Howitt and Fison Papers

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Search for "Old Merriman" Ūmbara* Merriman* Umbara* Wambara*

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Merriman is at the Aboriginal Station at Tilba Tilba - Waloga Lake.Larry says that the Kurnai had certain animals, birds, fish&ctwhich were called the Thundun that is elder brothers.

His father when Larry was a small boy, say eight years of agepointing to a small birk [sic] which frequents the shores, "that is yourbudjan, do not hurt it. He has never injured one, nor would he eatit, and would be very sorry if any one did so in his presence. Thisbird is called the Blit-burring.

Larry belongs to the Malagoota Krauatun Kurnai, who are alsoclaimed by the Yuin, as of their tribe. The term Budjan is a Yuin word but is the same as the Kurnai term Thundun, as being the "totem".

Billy the Bull is a yalmerai (shark). When there are too manyabout the Lakes entrance he sends them away by singing to them. Hebelongs to Lake Bunga.

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LanguagesNgarego ‘The word ngarego is the name of the language spoken by this tribe – the district name of the tribes men being “Murring” = men.They called the language of the Theddora, Kŭ[n]dūng-orūr and that of Gippsland Kūng-ela.Wild blacks were called Bŭdara [crossed out]’

Yuina lie = Bŭrnam-ganŭp or ?Miraian?Smoke = tūnkū-miláMerriman

'Yuin1 = Mittŭng-ŭlla2 = blageralea3 = Balli-mŭrma4 = Karoungial5 = Yirkūr6 = Karŭng blageralla10 = Ngaru mangalCharley Buipin

Braidwood tribeThe language spoken in [?is] Tarawal. Ridley p. 94 says that the language at Pt Jackson is Turuwul- where tullung = tongue.at Bermagui, Moruya and Bunilee [or Burilee or Durilee] the language is Wodi Wodi.Ridley says the language at Shoalhaven and Wollongong is wudi-wudi [?wadi wadi] - p. 111

MaryboroughThe Booral language is known to all the triblets referred toEach tribute varies slightly in its language (dialect)as you know a man's triplet [??] peculiar words he uses. H.E. Aldridge.

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runs thus:-,mula-mule Kuruitba tariararaGuialtura nanga ebermeranga.

Note ) Mula-mule - platypus, Kuruitba - large rock, tariarara-bend of river.

The singer said that the words spoke of a platypus sitting on arock in the river, and that the song came to his tribe from the[Richmond River- crossed out]. Whether this statement is well-founded I cannotsay, but the man spoke with certainty and apparent candour.

at p 4 BardsYuinIn the Yuin tribe. [men who composed corroboree songs were- crossed out][called - crossed out] Some men obtained their songsin dreams. Some when [walking- crossed out] waking. Of the latter isMerriman who composes his songs mostly when in his boat tossing on the waves (see p. )Some men make “social songs” - some "corrobboree dancesongs" - some compose songs for Initiations– but many songs of all kinds have either been handed down from time immemorial or brought from a distance.

MaryboroughTurribulIt was Biral who [first - crossed out] inspires their makersof corrobboree songs.H E Aldridge [??] legends

The Medicine men who makes songs ([Bards- crossed out])either obtain them when they go under ground orwhen they go up in the air. But there are other men (Bards) who make songs when in the campThos Petrie

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6A (9)As connected with magic, or rather with the supernatural, [the - crossed out][following song may serve- crossed out] Kurburu song serves as an example. It brings into view acurious belief in some supernatural connection [supernaturally - crossed out] between beastsand man which is found in so many Australian [beliefs] legends and tales.

It was composed and sung by a bard named Kurburu who livedmany years ago in the early days of the settlement of the countyby the whites, near where the town of Berwick now stands [in the - crossed out][Western Port District - crossed out]. He was supposed to have killed a "nativebear" [(Note) Phascolarctos cinereus- crossed out] and being possessedby its spirit (murup) henceforth chaunted its song.

Kurburu's Song

Enaguroa nung ngalourma

There now cut-a-cross

barein gurukba murnein

track blood ?

burunbai nganungba

hurt myself

lilira muringa

[chipped tomahawk(with). (Note_ - crossed out] I was notable to obtain a satisfactory verbatim translation of this song.

The singer, Berak, gave me the following free translation, "Youacross my track, you spilled my blood, and broke your toma-hawk on me.The time with two short sticks, while an appreciative ring audience stood round

Umbara's Song

Galagala binja buninga ngali

Capsizing me striking me

winbelow jena ngarauan udja

(the) wind blows hard (the) sea long stretched

kandubai buninga melinthi buninga

between striking hard hitting striking

ngali mulari binja buninga

me dashing up me striking

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6B following A

[As to Wenberi's song I my- crossed out]Wenberi's song as given by Dr. Torrance differs slightly froma it as I wrote down from Berak sometime before, which with its translation [of which - crossed out] runs as follows.

"Nge tuigar ngala ngibenba ngalungawe go all the bones to all of them

dindirnding nga Dullen wilnitshining white in this Dullen country

warreindung Bunjil mamen-ngata yerriniThe rushing noise of Bunjil father ours singing

thulurm eik nga wurugaluk eikin breast mine this inside mine

Berak said that this song was made on the death of Wenberi'sbrother who died through evil magic in the Dullen countrybeyond Geelong. (The corroboree song?)

used to go out a mile or more from the coast in their bark canoeto spear fish.

As an example of his songs, I give one which he composed whengoing down the coast in his boat to attend the Kuringal [initiation - crossed out] cere-monies which I have described in chapter - [a previous paper- crossed out][Note "Australian Ceremonies of Initiation" "Journ. Anthrop.- crossed out][Inst", May, 1884- crossed out]

He sang the song in the evening, sitting by his camp fire and beatingtime with two short sticks, while an appreciative and admi-ring audience stood round.

Umbara's Song

Galagala binja buninga ngaliCapsizing me striking me

winbelow jena ngarauan udja(the) wind blows hard (the) sea long stretched

kandubai buninga melinthi buningabetween striking hard hitting striking

ngali mulari binja buningame dashing up me striking

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6diulirunding nga Dulur wiluitshining white (in) this Dulur country

Wa WEINDUNG Bungil mameng-ngata yeninThe noise rushing (of) Bunjil father ours singing

tgulurmeik nga wurngaluk -eik.(in) breast mine this inside-mine

Other poets composed under what may be called naturalinfluences as distinguished from supernatural. Umbara, the bardof the Coast Murring told me that his words came to him "not insleep as to some men, but when tossing on the waves in his boatwith the waters jumping up round him." [(Note) He- crossed out] This man is a fishermanand owns a good Sydney-built boat, which he manages with the aidof his wife. In the olden times these "sea coast men" (katungal)used to go out a mile or more from the coast in their bark canoeto spear fish.

As an example of his songs, I give one which he composed whengoing down the coast In his boat to attend the Kuringal [initiation- crossed out] cere-monies which I have described in chapter - [a previous paper- crossed out][Note "Australian Ceremonies of Initiation" "Journ. Anthrop.-crossed out][Inst", May, 1884- crossed out]

He sang the song in the evening, sitting by his camp fire and beatingtime with two short sticks, while an appreciative and admi-ring audience stood round.

Umbara's Song

Galagala binja buninga ngaliCapsizing me striking me

winbelow jena ngarauan udja(the) wind blows hard (the) sea long stretched

kandubai buninga melinthi buningabetween striking hard hitting striking

ngali mulari binja buningame dashing up me striking

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(Note) winbelow This is a curious instance (as to be noted as to) the manner inwhich English words are being engrafted on the aboriginal lang-uages. "winbelow" is really "the wind blows". I am unable to say how it is that "binja" and "ngali" both mean"me" in the same grammatical construction.

This may be freely but yet not incorrectly translated much asUmbara himself explained it to me, "Between the furious wind andthe dashing waves of the long stretched sea I was nearly upset"I have mentioned songs which are accompanied by rhythmicalgestures or by pantomime which greatly adds to the effect. A favourite one, which I have seen, describes the hunting of anopossum and its extraction from a hollow log by the hunter, whois the principal singer, and his assistants. Every action offinding the animal, the ineffectual attempt to poke it out of itsretreat, the smoking it with fire, and the killing of it by thesong but also by the concerted actions and movements of theperformers in their pantomimic dancing.

A very favourite song of this kind has travelled in late years from the Murring to the Kurnai. It was composed by Mragula, (p-)who it may be added was a song maker in his tribe the Wolgal(a noted song maker of the Wolgal), described his attempt to crossthe Snowy River in a leaky bark canoe during flood. the pantomimicaction which companies this song is much fuller than the wordsand is a graphic picture of the pushing off in the canoe, thepaddling into the stream, the gaining of the leak, and after anineffectual attempt to bail water out by hand, a hurriedreturn to shore. Then the whole being carefully stopped withadhesive mud, the performers again put off and paddle across.the words are in the Wolgal language, and therefore quite unint-eligible to the Kurnai.

Mragula's Song

Buraaburai biajanu kumberneimo wurgaiamaQuickly talking make his (to) looking about

ngilingua burbundu malagua nunanow paddling this side (to)

Many other such songs could be given, but these will suffice toshow their character. Nor is it necessary to do more than topoint out that the comic songs all relate as far as I know tosome passing event. A favourite song of this kind with theMurring is about "going to Melbourne in the steamer," and I

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The Kurnai tribe also affords good instances of the manner inwhich kindred avenged the killing of one of their members, and howtherby a blood feud, ramifying on all sides may arise, finally involving not only the whole tribe but also neighbouring ones.

Such a blood feud arose usually out of homicide eitherby violence or the supposed affects of eviul magic. I carefully traced outone case of this taking frim its commencement to its end in a battle betweeenthe Kurnai clans about the year 1856-7.

When the Gippsland and Omeo natives had come better aquaintencewith eachother through the white settler, and this had becomemore or less friendly to each other, one of the Theddora men named BillyBlew obtained a Braiaka woman for his wife. When on a visit to hiswifes people he illused her and in consequence her father Kaiung foughtwith and speared him. Billy Blew's kin in return came down from the moun-taines and killed Kaiung, together with a Braiaka, they were assistedin doing this by another Braiaka called Lohni, the brother of Budawal, mentioned elsewhere. (p ). In revenge for this a man of the Dairgo (?) of the (?) clan, the sisterson of Kaiungs wife killed a man called Johnny Flanner (p ). the brother of Gliun-kong (p ), he and other relations of Johnny, finding his skin hanging in a tree at Aitkin's Straits, at the Gippsland Lakes, followed Dairgo Johnnyand killed him at Brin vale on Merriman's Creek in South Gippsland.

At this point I take up the account given of this feud as toldby Bunda-wal, which continues this history to its end. I give his account asI toook it down during his narrative to me. "I had two wives, bothfrom Brt-britta (p ), One of these had been married to the man who killedmy brother Johnny at Aitkin's Straits. I then collected asll the men fromBruthen, Wy-yung. and from Binnijeri (p ), for all my own men had died orbeen killed, so that there were only boys left. But these others were likemy own people. We all sneaked round to Merriman's Creek where we found

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having used Joias that is magical charms, with out actually killing the person, hewouldhave been allowed to have a friend to help him. His friends withtheir Gommera, stood at one side a little out of spear range, while the(Moruya]] men and their Gommera, stood at one side of thefriendsof the dead man.

It having been arranged now many of the dead man's fathers and brothers (?) tribe (I)should attack the defendant, the Gommera then told them what to do, andthey went forwards towards the Bodalla man, who stood alone expectingthem. At about thirty yards distance from him they halted for a shorttime to give him time to prepare himself for defence, then standing in aline facing him, they threw their boomerange anf then their spearsat hime. he beig wounded, his Gommera shouted out "Jin-ail" that is "Enough"and they ceased. No furhter action was taken in this matter, blood havingbeen taken.

In certain cases the Gommera took action to punish offences, directly. If a man was in the habit of "catching" people byevil magic (Joia), the Gommera might say to his young men " That man is verybad, he is catching people with Joia, you must kill him" He is then surrounded at someconvenient place and killed. Umbara in speaking of this said that hehad seen sucha aman after he had been killed look like a (?)(Echidna histrix). If a man killed another of his own local group of thetribe, or if a man revealed the bull-roarer to a woman, or any of thesecrets of the Kuringal, he was killed by the order of the Gommera. Insuch cases there was no expiatiory meeting, even when, as haswithin the knowledge of my Yuin friends, one of the culpritsown kindred was among those who carried out the Gommeras orders.Nor was there any expiation when a man killed one who had murderedhis kinsman, being of the same local group.

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Tatathi Initiations. 2

the boys.

That evening or the next evening the men tookthe boys back to the camp to show them to theirmothers. The women stood in a row. All the men came up in a crowd with the boys hidden in theirmidst. A fire had been lighted of green boughsand on this the boys stood covered by a rug, and each put his fingers into his nostrils to prevent himselfbeing smothered. Then each ngierep took his boyand placed him in front of his mother, so that she couldsee him, and then immediately drew him back into the crowd. All the boys having been thus shown, themen took them away to the bush where the boysremained for five weeks with all the young men, whotook care of them, instructed them, amused them, and fed them (with water and grubs). After this the boys still remained away for a time and were onlyallowed to eat the males of opossums.

This should follow the Wiradjuri ceremonies and addthis.

This account of the initiations of the Tatati, Wati Wati& Litchi Litchi raises this particular type of ceremoniesacross [the - crossed out] New South Wales from Sydney to near Wentworth.

It appears to have been peculiar to tribes of NSW but to have been participated in by the [River - crossed out] Victorian tribes onthe south side of the Murray River - that is among the northern tribes of the Wotjo nation - and the tribeswhich farther up the Murray River were situated between it and theKulin tribes.

Umbara the tribal bard of the Yuin in speaking to meof the ceremonies of the tribe (see p-) These go all the waydown the Murray River on this side (stretching out his right hand) but on that side - stretching on the left - there is nothing.

From what I shall now say of the ceremonies of the Victorian tribes - Wotjoballuk and Kulin - my old friend Umbara was [?informant?] and [??] for he had been down that river as far as [??]

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MerrimanWambara - Duck - male descent

might [?marry?] Murumbul - Brown snake[?Iamangabalk?] - Porcupine?? ??ngarribarr - water hen

Old Jack said his son is [?Yackembrack?]

Bega blacks two namesKaualgar (Kaujaw) + Tirka (small night bird)

Bega CharlyNgatunadjan + Murumbul

Bat = Brother of men[??] [??] = sister women

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Mūrawrai = Emu wren brother

Biamban = Headman [??] [??]also Tharamulun = Gommera

These blacks have totemnames and perhaps tracesof class namesAbout Bega the individualhas two names e.g. Bega Charly= Ngallatajan (Bat) + Murumbul(Brown snake.[??] Bumapu +c the individualhas one name e.g. MerrimanWombara = Black duckOther names are Kanalga =Kangaroo, Iannangabatch = Porcupine, which is also calledGouran moura; Ngaribar= water hen ([?Papbyris?]) This is [on side margin] [?Jabberah?] name. descent- agnate

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2 Jemmy Quiro + wife - 21 Bega [??] wren2 Tall boy [wife crossed out] + daughter3 [Byalla] wife + child3 George Cohen + wife 2 daughters2 [?Jem?] [?Johnny or Thommy?] Hakins2 Blucher. Peter + son - [20 crossed out in far margin]2 Zachariah [??] 22Walga 2 Merriman + wife2 Jaka + wife2 Jacky Banett + [?2?] daughter2 [?Miller?] Benson + wife3 Campbell + wife+ son1 Peterman3 Walker + wife + 3 children2 Neddy - Walker father2 Hawdon + wife 22Moruya 2 - [?Rondy? or could be Kondy] Mickey + wife2 Harry [?Cook or Cork?] + wife2 Bob Curran + wife + child

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3 [?Fanly? or could it be Family] Carter - 3 children2 Dick [?Arclay?] + boy2 Abraham + wife2 Peter Thomas + son1 Mumbulla JohnnyManeru [sic] 3 [?Nammly?] + wife + 2 children 242 King Jackey - wife2 Mragula + son1 Mickey1 Curraway2 Lawson + son3 Tongai Jimmy + wife + daughter3 Mundy wife mother + 4 children 161 William [?Bungil or Bungie?]1 John [?Tuming?] - 23 Charly Boy - wife son + daughter 4

74 rations 922 # beef6 # Flour1/4 # tea3 # sugar 40 [?calla?] tobacco

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[???]

waal

MorningKatr = [???]

madjigaar dances [??][??]

Gun-jerun = Morning starMilkus name

Yarra-turra- dreams

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[?Cuncu??] goes for the [??]to the head + when [?? - looks like snore, could be more, ashore]goes walking about [??][?? - could be they] see frequent coming

Bem - la - ganwomanonly used at this camp

Jacks old [?man? - could be miss]Merriman at [?? - looks like Aibng]

ngum - bal - uru =river oak

nothing [??] has been used at[??] [??] [??] [??]Jackola- [??]

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ground the figure of Daramulunwith one leg - his tomahawknear - sheild, spears +c- then the footstep ofEmu - then next step-then Emu wherehe fell -

(Note the Daramulundong - Wondung)

Daramulun was a goodhunter [?once?] - he madethis [?? - looks like sery] - he has one bythe other is a sharp bone- Woman cannot knowof him - Men can only talk of himaway from the women.

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Murring - Wiradjurai = scarson arm + backto stop boomerang

A man's Joea is insideof him + the [?living?] man[?gives?] from [?? - could be nothing or no him?]

Merriman's Joea is Blackduck. He cannot eat kill- once in the night (sleep)Jem [could be Jim] [?ire?] sent his joea theIguana but Merrimanthen cut it out he

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9The Mudgi is held to have bee first made and metby Daramulun when in the beginning of things heinstituted these ceremonies and instititued the aboriginalsociety as it exists. The noise made by it is the voice of Daramulun [crossed out - which is also the thunder] calling togetherthe intitiated, and moreover it also represents thethunder which is said to have its voice "calling to the rainto fall and make the grass grow up green". (1)

Throughout this time the novices are kept in a constant state of excitement and uncertainty. Theperformances, songs and dance are performed alternatelyby the two tribal moieties one performing and the otherwitnessing, although the medicine men of both sidesdo their parts indiscriminately with either, or when thetotems are represented as referred [crossed out - I shall] to further on, whenmen from either moiety necessarily take part since the "moiety"in this instance represents the "local organization" and not the "social organization" (2)

At the end of each of the "Acts" if I may use the termthere is a short halt for rest. The men sit in thier campsand talk and smoke or even snatch "forty winks". The novices are told to lie down in such words as these "Now wehave finished. You can go to sleep till morning - Yah!"No sooner have the novices been settled under their rugs by theirguardians [crossed out - that] and [crossed out maybe] might be supposed to be dozingthan some old man rushes into the magic ring and commences a fresh set of performances, and the novices areat once rousted up and brought back to the fire.

The ceremonial performances [the ceremonial performances is underlined] All the men during theseperformances are, or should be, entirely naked and rubbed overwith charcoal powder and grease. Of the ceremonies perhapsthe greatest is that of the extraction of the tooth, for looking atthe Būnan variation of the [crossed out - cerem] Kuringal - it is clear that[crossed out - when] the time when the novices are taken away from thecircle and conveyed to the lesser enclosure after which the tooth is knocked out in another sacred spot this marks thatstage in the proceedings when the women are no longer permittedeven to participate in a slight degree in the ceremonies - [crossed out - and]In the Kadja nalung variation the same stage is markedby the abduction of the boys from their mother by the Kabosand the commencement of the procession for the encampment [crossed out - camp] to the secretplace when the tooth is knocked out.

[in left side margin](1) These were thevery words used by [crossed out - Umba]my old friend Umbarathe [crossed out - minstrel and] tribalbard and improvisatorewhen speaking to me of thesethings during the Kuringalceremonies

(2) see pp.-

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[7 or 2]Umbara (Black duck) who as thecorroboree song maker, and improvisatore of theCoast Murring had a well deserved reputation.

The tribe people who had collected to this Kuringalwere not only from the coast line but also from Braidwoodand Maneroo and numbered [crossed out - in all] men, womenand children in all 132. My contingent of Kurnaistarted from the Snowy River mouth to cross the wildBiduelli country but their guide lost his sight fromopthalmia when about halfway + they hadreturned. [Thus I was there alone - crossed out]leaving me as the only representative of the tribe.

After speaking with the old men for it [sic] little timeUmbara said that now I had arrived it wouldbe necessary to "frighten the women" - this being theset speech for the ceremony which always attendsthe arrival of a contingent.

The messenger who had conveyed my bullroarerhad some little distance to when he had it concealedunder a hollow log and swinging it round caused aloud roaring sound, at when the men startedfrom the council place towards the camp in singlefile and at a sharp run. Each man held a boomerang on the left and as they [crossed out - came] went rapidly[crossed out - forward] towards the camp, the boughs were systematicallystruck on the ground first on one side [crossed out - and] in frontand then in the other to the loud "Waugh" utteredat each step with great emphasis. This word ismost commonly shortened to Wah and maybe translated as "Halt, cease, finish". In thiscase it sees to be used to prevent the womenbecoming too excited about the boys. It is continually used as the final [??] in themagical part of the ceremonies. The moment thesound of the Bull roarer was heard withthe rapid Wah! wah! of the advancing [crossed out - line] ofmen, stomping in an advancing line among the trees, the women began to [??] aboutwill rolled up rugs and to sing the Bunan song [??]chant [??] [??] cause the tooth to beeasily knocked out of the [??] [??] [??]

[in left side margin]Iam-mukka [written next to line 2]

p. 5 [next to last line on page]

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A conts p 13On my arrival and after a talk at the [?Council?] place, themessenger entrusted with the Bullroarer swung it about its roaringsaw the men run [from the - crossed out] in a long line following Umbarawho held a boomerang in his hand. [??] others carrying boughs - one ineach hand - or a bough in one and a boomerang in the other.

They ran [?towards?] the camp in a long sinuous line each manexactly following the actions of the leader, rhythmically striking theboughs on the ground on alternate sides, with the word wah! onceor twice [they - crossed out] the leader and all his men stopped and raised theirboughs or boomerangs silently to the sky. When reaching thecamp the long line wound through it, stamping, waving boughsand shouting Wah!, visiting each hut, from which when visitedthe women + children hasted [sic] to join the others who hadassembled just outside the camp, when the line of men encircledthem twice, while the women sang the tooth song to the soundof the time beaten rugs. The men now arranged themselvesin a mass at the est side of the women and shouted[?all in about?] Wah! Wah! Wah! and the name of some placefrom which a contingent had [come -crossed out] arrived, until all hadbeen mentioned, the most distant places first.

This being done the men rushed rapidly and closely round the women and children so as to enclose themand having all shouted Wah! raised their boomerangs or if having none the right hand towards the sky. Their actionis the gesture signifying "the great Master" (Biamben)whose true but secret name it is not lawful to speakexcepting at the Initiation ground and at the Initiationceremonies.

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17whole of the ceremonies. He is the husband ofthe boys sister own [crossed out - and] or tribal, and must never leave himalone; if he is compelled to absent himself for a short timehe has to call some other man who stands in the [?relation?] ofKabo to the boy to take his place.

It is the duty of the Kabo to prepare the boy for theceremony coming by instruction, admonition, and advice andthis commences the moment the procession moves forward.One of the earliest, of not the first, instruction is that the boy must,under no possible circumstances show surprise, or fear,and that no matter which is said or done to him, he is not by wordor deed to show that he is conscious of what is going on, yet that he must narrowly observe everything and remember all he hears and sees. It is explained to him that everythingwhich he hears said, to which the word "Yah" is appendedmeans the exact opposite to the apparent sense.

This word Yah! was explained to me by two of the menwhere we started, my messenger Ienbin and Umbara thetribal bard or singer - one said it was like a white fellowsaying "I sell you" and the other added "like Gammon".The use of the word will be seen by illustrations farther in.

The intent of all that is done at this ceremony, is to marka momentous change in the boys life; this part is to be utterly cutoff from home by a gulf which he can never repass.His connection with his mother as her "boy" is broken offand he becomes henceforth attached to the men. All thesports and games of his boyhood are to be absolutely abandoned with the severance of the old domestic ties between himself and his mother + sisters. He is to be nowa man instructed in and sensible of the duties which devolveupon him as [crossed out - one of the] a member of the Murring community.To do all this is partly the object of these ceremonies andthe process by which this end is arrived at is a singularone. The ceremonies are intended to impress and terrifythis boy in such a manner that the lesson thus impressedupon him may be absolutely indelible and may govern the whole of his future life. But the intention is also,to commence in the interests of the serious rites. The ceremoniestherefore marked by what may be called

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2While the assembly is waiting the complete [??] ofnumber - each evening is spent in festivity. Corroboreesongs and dances are given. The various contingentsperform their dances for the pleasure of the others + thereis great rivalry in this. In that corroboree the boystake part with the men. In fact at the Kuringal theyshow what they can do. The costumes of the men isthe main belt, with kilt both before + behind.A headband tied

round the [?brow?] andthe body painted withpipeclay. The little boysi.e. the Kūringalhave on belts or kiltsThe Kūringal [?are?] these marks[3 images][written next to image of face] white bar across face

Or 1) the men have armlets of possum skin- Ringtail

The [??] corroboree was(1) one [crossed out - composed] taught byMurray Jack by his father(2) one composed by Merriman(3) one sung by theBega men about going to Melbourne in thesteamer.

Although the tunes wereall different yet being sungto the time beatten [sic] on the rugs - the same kindof dance could be [??]with each. The [?most?] [??][??] was the quivering of thethighs and the boysmade a point when theirturn came of keeping it up

as long as possible. The solos were either by the boys, one was by Charley Alexander'slittle boy - about 3 years old was especially applauded. Other solos were by the men - especially by the leader of the dancers - who also marked the time- Bega Charley. Old Lawson was as agiles as a grasshopper. The masters of theceremonies were Malian Yibai and Mragula. It was intendedto give on the following night the old well known Corroboree[??] + mali-malee tariarara +c which Murray Jackyhad heard first at Lambing flat - but heavy rain set inand prevented it.

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie

hw0149 16/11/1881 Hobbes, Merriman to Howitt

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Tilba Tilba N.S.W.16 Nov 1881

A.W. Howitt EsqSaleGippslandVictoria

Dear Sir.Your favor of the 5th Inst. reached me on Sundaylast, and I at once communi-cated with Merriman with reference to its contents.

I now return youherewith the enclosures forwaredto me, together with remarks andstatements as made by Merrimanon my reading over to him yourMSS. I have given his words

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie
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1/Division of Tribes + Sub Tribes - correct"Katungal = means Sea coast - i.e. Twofold Bay to Sydney - andnorthwards - includes 90 mile beach to South."Murrin - means Sister in law - and country inhabited by them isas described - extends to Gippsland - beyond this in the moun-tains men are called Gundunrook [Gundunrook is underlined] -"Bimeringal and Gundanrook - almost identical in meaningthe former extends from Parramatta and round the limits of the Murrin or Marriwan country Woradjeri - the name of the tribe - Kunamildan (meaning "come inthe night" being the name of the sub-tribe - this people onlycame down to the coast, sneakingly not boldly at night - Kill a Murrinman and go away again directly, Merriman's father - named Ugaridgeroo - (meaning Flood-tide) was thus killed, he was Biambun(old man, or King) of Wallaga tribe of MurriwanYuin - is a general tribal name of aborigines from Sydney to Merimbula = beyond this to Cape Howe - [?Maru? - could be Mairu] [Maru underlined] but all areKatungal"In the Katungal country the names of animals +c are thusKangaroo - Booroo Bream - Buri* Bush rat or Bandicoot = Merrijigga Mullet - WarigilaCrow - Wa go-ow Wild Duck - WombaraFisherman Jack - Birimbamin Native Dog - MerriKongwari [Gunimbil crossed out] is a general name for dogs of all kinds wild aswell as tame = Gunimbil is not known" names of animals were not general amongst the YuinMerriman can only remember two - one a Broulee man namedWarrigal [Warrigal underlined] (native dog) and another Murrira [Murrira underlined] (Emu) other nameswere Burruwalwa [Burruwalwa underlined] (one who know s everything) Ouwiti [Outwiti underlined] (canoe) Kumbo(marrow) Nyerriwang (thunder) Bulleer [Bulleer underlined] (dust) Kayan [Kayan underlined] (very top peak ofthe Dromedary) Mundu pira (stone tomahawk) Merriman's name is

[written under a line drawn at the bottom of the page]* The other names in your list are alike

Last edit 4 days ago by J Gibson
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2/Jubbuck [Jubbuck underlined] (throw the fishing line) These names do not seem to befamily [family underlined] names, only individual - Merriman's name for instance as was his fathers, is Watteen [Watteen underlined] (meaning a Point of land)"Intermarriages are common amongst the Yuin - cousins intermarry-ing frequently, the custom here being for a father who takes aliking to a young man to give his daughter to him to wife +if some other black takes her away before he has her, then theyoung man has to go after, and spear him. But much isleft to the free choice of the men, in marriage matters.Family [family underlined] names were employed but rarely amongst the Yuin, buteach child male + female inherited their father's name, but such names were so seldom used as to be almost forgotten, their ownpeculiar names being used. The boys were as stated, given at theBunan, the girls when a few weeks of age, by their parents.It is certain that the family names were given or descendedto all the children, and Merriman is of opinion that the fathersname descended to all the children - boys and girls alike.

Last edit 9 months ago by J Gibson

hw0150 Notes on the Guyangal and Kurial

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Old Merriman is Ūmbara=black duck. Harry Cook=járūat (a small owl);Bega Charly=nganajan (Bat; Tallboy-tiska (a small owl). Hawden= Kŭmbo. Jabberch- NgaribarThey have totem names and perhaps traces of the class names Bega Charly has two names - ngananaja (Bat) and Mŭrŭmbŭl=Brown snake; but this appears to include "the man's brother" - yet on Maneroo the Bat is a totem; at Bermagui the individual hasonly one totem name e.g. Merriman who is Umbara (black duck) [crossed out - but he also has what may] other totem names according to him areKaualga=Kangaroo - Jannangabatch= Porcupine which is also called Gouran- moura; ngaribár=water hen (Porphyris)[crossed out - and] These names are always inherited from the father.

The Bat and the Mŭr-au-rai (Emu wren) are the brothers of the men; and the "tree creeper" Tintegallan is the women's sister.It is said that it was the Mŭraurai that made the human sexes distinct by splitting up the then existing peopleand by them sewing them up again. To kill the tree creeper would greatly offend the women and cause them to fightwith the men. It is said that long ago there were no men and women on the earth but only animals birds reptiles +c. That therewere no trees and that the earth was bare and "like the sky as hard as a stone." Daramulun lived on the earth with hismother Ngal-al-bal. He placed trees on the earth. At this time when the earth was only inhabited by animals +c the landextended far out where there now is sea. The Thrush (Kabboka) when out hunting killed a wallaby and gave some of it tothe other birds. Those looking at it and smelling it said "it is going rotten" and complained about it. The Thrush being very much enraged, while the others were out hunting, commenced to dance and sing (the Tālmarū dance) until he caused a furious gale of wind to arise. Whirlwinds swept leaves, sticks and dust into the air, and torrents of rain fell and drowned the whole countryand all the people in it except some who turned into fish and some who crawled out on the land and became men andwomen. Some say that only two escaped - a man and a woman - who [crossed out - crawled] climbed onto Mt Dromedary and then escaped and from themall the Murring are descended. Daramulun at this time went up to the sky with his wife and his mother Ngal al balwhere he now is.

When at Bombala in June (?) 1882 - I was told as follows:Bega Jerry = Kaualga - Billinga (Kangaroo - grey magpie) which he received from his father. The Kangaroo itself gave him notice when hisfather was killed at a distance. One old man now dead had for his Jo-e-a -Winbore = Eaglehawk. [At B - crossed out]A young man from Bŭngŭlly south of Moruya gave his totem as Merit jigar (Long nosed bandicoot) and Jarauat = (owl) which he had from hisfather who told him when he was a little boy. A young man from Braidwood said he was "Nŭra" (?) which was also the totemof his father, who had told him that "no one should marry so as to mix the same blood, but must marry a woman of someother name than his own, and besides this go for a wife as far as possible from his own place." Thus his father being ofBraidwood went to Moruya for a wife, and if his wife had a brother the Braidwood man would have had to givehim his sister in exchange - or as he said as a "Kind of swap".On this subject Jerry said it is a rule that the "Waddy men" who get their living by climbing trees must go down tothe sea and get a wife from the people who get their living by fishing - the Waddy men and Fishermenget wives from each other. (note resemblance of these clans to the Aigicores - to the [?Oermorod?] +c of Attica)

Last edit 9 months ago by J Gibson
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Merriman however says that a boy gets his Būdjan from his father. His Būdjan is Ūmbara (black duck) he statesthat is inside him in his breast. Years ago when he was young some one of the Budjan Bŭrnaja (Iguana)sent it while he was asleep and that it went down his throat and almost eat [sic] his Budjan Umbara - and that inconsequence he became very ill and nearly died. He cannot eat his own Bûdjan and it in itscorporeal state gives him warnings against enemies + danger. Warnings are however given by a multitude ofthings - the rush of gas out of a log in the fire indicates the arrival shortly of some one at the camp. The tickling in oneman's nose indicated to him that some one would arrive - (as he said he would hear of some one - some one comingor some one dying)

Last edit 9 months ago by J Gibson
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6 The name is [more - crossed out] something like a Jo-e-a. If I were goingthrough the bush and saw a kangaroo comingtowards me I should have to look out for he would be [crossed out - telling] giving me a sign that blacks were someway off ahead looking out to kill me by spearing or by Jo-e-a. It would be the same if hecrossed before me from the left hand I shouldexpect the blacks to be close by on that side and to see methough I could not see them. [crossed out - The same] Ifhe crossed from the right hand then they wouldbe on that side. If you get a sign like thisyou must get your Jo-e-a bag out andcarry it in your hand for then the Jo-e-asof those people cannot touch you. But [crossed out - in the]it will not stop spears, so if you are the right sort of man you will get your shield and spear ready and keep a good look outand still go on.

It is the same with all other names. For aGūrūmbil man the wild dog would givea sign.

It would not be right to kill this Kangaroo if you were a Kaualga because he gave [crossed out - you] a sign but if he weregoing straight from you you could killhim.

There are several dialects in this tribe.The Yūin speak Tūrka; the people ofBega and Twofold Bay speak Daūra [crossed out - and aresaid to be half Yūin and half Gūyangal;]Those of [Wa - crossed out] Mallagoota Inlet speak [crossed out - Jiringan] wŭdi-wŭdiand those of Braidwood to Bania speak Jiringan.At Ulladulla it is half Tūrka andhalf Tarawal which is spoken from Bateman's Bay right into Sydney.Thus the language which is spoken by theGūrūngatta Kŭrial connects themwith the Wollongong Kŭrial orKatŭngal which last are spokenof as extending as far up asNewcastle.

[written in left side margin]Languages according to Merriman -Bega - JeringanTwofold Bay - Thaú-airaWolga LakeBermagui - Wadthi-wadthiWogonga Moruya TūrkaBrouliMoruya toBraidwood Tharawal

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie
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The old men Merriman, Charly +c all say that no totem may marry into itself. Jabberah, Brūpin + Geo. Cohen saida girl was often betrothed when a little child and her husband claimed her when she was grown up. A man had always toexchange a sister (own or tribal) for a wife. When a man had too many children he might probably give one to a couple whohad none. When a young man eloped with a girl he told his friends where to meet him and then was Jus.p.n. for one night.In case of pursuit, the pursuers if they caught the girl exercised this right also. It was the same with a marriedwoman who was unfaithful. In elopement the girl was brought back and severely beaten by her mother + sisters.The young man was perhaps killed when overtaken, or beaten, or if his pursuers feared his friends they would callupon him to come forward and submit to spear + boomerang throwing, and ordeal - he being armed with shield and theywith Kūjenūng. (Some said that he fought with her men + if victorious kept the girl). Men did not lend their wivesMen did not lend their wives to brothers but when a man's Iambi (Kūben) came on a visit - if the visitor was unmarriedhis Kūben found him a temporary wife by borrowing one from a friend. If the man were married he could notbe accommodated thus but would perhaps get some woman's favor by stealth. A widow went to her dead husband'sbrother or if none to some man chosen by her male relatives.A man provided his wife's father with food and divided all the game he caught with his group.A child was the father's own - a gift to the woman who merely nursed it for him and he could do as heliked with it. Many of the old men especially the Head Gommeras had more than one wife, as many even asten in one case but these men were in the habit of giving a wife to some poor fellow who had none andthereby securing his adherance - and at the same time reducing the tax of feeding so many himself.A man could not marry any "cousin" nor any woman of her own place or name - he must go to some otherplace for a wife and he had to exchange his sister for her. In the olden time women were obtained asfar off as Ben Lake [?Bemm?], Delegete [sic], Tumut, Braidwood + Shoalhaven.If a man disregarded these laws he was killed. Even his father or brother would do this (Rowdy Mickey loq.)The fight which Ienbin described re Waddiman was one re elopement - not re being a Gommera.

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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The scars cut upon the body werenot made at the Būnan but afterwards.I was not done as I was too much with thewhite people. They are cut just in the same way upon the boys as upon the girls. I think it wasa woman that cut these marks but I am not sure.

Merriman said that the scars upon his forearm- extending all round the arm except the inside -were cut in order to make boomerangs whichmight be thrown at him glance off. Thesescars he called ["Wŭradjeri". - crossed out]Wirájŭrai. [sketch of this next to paragraph]

Last edit 9 months ago by J Gibson
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(22) Now that Waddiman is dead most likely theMūdthis are in the care of Jimmy Quero [of the - crossed out] theGommera at Bega or of old Merriman. -It was only at the Būnan that I was first told about Daramūlūn- after my tooth was out. It was my Jambi that instructed me andthe old men cautioned me about Daramūlūn.

Last edit 9 months ago by J Gibson
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per Merriman +cThere was a Gommera at each place. He was also calledBiamban = master. Any one who had grey hair was a biamban forhe could order the young men to do things; a man was Biamban in hisown family :- all the Gommeras were Biamban - and the greatestGommeras were those who could bring most things out of themselves.Jabberah saw a renowned Gommera when at great Bunan bring out of his moutha number of small quartz crystals which he placed in a bark bowl and the novices swallowedthem in order to become "clever men" - i.e. wizard for it is believed that in a "favourable evil" the quartz crystal (Krūgūlŭng) would "breed" until a man became full of them and able to bring themout of himself. The Gommeras could throw these Krūgūlŭng at people like wind invisible + impalpableso that the victim could not know that he was hit, but a man killed by a Joea might be able to tell his friendsby whence he had been burnt - but often someone else would be able to say "I saw so and so go behind himthrowing Joeas".The Gommeras also used in the olden times to go up in the air to the sky.

Last edit 9 months ago by J Gibson
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If a man did some wicked actions - for instance if hewere in the habit of [kil - crossed out] "catching" people with magicthe Gommera might say to the young men "That manis very bad - he does so and so - you must kill him."He is them surrounded in some convenient [?crevass?]and speared. Merriman said he had seen a mankilled thus and he looked when dead "like a porcupine".

Last edit 9 months ago by J Gibson
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