - [bo - crossed out] bonglalandŭk4 - bolŭng bolūng5 - yotŭt6 yotŭt10 - bolŭng gū20 bolūng ginnūng

Tongy - of Borumpa - at this sideGrandfather of Buchan mittungGrandmother from OmeoFather - born at CannMother born at Buchan Gelantipy[written in pencil - other father shot] my other father was shot at Cannand two cousins - their mother of Bruthen[of Bruthen - crossed out] Willy Bunjil'sfather of Bondi and his motherfrom BegaTongi's wife from Buroopa

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie

hw0436 Notes by Howitt on Omeo 'tribe' and letter from Bulmer



1Omeo TribeJohn Buntine Esq J P Tongatha

TribesI was about 14 to 15 when I went to Omeo with Mr McFarlane.Tha Blacks or any of them who are left will know me wellby the name of "McFarlane's Johnny!"The Omeo Blacks were divided into two tribes.The Thed-dora who inhabited the country up the LivingstoneCreek from the Township, the Jim + Jack and Butcher'sCountry = the Victoria Plains. These people knewof Dargo where they used to go to kill the Dargo Blacks.A young fellow known as Theddora Johnny was my principal informant. It was he that wentdown with McFarlane to Gippsland. The Blackfellowthat went with McMillan was named Friday.The Omeo tribe lived about the Plains, the Mitta Mittaand over eastward where they joined on tothe Maneroo tribes. They also extended down Bindi to Tungeobut not as far as Numlamungie.

Medicine MenTo this part of the whole tribe belonged Metokothe Head wizard and Doctor. "Old cockey"who was a Doctor and "Cobbon Johnny" whowas then Head fighting man.Metoko was supposed to be able to blow something likecobwebs out of his mouth up to the sky and then toclimb up to Drŭm-ŭ-lŭn.I remember when about a hundred blacks, men, womenand children went down to Gippsland underthe protection of the whites and camped at Heyfield(McFarlane's) that when one of the men was sickOld Cockey went into the hut to cure him. The cookwas sent by us to watch proceedings through the openingsbetween the slats at the back of the Hut. He reportedthat Cockey turned down the blankets from the sick man. That he then sucked his stomachabout the navel and then ran to the door- blew out a great puff of wind, jabberedsome words clapping his hands together at the same time and ran back after shutting the door to repeat the performance.

Bull roarerOnce when in the blacks' camp at Omeo stationOld Cockey being there alone he shewed mea wooden instrument a few inches long - withnotched edge, and tied by its pointed end to a stringat the end of which was a short stick handle.

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie


2He told me that it [that it - crossed out] was used by the Blacks butmust not under any circumstances be shownto women or children. He then put it backinto his bag and went to the fire. I then took itout and began to swing it about. I [sic] instantly snatched it from me and put it back. He seemed angry and said that if women or children saw it something dreadful would happen.

I remember hearing of a great fight which occurred near Nimlamungie. It was a little higher up the river than the crossing above the old station. The Omeo men sneaked the Bruthen blacks who were camped there. This was at break of day and I think but am not sure that “Cobbon Johnnyled them. The Omeo men were victorious. Theddora Johnny who was present told me that the Omeo men having killed several young men of the enemy cut them in two at the waist and hung up the lower half in their camp for food. He also added that blackfellow was better food than whitefellow as the latter was salty. The attack was made in retaliation for a surprise some time before by the Bruthen blacks upon the Omeo men. The Omeo men believed that the Bruthen men had had the advantage before because their Wizards could turn themselves into crows and thus fly about and watch the motions of the Omeo people.This was how the Omeo people accounted for the Gippsland blacks coming upon them unawares.

The Omeo men used when making their waddies to grease them and put them out in the sun. I remember that once [whe - crossed out] I was going to take hold of a waddy being thus treated when the owner (Ingebeira) ran to me and said that if I touched it I should get a very bad hand. He was quite angry with me.

The Omeo men used to take out the kidney fat of slain enemies and rub themselves with it when they went out to fight.

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0391 Notes by Howitt on Kulin from Barak



The Kulin TribeInformant Berūk (white grub in gum tree)otherwise King William of the Yarra tribe.

Mr Cameron learns fromKing David thatKubitche = WaaKroki = Bunjil

[Margin Note:] Avoka – or Boka Dick

The men of this tribe are all called Kūlin in distinction from those of alien tribes who are regarded as wild men and named as follows: -Gippsland blacks beyond Tarwin River = Bér-bira or Méy-metBeyond Geelong = B Warrije = Far off - Bek = countryat Echuca = Méy-metThe bounds of the country occupied by the Kulin were these: from the Tarwin River in Westernport round the spurs of the Australian alps to beyond the Broken River; and extending westward to beyond Geelong – to Mt Macedon, Kilmore Murchison and probably Wangaratta. ——[Margin note:]1 – W2 – W3 – B5 – W6 - BEach tribe has its particular locality which they consider a sort of inheritance - Buckley p. ?7]The Jajowurong tribe adjoining the Kūlin on the North west was regarded as friendly; The Mey met […] Ber-bira were not so regarded.The Kulin tribe was divided into Hordes of which the following […] the principal; of […][Marginal text:ballŭk = a number of peopleūrŭn = white gumjerrirŭk = mourning birdngarŭk = stonesKūrūng jang = red ground[?]Neera = a deep gullyalso the Nir-ballŭkfrom Nir = cavespoke Thagun wūrŭng fromThagun = No - lived on watershed of Campaspe down to [...] ]Hordes Class Wives to Wives from1. ūrŭndjeri ballŭk Kew waa wöe Būlūk willŭmCranbourne waa wöe woey wūrŭng language3. Ngárŭk willŭmDandenong būnjil wöe woey wūrŭng language4. Būnwūrŭng Mordiallok būnjil wöe boon-wūrŭng5. Kūrūng jang ballŭkWerribee waa woey wūrŭng6. gūnŭng willŭm ballŭk

Mt Macedon būnjil wöe woey wūrŭng7. Nira ballŭkKilmore Waa thagūng wūrŭng8. Būthera ballŭk Seymour būnjil thagūng wurung9. Yowŭng illŭm ballŭkAlexander waa thagūng wurung10. Waaring illŭm ballŭkMuddy Ck būnjil thagūng wurung11. Yeerŭn illŭm ballŭkBenalla būnjil thagūng wurung12. Būn mūrŭng ballŭk

Cape Schank Waa boon-wūrŭng12 13. Ballŭng Kara-mittŭng-būlaWangaratta būnjil (does not know) 13 14. Wŭdthowrŭng ballŭkGeelong bunjil Wadtha-wurung14 15. Ngūralŭng būlaMurchison Same Būnjil Ngur-ai- illŭm Ngūrai ilŭm wrūrung

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0390 Notes by Howitt on the Kulin Nation



The Kulin Tribe


Other tribe 68 & 72Wurundjeri – 67Boonorung - 67

Boundaries 67, 53-54, 59 and tribes of Kulin Nation - 11Mitialūn? 8 – 9 – 50 56. Death 10 – medicine men 10, The Bone 11. Kidney fat 12.Burial 62 13 – ghost – 141 Murup of animal 16 – Eaglehawk carries off child 18 – Messengers 56. Visitors 3.[?]Sex totems 41 18 – Bunjil legend 56 22 – Infanticide 22 – Bunjil went up 23 – World groups 23 – Burning the land 23 –Signal left at camp 24 – Blood feud 43 25 – Wūiberi’s song 30 – Dream of Kangaroo 31. 5Food prohibitions of novices 32 – Headman 5 33-34-35-38 39-55-56 Stealing tomahawk stone 36 – Tomahawk quarry 38Totems – stars 57 44 – Pleiades 45 – Stars 56 Mariné bek[?] 50 47 – Nose boring 49 – Waang & Bunjil sticks 50 – Country will one hand over[?] – 51 – Smoke Signals 52 – Jajaurong 53 – Thunder 55. Bull roarer 55Widows 55 - Languages 58 – clans ([...]) 58 – Exchange of food 59 - 60.Camping rules 66 Buckley 61. Wifes mother 61 – Six wives – one Headman 62.Ngamat – 62 - 63 The sun & moon 63 – aurora 64 – old people, care of 64, - Bunjil 64Bringing back the dead murup 65 The Wurūnjeri – 53. 59. 40. 1Border of Kulin & tribes having Krokitch & Ganitch at St Arnaud.Captain” – whose “mir” is Moiwilluk a [...]. “[D..]” who is Garilunka[?] […]Theddura mittung at great Kulin meeting 67Names of Redgum & Banksia 67.Names of places – 68 Jajauwong 54Bilbileri 36, 39Turnbull 34 34 A, 39Bebejern - 37 Bŭngerim 46 Malcolm – 39 The Kŭrnŭng-willum tribes – p 39. 37. 3, [...]_______________________Latrobe PapersCannibalism .p 1 - war implements -10 – Billibileri – 10 – Gippsland blacks 11Signal fire p 3Chiefs – 4. Old men 4. 5. [E..] men 9.[2 words illeg] 5. good feeling any[?] them[?] 5.Burial 5. Orphans 6. Marriage 6. Laws 6. Murder 7 […]alliance of tribes 7. would never die for[?] 8 Kidney fat 8Dances 8 – games 8 – Bunjil 11, Bunbeal[?] 11, [...] 11, Making of men -12The flood 13 – Wind 13 – Thunder 13 – Native bear 13 – Wombat 14D.. 15 – Murrina Koodung[?] 15 – Camps 15 – Fight between [Dan..] and Buninyong[?] blacks north of Melbourne 17 – […] of different tribes together 19.ceremony of Jenderrum 20 – of Murrum Jukkerook 22 ceremony of Tib-bib 23.

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0146 Howitt notes of the Gringai



4 13 Written in the left hand margin towards the bottom of the page: I think there is some reference here to a custom stated by [?Brouch?] Smythe or another that the name of the deceased is never mentioned and that any relatives who bear his name change it. J.F.

aloft to the sky which is over a large part of Southern Australia one of the wizardssupposed powers. In fact all that can be gathered on this subject will have exceptional value for comparison with the pretensions of the “medicine men”.

In connection with this the question alsoarises - do the Gringai regard the sky as a silid vault? If so what is there beyond. [sic] The usual belief is that the sky issolid; that “ghostland” is beyond it where lives the great spirit, Baiamai, Kven, Bunjil, whatever his name Maybe together with the ghost; to whomascends the Wizard [sic] through a holeor door. ——-

J is written and circled in blue What is supposed to become of the spirit of the dead man or woman?It seems that the spirit is supposed fora time at least to remain near, e.g. during the burila when the body is questionedNote which Mr Dawson says about “changing names” on the death of a father. This statement is entirely new to me.

K is written and circled in blueIs it possible to find out as to the Bira:for instance ask any particular Dora,the last one held for instance.(1) who ordered it to be held(2) who attended it - i.e. from which localities.(3) who prepared the Bora ground(4) were there not some “magical ceremonies”performed by the Koradjis after the women were sent away and before the tooth was knocked out? Such for instance as the apparent bringing (crossout) up,out of the wizardsstomach of bones, stones etc. (5) what became of the tooth?(6) what was the punishment where boys eat forbidden food. [sic]

Last edit 7 months ago by Margaret T. Newman

hw0185 Howitt notes on the Wolgal



[left column]Murray Jack - Malian- Yibaiwas born at Thalbungun a mountainat Head of Tumut River famous for WambatsJack Johnny MragulaMan - murrinewoman - Kowamba - BallanHead - Kudagong Hair YerungEye - GoondoveNose - NoorTongue TallangHand MannamaninThumb Nadjan - dittoFoot - Mai-dowaSun - MammaitMoon - GoondawangFire WattaWater Najūngmine indigithy - ngaimbahis - ngaim ba junmaind-wa indigi1 = mitambo2= blŭlla3- blŭ-mittŭng4- bai ūlanga number= yabŭng

The name of the fallsin the [??] Riveris Langeri-yan-yura

[right column]Johnny Mragula is WalgalWalgal LanguageNganain = yesWan-a-gain = No

Boundaries of the Walgal countryCowombut - down River to Tom Grogginto Wheelers - Cudgewa - as far[as far - crossed out] as Walariganya River joining theMurray - at Albury on WūrajeriMitta Mitta all Thed-doraOvens River all Kūlinto Tumberumba - AdelongKilmore Ck to TumutDown Tumut to GundagaiGoloot - Cullinbong - Lambing Flatto Yass - Queenbeyan [sic] - MicalagoCooma - Kiandra - Lobs Hole- Thelbingūng Mountain - thenaccross to Cowombut

Wolgal class system + totemsMeroongEaglehawkBellet Bellet - Lyre BirdNadjinajan - BatBullemba - Flying SquirrelMundarung - little Dittonamung - Bk snakemoolau or munjea - FishBut the wark - mopokeCownga - Bk opossumWa-at Red Wallaby

YukembruckCrowBraagur - Small HawkTchuteba - Rabbit ratBow-wur Squirrelnext in size toBullembaBurroo KangarooBeribang EmuBud-da-luk IguanaKooioor Nt CompanionCorr-on Porcupineo-loon-ban Sleeping Lizard

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-34-12 Howitt to Fison 29 July 1880



When old King [?] was present the mourners thought they sawthe body move when put in the case - in this case a [?grave] putdirect on the bank of the [?] River - they all "fell back fromthe hole and the [?dead] man went up - he said - "What do you dothat for - we make you quite comfortable - why didn't you stopquick?" Then the hole was filled up with stones & soil.

I have sent out a circular on the subject of ghosts [?] [?]which replies are now coming in confirmatory of oldKing Williams statements as to the ghost leaving the bodyin sleep, the burial is to prevent the returtn of the dead, or thecarrying round of the dead to his old haunts, and alsothe offering of food to the [?manner] of the deceased! This willbe a most important piece of evidence. The worst of it isthat the evidence comes in but slowly - If I could only [?]myself into the [?] field I could garner in to somepurpose. However as I cannot I must do the next best - namely stir up my fifty two correspondents and addto their number. Our correspondent Mr A.L.P. Cameron isworking with a will - he has a decided turn for theseenquiries and has taken inhand a group of tribesabout the junction of the Murrumbidgie & Murray andacross to the Lachlan. I have got him well posted upand in my last letter from him he says "my informant'sa very intelligent old fellow has promised to try and get me[add-crossed out] admitted to a Dora they are going to hold and if I succeed I shall try to get initiated - even at the risk of losinga tooth." No other progress much to record except that I havegreatly excited the curiosity of the Black Queensland trackersstationed at [?Derrallen], by my questiobns. My police constablecorrespondent says in last letter " they are much pleasedand say how can a white fellow know all this. "I maybe able

Last edit 3 months ago by HelenB
All 19 records