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was divided. [crossed out - As to this marriage rule]Each class was = [crossed out - even perhaps] now = exogamic and [two wrods crossed out] intermarried with any of the three other classes. The old men of the tribe were quite clear as to this and the oldest of them who was apparently about 70 years of age insisted that it was so in his youth. He was Wiltu - Wortu (Eaglehawk-wambit) and his wife was of the same class and totem. The following table affords some evidence in support of this [exceptional?] [?]. South Australia was settled in 1804, [crossed out - that is after] and of these men one was [crossed out - who had [?] of them] [crossed out - being] born before that time and the others of a [?] years later [crossed out -[?] after and] are therefore competent to [?] of these old [clans?] under which their grand parents & great grand parents lived and to which still [control?] in force long after the [?] of the [council?] and under even still govern the remnants of the tribe in spite of the missing influence in that district.
[Left margin note] Where was [2 words crossed out]SA [suited? or situated?]1834 not until [18??] tribal [Gov.?] arrived.
[Table -4 columns]Name - Clan - Married - Children areKing Tom aged 60 - Kari - Wietu - KariHis father - Kari - Kari? - KariHis grandfather - Kari - Wiltu - KariCorporal Joe (50) - Wilthutha - Kari - WilthuthaHis father - Wilthutha - Wilthutha - Wilthutha?Harry Richards (45) - Kari - Kari - KariHis father - Kari - Kari - KariHis grandfather - Kari - Kari - Kari[Underlined end of Table]
The only restriction upon marriage therefore depended upon nearness of Kinship [crossed out - kindred], and descent [crossed out - was] of the these class names was from father to child and [not as?] with the tribes of the Materi-Kararu classes from mother to child.
The Kindred who were forbidden to marry were (ii brother and sister and this as [?] explained in the chapter relationship the classificating & explain of Relationships includes the children of two brothers (clan or tribal) and of two sisters (clan or tribal), But the children of these were sometimes permitted to marry,
It is well [crossed out - now] to notice that we have now -crossed out - be] found two forms of the two class system which are only distinguishable from each other by the different names of the two classes and the exception just noted as to totem marriage, which for the present may be disregarded. The area occupied by tribes of which the Dieri is the type is ------ miles by -------- miles; and that represented by the Wilya and other pther tribes is ------- miles by ------- miles.
On the border between these two [crossed out - organizations] great groups of tribes for which the term "nation" may be even applied the tribes meet as for instance the Yautruwunta and the Wilya although their languages differ so much as to have given [?] to [asigning?] which I heard among the Yantru wunta that the people to the South East were so stupid as to call (4) a snake "fire". This refered to the word tūrū which in the Yantruwunta language means "fire" and in the Wilya means "carpet snake".
[Left margin note]I heard an old Irishman tell a German that his people were void of intelligence, because they called a Coat a "Rock". "Very ignorant people". he said.
But it is quite clear that the organization in classes is the same under different names and the identity is recognized as I shall ahow later on by these tribes of either group which adjoin each other.
Proceeding now from the most Southern extension of the Mukurra & Kilpara classes in the Murray River, say at Wentworth, we find where the country of the Wembaio tribe of the River Murray ends in the great mallee scrub to the south that there then commences the country of and to the S tribe, named the Wotjoballuk who occupied the Wimmera and Richardson Rivers and [crossed out - their source?] the northern slopes of the Grampian Mountains. The local groups into which this tribe includes are given as [?].
The clan system of this tribe [crossed out - is extended] is of [crossed out - this] two classes with totems and it may be taken as representing tribes spread over Victoria [crossed out - from about [?]] as far East as a line drawn from Maryborough to Colac and next to at least as far as Rivolo Bay in South Australia [crossed out - boundary] - [word crossed out] to a line extending through [crossed out -from Mt Gambier] to the Murray River, (1)
[Left margin note](1) see K & K a to Mt Ganbier water also see Buanded [?] & Mr Smith
Billy Mcleod. W, 2 Lamby. W, 2Billy Wood, Dick Cooper, Billy Bull; 1 Joe; 1 Toby; Larry; Billy Clark, W, 1Johny ?, W, 1Charley Blair, W, 1Kangaroo Jack, W, 1Bobby Brown, W, King Charley, 1Johnny Fidgett, 1 William Barak, 1Dick Richards 1 McKay, 1
15575/-ten fares o 5/- 50125/-
(1) organising the meeting [through??] my action (2) calling of meeting(3) meeting – delays -difficulties in deciding when to go on (4) Secret council of old men – the nyak bŭrmaim – the proceedings commence (5) 1st scene the performers 2nd scene ditto then bough performance – putting boys to sleep (3) the bundle of rods(4) waking the boys (5) showing the Waintwin(6)
Mamingorak = our father my father - [?they? or ?thy?] father - his father - our father - your father - gargomitch = a bright being wura wura = the sky At the other side of wura wura there is the murang - beyond this murang there is a wurk-karim dark [?thing?] like a mountain [?peak?] which the Bangal could not get Behind this is Mamengorak. Gargomitch comes down to the earth and goes back but they they do not know what for. The blacks feared Gargomitch would take them up aloft.
The Gargomitch takes the Bangal as far as wirk Karim and leaves them there while he goes through.
A long time ago the forefathers of the Richardson tribe went up the tall [?pine?] there ie round and round like a ladder beyond the wurk karim to the other place beyond where the manna was. While they were they were gathering manner [sic] - the rest of the Richardson people went to hunt kangaroos. One man had half a dozen dogs from a calf size upwards to a horse and the hunters had borrowed the dogs from one of the men who remained at home making [?brippen?]
Leaūr-gūra-balluknow the mountainwhere Parkers stationwas. name Qūrojang[Have then language?]No wang there only Bunjil.At Daylesford all the Range when wambatare all gal-gal ['Kalk-kalk' crossed out] Bullūg- all wang.
the Bullawangs may betribal [crossed out 'fathers and uncles or older brothers'] uncles (Datak)But in following the Krauan& Bullawangs the old women& old men ask wheredid your grandfather(paternal come from) -
Thursday evening about sundown the Tūtanaring wereplaced on the groundthe Krauan behind them and Old Mary [?] represented all the mothers. Jonny Fidgett waited with the boys as master of the ceremonies. Old William & Dick walked about. The men all went away to chat[?]and after a time – William gave the signal to be ready.
[Pooi-pooit - crossed out] Boi-Boit-yan -little hill and railway tunnell [sic]Bullock-creek; thence to Kyneton (at a littlewater hole - called neaṝ- a little watefall;thence to Kilmore. Dick Richards home;From side Campaspe; down to Goornong -Kilmore to the other side Dabyminga ck - then down to junction - Talarook is his country;then McIvor - thence to Campaspe and down it to Goornong - then acrossto Inglewood - then a little from Lodonto west side to Dunolly - then to Castlemaine
[crossed out -All called Logal-lik]These are all Nier-ballŭknier = cave
Watershed of Campaspee River from source
tip70-10-41-11 Brazier to Howitt
West Australia from Exmouth Gulf to De Grey RiverMr Richardson of Roebourne says: -"there are four classes:-Booroongoo, Panaka, Palyeery, Kymurra.1. Booroongoo marries Panaka, children are Kymurra2. Panaka marries Booroongoo, children are Palyeery3. Palyeery marries Kymurra, children are Panaka4. Kymurra marries Palyeery, children are Booroongoo
hw0421 Notes by Howitt on the Wotjobaluk
1The Wot- jo-ballŭk - tribeThis tribe inhabited a part of country lying between the Wimmera and Richardson Rivers.The tribal name is taken from Wotjo = man and ballŭk = people. It is also called Gūli bullaiak. (Guli = man).The boundaries are as follows : - starting from about a mile north of Dimboola on the eastern bank of the Wimmera River following that river to Lake Hindmarsh thence by the river to Lake Albacutya, thence by the river to its termination at the Pine Plains Lake.Thence eastward to Lake Coorong; thence by the Warracknabeal creek to Warracknabeal;thence west to the starting point.
The Wotjo ballŭk are divided into a number of local divisions of which the followingare the principal:
1. The Gromillŭk - Lake Hindmarsh2. The Yakkil - ballŭk - Lake Albacutya3. The Kreitch ballŭk - Dimboola4. The Weitch wŭndaiŭk - Warracknabeal5. The Yárik-killŭk - Lake CoorongA man of one of these places eg Gromillŭk would be called Gromillŭk or Gromillŭk Wotjo in describing himand so on with the others. The totem names which I shall now speak of are scattered all over the country in the different Local groups.
Note: the people who lived at Lake Hindmarsh were Kromillŭk - Dimboola and Horshamwere Jūraballŭk, Jŭngping were Yaram [balluk - crossed out] biŭk, at Longerong were Jó-in ballŭk, at Murtoa + Warranoke were Waitchwŭndaioke,and at Waracknabeal were Yarambiŭk, at Ledcourt [were - crosesd out] and Mŭkpilly were Wotojoballaiuk.Old Bob says that Johnny Connolly is of Ledcourt and is a Watagoli- one of the Wotjoballaiuk . That his mother was a black woman but that his father made him a halfcaste.
[written in left side margin]Wenjen = lie on itsMarong = pinetreeGitch = has beensee the legend of thepine tree that reached to the sky p.
The Doen bauraket (doen = planes) lived to the westThe Balŭk mernén (mernen = sandhills / [??] it"sand hill fellows"to the northwards: the [Wen-crossed out] Wengen marongitch to theEast and the Jūroballŭk to the south Jūro = plain
The skyThe sky is is [sic] called wŭra-wŭra. [Beyond this there - crossed out][is - crossed out] The mŭrang are the cirrus clouds. [beyond this - crossed out] Beyond the wŭra-wŭra again then there issomething called wūrk-kerim - something like adark thingmountain past which the Bangal (wizard) could not get. Beyond this is [then - crossed out] where Mamengorak(mami+father-ngorak=our) lives. No one knows whathe is or has any other name for him. There is alsoat that place some one called Gargomitch who comesto and from the earth but no one knows what forexcept that Bangal whom he takes back with himas far as the Wūrk-kerim where he leaves themwhen he goes further on.
A long time ago the first people who lived at the Richardson River used to go up to the [W- crossed out] skyfor Manna. The [sic] was a [la - crossed out] tall pine tree whichreached up through the wūrk kerim to theplace [of Mamengourak - crossed out] beyond it where themanna was. While they were gathering thismanna the other people who were left at homewent hunting. One man remained in thecamp making a brippen [sketch]with which to kill wallabies. The hunters wentaway having borrowed his six dogs. In themiddle of the day they camped and being hungrythey considered about killing one of the dogs. Theythen killed the largest one and roasted it inan earth oven and eat it and greased themselveswith its fat. When they returned to the camp
hw0414 Notes on Mukjarawaint with a map
3[Left hand margin]That is one not of his [own?] totem.
A man of any one totem might marry a woman of any other totem female. [most of line crossed out] me and
[Left hand margin text inserted here]children of brotherschildren of sistersis [brother?] & sister all[forbidden?] to marry not relatedto him in the fathers or mothers side. Such marriages were forbidden and punished with the utmost severity. The above names are scattered all over the country I have mentioned and they even extended beyond the boundaries of the [Mūkjanawaint?] forund [laū??] down the Richardson towards the Murray as far as Mt Colein the East and south as far as Hamilton. I remember when I was once going with cattle to Adelaide I saw some black fellows at Wellington on the Murray. I said in English where do you belong to. One of them replies "From the Richardson country". I then said "[Ngour-warra?]"? that is what are you? He replied "Gartchŭka". He was the same as my brother. When I was returning home from that trip I found blackfellows at [Guichen Bay?] whose language I could understand and who were "Gartchŭka and Wūrant and their mothers had come from my country.
hw0436 Notes by Howitt on Omeo 'tribe' and letter from Bulmer
3 8never allow a captured maidento be [taken - crossed out] kept by a man of her ownclass.
Children were always of the same classas their mother. On this point Iam most confident as I was sofamiliar with the whole affair in my early days.
I have known men to have twoor three wives but [they - crossed out] I have been toldthat some had four or five. Sometimesthe parents had a difficulty in gettingtheir daughter married to a properperson within class limits, so thatthey would give [them - crossed out] her to a man whohad one already to obviate thedifficulty. I think [the rule was - crossed out] one wifewas the rule, and the plurality theexception.
A times [sic] where there was a greatgathering at Corroborees wives wereexchanged but always within class limits. But they also resorted tothis practice to avail some [foretold - crossed out] great[calamity - crossed out] trouble when they fancied were impending [as for instance - crossed out] For instance[there was once a great display of - crossed out] [the Aurora Australis and they - crossed out][thought this heralded some great- crossed out][trouble. The cunning old men - crossed out][proposed exchanging wives - crossed out]they heard that a great sickness was travellingdown the Murray and the cunning old men proposed exchanging wive [so they thought then + after - crossed out][in exchanging wives - crossed out] to ensure safety from it.
Yet at all other times [however - crossed out] the men
[written in left side margin][A - crossed out] Personal ills and misfortunes arevery generally regarded as following breech of customsFor instance at Roeburn Sth A a man's hair is supposed to(tūah) (Mr Richardson)
[footnote at the end of the page]Note - This command by the old men may be explained I think by [believing - crossed out] considering that they [considered - crossed out] began using the calamity as a punishment for [departing from - crossed out] disregard of this [?errent?]usage. One of the Darling River tribes near Menindie told me that he considered the rapid extinction of the blackfellows as being causedby their present disregard of the customs of their fathers. AWH
4 9expected their wives to be faithfulto them. A woman was only supposedExchange of wivesto like another man at the command of her husband which was very often [the - crossed out][cas- crosssed out] as he was liable to fancy the wife of some oneelse. I have however known one instancewhere these men exchanged wivesfor a month - this was called Be-amaI do not know if this often occurred In every case they were careful to keepwithin the class limits.
Footnote: I suspect that this suggestion by the old men asto exchange of wives may receive a reasonable explanationif we assume that it was made as a means of averting[impending - crossed out] evil supposed to be impending consequent upontribal disregard of ancestral custom. The occasionalexchange of women which is formed in verymany tribes, especially at the great social gatheringsis clear a survival of the old communal rightsof the class divisions, which as we have shewn underliethe whole social system of these aborigines and to bepreserved in their kinship terms even where almostextinct as to practice. In tribes [constituted] organised aswas this one - that is where Individual marriagehad apparently supplanted Group marriage, theancients communal custom had been departed from. That personal misfortunes were [believe - crossed out]generally believed to follow upon breaches of ancestralcustom is certain, for instance in the tribe atRoebourne, Western Australia it is believed thata man's hair will turn grey if he knowingly looksat his wife's mother (tūa) - or even at the motherof the [woman who is to - crossed out] girl who is betrothed to him.(Mr A. R. Richardson, Roebourne Western Australia)The explanation I suggest is strengthened by a statementmade to me by a man of the Majauka tribe (Menindie) Darling River that he believedthe dieing [sic] out of his race to be due to theirdisregard since the arrival of the whitemanof the customs of their fathers. AWH
[written in left side margin]What are Beamamean - Be-ameor Beamai amongthe Kamilaroitribes names, GwyderBogan +c is thename of the good spirit = Burkan
hw0391 Notes by Howitt on Kulin from Barak
4 71I observe that Curr speaking of the tribes at the junction of the Murray & Goulburn & Campaspenotes that they were surrounded by tribes differing from them (the Bangerang tribes). He mentionsone of these the Ngooraialum seems to be oneof Berak's tribes – I remember the name but cannotturn up the passage —— I have found it now:“Ngūralŭng bulluk or Ngūr-ai-ilum- at Murchison”This would fix the northern extension of the Kulinat about [Shep - crossed out] Toolamba [according - crossed out] and Heathcoteaccording to Curr and Shepparton and Heathcoteaccording to Berak (see the Yauangilium at p 3). Curr calls the Heathcote people Nerbooluk which seems to be the Nira baluk of Berak who he says had their headquarters at Kilmoreand [extended - crossed out] intermarried with the Yauang ilum who lived on the west side of the Goulburnbelow Seymour – Curr places Nerbooluk in this locality.
At any rate I think that we can safely place the Northern extension of the Kulinabout the line I have drawn.
As to the [names- crossed out] word for Blackfellow see this.Junction Murray & Campaspe & Goulburn — ēnbenaWickliffe, Avoca, Daylesford Kuli.Portland, Warrnambool, Lake Condah Mara Hopkins Hill ___________________}Richardson River, Lower Loddon, Wimmera — Watcha, Wootho, Wotjo
hw0429 Questions for William Berak
Are there any legends aboutX J Dick Richards waa - or Bunjil(1) What is the Gean Gean or grey crow?(2) Were there any superstitions about the Soldier Bird = [Bil-bil-man - crossed out] Bil-bil- maneri(3) Marnang-eik-[cabm- crossed out] pirkwading(4) Jug-gan-Kow-an waterbird - a bird that makes a howling noise(5) Ko-Kurn Ko-Kōn - who was shut up in a tree by Bunjil - because hepegged two boys inside a Kangaroo skin - what bird - mopoke - or owl - ?Būbūk(6) What aobut a mans shadow - what is it - can anyone hurt a man by injuringhis shadow(7) Is [the - crossed out] Bimbeal the same as Tundun?(8) Did he hear of Binbial living in a cave near Cape Schank(9) What is the legend about Karween the crane? - Karwinwas the second man and Bunjil stole his two wives?Wang made a corroboree + Bunjil speared Karwin in the leg so thatbecame [??] and miserable + became a crane + Bunjil kept histwo wives.(10) [Who he - crossed out] Did Bunjil have a wife? - what was she? (two wives + αγ crucis)(11) Who was Mindi? RBS says a large serpent that lived partlyunder ground - it lived in a mountain called Bu-Ker-bun-nelnear Pitfield beyond Wedderburn. Bunjil [??] crow Mindi to emu and affect people with sicknessHe speaks about [blacks - crossed out] a Wirrarap having been arrested by the Policeand put in Melbourne gaoland the blacks saying if [they - he - crossed out] were not let go Mindi would comeThus wirrarap [was - crossed out] belonged to tribe of Murrni-brum-brumwho lived in Mindi country - at Buckra-banyule.
Parker a dance or ceremony called Yepene Amydeet- dancing holding boughs in each hand - then all sinking down in a massreputing death - then revive + come to life
MindiRude images cut in bark and painted one large figure + two smallfigures - men + [??] women drew in bough danced in single fileeach with a small hand with tuft of feathers - torched the figures[revelentally - crossed out] reverential with hand - the purpose of getting mindi to kill their enemies.
31 Does William know anything about the Bram-bram-galThe two stars in fore legs of centaurus.Dark space between B. B. gal + crux = chin-gal = Emu - opossum, Bunya = Head star in Crux
32 What is the story about Bil-bil-man-nere = minah?If any-no
34 What is the story of Kurborū (Bear) stealing thedrinking vessels (Tarnūk) - and how did Karakarokget them back?
35 What is the name of the place where Lohanwent to? is it Wamoom? Wilsons promontoryWarmum
38 What kind of Hawk is Thara - what is itscry - is it Kuyong Kuyong = small kestrel.or Swamp Hawk - Pirrween= its crynot known Dawson lii
hw0386 Notes on Wotjoballaluk
The boundaries of this tribe or subtribe were commencingfrom Martins Plains round by Horsham - by Dimboolato Warracknabeal - then follow the river across toLake Koorong - then by the scrub/mallee) toWirrŭmbŭttŭp then to Balbulngarebŭlthen to Korarie these are all swamp,to the N. W. of the Richardson River - thenceto Martins plains.
Through all this country [which - crossed out] there were the followingpeople scattered about:-Krukit ?Gamŭtch ? - cannot give any translations - are only like names - the feminine form isgamŭtgŭrkGartchuka W. cockatoo Krukitgŭrk +cWūrant Bk cockatooMoiwillan - deaf adderDown at the Mallee there were alsoWŭrpil = Eaglehawk. Out beyond theWimmera towards the Tattiara there werewaa = crow people
My father was Krukit - my mother wasGamŭtgŭrk and I am Krukit from myfather. Children always like their fathersname and I used to play at ball onthe same side as my father.
My own people were called Jūpagalkwournditchfrom the place where they lived.[In the old - crossed out]
The old people used to arrange the marriages.Sometimes the parents found the daughter growingup and looked out for a husband for her.No one could marry a person of their own name,but must marry one of the other names.
Men's [siste - crossed out] brother was ngŭnungŭint = batwoman sister was yŭrtŭtgŭrk = night jar
But see the Wotjoballaiŭk
connected afterwardssee Wotjoballuk