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XM107_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 8 September 1880

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I have not seen any of them. This is our busiestseason and we are suffering from drought which makes matters worse but when a better opportunity occurswhich i hope may be in a month or so, I hope to renew our correspondenceMeantime I send you my address and will be glad to forward any information I can.

From Dear sirYours faithfully A L P Cameron

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XM106_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 4 July 1880

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Cameron Mossgiel NSW July 4th 1880

A W Howitt Esq Sale Gipsland

Dear Sir Yours of the 11th July [crossed out] June isto hand some time sinceI regret that pressure of other business has pre-- vented my reply my former no's have [?] able to fill in and return your circular relationships, but will do so as soon as possible The Unghie tribe inhabitedthe tract of country lying,say, between the Maranoa and Warrego Rivers the

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the fact that a portion of the property has been sold I am very busy delivering etc and will shortly be leavingI am unable to devote as much time to these questions as I could wish but will endeavor to sendyou what information as I can from timeto time.

Fromdear sirYours sincerely A L P Cameron

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XM118_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 3 August 1882

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into disuetude when it became no longer necessary. We do not however find that the prohibition is any stronger or any weaker among tribes dividedinto four classes. I cannot say whether it is less so among tribes having agnatic descent as I have not come in contact with any, but as you say the prohibition is universal throughout AustraliaIt is fair to conclude that it is not.

I find it impossible to obtain any reason for it from the natives. Our very intelligentfellow with whom I was conversing on the subjectsaid "You will never find it out because we don'tknow it ourselves" and added that he believed thelaw was handed down to them from the Būkūmŭruwho first inhabited the earth and were afterwardstransformed into animals.

I think very little of Mr McLennan's style of criticism which appears to be based upon a misconception if not ignorance of the Australian class laws. I would be much obliged by your forwarding me any papers on the subject when you are done with them.

I will try to get you the word for manamong the Darling River tribe. The Darling tribe about Pooncarie and I think nearby to Wilcannia is called Barkingi Did you get Taplin's book safely. I return manuscript by this post and thanking you verymuch for your kind offer to aid me. My dear SirYours sincerely Cameron|A L P Cameron

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XM121_ICDMS_lowres ALP Cameron to Howitt 14 August 1883

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I have read Mr Frasers essay but didnot care much for it; it appeared to me that a criticism, l [?] read on a certain work would apply to it. That it contained much that was newand much that was true but un-fortunately that which was true was not new and that which was new was not true. I have not been able to trace anything semitic in their origin. However any adverse criticism comes with a with a very bad grace from a defeatedcompetitor.

I think the table of contents [is have?]have arranged would be excellent. I may mention that in the names of some of the tribes there may be some mistakes because theirneighbours do not always call each other by the same name that a Tribe calls itself. I amDear Sir Yours Faithfully A L P Cameron

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XM122_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 20 October 1883

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for the wants of the Anthropological Instituteand I leave the paper entirely in your hands. I have numbered my notes in [riply?] according your own so that you can follow them easily.

I will be leaving then [? ] in the course of a month of a month orso and will be in Victoria for a time at any rate

From Dear sirYours Faithfully A L P Cameron

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XM123_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 26 December 1903

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with the [.........] side of the Aborigines question I remember writing you about the Unghi tribe located between the Maranoaand Warrego and that they called themselves Ipai, Kumbo etc and and also Oorjilla, Kuberu etc.You suggested they were probably on the border land dividing Ipai lot from the Oorjilla.Not long since I met a Mr H.S. Wills son of Horatio Wills who was murdered. He told me that 200 miles north of the Unghi the words Ipai Kumbo were unknown and theywere all Oorjilla Kuberu. We compared a lot of words and there was an extraordinary resemblance, a great many words being almost exactly the same.

Wish you a pleasant Xmas

Yours faithfully

ALP Cameron

Page 45 [..] some argument [...... ... ....] "dismiss?" this statement that totems [........] this field of [.........] selection. [...] a [....]. the [........... ....] mallee here marries [.....] kangaroo with a bandicoot & [.........] kangaroo or [........ ......] on [.... .......] and [............] as the two primary divisions as [........]. Then according to "Lang?" any [....] could marry any [......] or any [......] and of course "be?"

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could by that means marry his own daughter.Among this Wonghibone a man may marry with a [matia]] or a Kubbitha but the totem control with another prevents his marrying his daughter or his niece.

Ipai malley hen marries mattia Kangaroo, herdaughter is Kubbitha Kangaroo and the totem [??] does not permit him to marry her. How then can it be said that totems do not [?]. ...... ... ....] of matrimonial selection.ALPC

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XM124_ICDMS_lowres Answers to questions relating to the Wonghi Tribe, Lachlan District, NSW

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the river up for 80 miles and situated back from this river something over 100 miles.I will send you the printed form filled up as well as I canin the course of abreak but I do notthink I can get itfully filled.

ALPC

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XM32_ICDMS_lowres K H Bennett to Howitt 9 May 1880

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possess relative to the blacks of that portion of Queensland. My friends address shouldyou wish to communicate with him is A. L CameronConobleMossgielN. S. WalesI trust my dear sir that you will not construe my inabilityto furnish you with the desired information intoa disinclination to do sofor I can assume you thatno one would be more happy to furnish it more than myself were I in a position to afford it for I certainly think

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that some other record ofa fast disappearing raceshould if possible bepreserved than the limitedand so far as I have seenpoor collections of weapons+c in the Museums and other public institutions ofthe Colonies.Trusting that my friend Cameron may be able to give you some information. I remain my dear sirYours sincerely K H Bennett

13/5/80will he look outfor correspondent

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XM78_ICDMS_lowres

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[left hand column]rogue who was able to work upon the credulity of his fellows: one in fact who was in advance of his time. However they tell most astonishing stories of their powers and what wonderful things they saw. They were able always to transmit their powers to others The medicine men were the same but I believe they were regularly initiated into the mysteries of the craft though there was seldom many at one time who practised the art. They had some slight idea of the virtues of certain herbs which were mostly used as lotions, but they generally [??] to their powers of enchantment to put away disease. The theory seems to have been that disease was merely a bad spirit taking up its abode in the sick hence they had to turn him out. This they seemed to think could be done by making hideous noises.

[right hand column]I see Mr Smyth has fallen into an error in his book by stating that a Black could not get a wife in his own tribe. That is a mistake as I have known many such marriages however I will send you the list you need and then you will be able to see that it is so.

A writer signing himself Cameron has stated I see in the Australian that the caste of the Black was not taken from the Mother from[?]among the Murray tribes. That was universally so. A Macquarra could only marry a Kilparra all the children would be Kilparras and so on the other side. I dare say he is right with respect to the Blacks of Queensland but Mr Smyth was writing of the Victorian Blacks. I had some

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of answering [sic] the letter [could be latter] but I do not care to get into a newspaper correspondence. But most certainly Mr Cameron is very wrong with regard to the caste not being taken from the Mother.I will consider all your other Queries and send you a long letter next week or so when you come down to the Entrance. Billy will go over to you and give you all the Information you need on obscure points.[???] and to Mrs Howitt & your family[?] ... Mrs BulmerI remainfaithfully yours John Bulmer

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XM689_ICDMS_lowres

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The office of Headman was in a sense hereditary, because the son wouldinherit the position of his father if he possessed any oratorical orother ability eminent; but if not then the son of the deceased's brotherwould hold the position or failing him the nearest relation, having thesame class name (I). But this was with the consent of the community.Each social division elected its own Headman.

The Headman called his people together for any matter requiringthem to assemble, for instance holding the Burbung ceremonies,. At suchmeetings of the [whole - crossed out] tribe, matters relating to the interests of the wholetribe are discussed, and the course of action, as to murders, abductionof women, adultery or war is decided upon. The medicine men commonly hasposition of Headman. (I). D + B [??]

[Thus - crossed out] So far as I have been able to ascertain there was not any(c) recognised Headman, as such, in the Wakelbura tribe, but the strongest and best fighting men were listened to in a debate, and the aged men held aslittle authority. (B)

On the other hand it is said that in the Dalebura tribe the government [seems to have been - crossed out] appeared to be in the hands of Headmen, who were called Bubiberi.But beyond this I have not been able to learn anything, even from my correspondent who had exceptionally favorable opportunites of becoming acquaintedwith his "faithful Daliburas"

[(I) - crossed out][(2) (1) J Gibson- crossed out](3) (4) (2) Jocelyn Brooke(5)(3) Muirhead(4) Christison

(a) In the Unghi tribe according to Mr ALP Cameron thereare no chiefs. Such a thing is unknown to them, althougha black of more than average courage may be looked uponwith greater resepct than the rest. They are a communitywhere all are equal + their law is communism;whatever one gets is shared with the others [and then - crossed out]But it is communism regulated by established rulesand restrictions.ALP Cameron

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At the Jeraeil ceremonies he was the leader, and it was main-ly his voice which decided questions discussed at the meetings of theinitiated men which were held. when during the ceremonies two of thenovices were brought before the old men, by their guardians, charged withhaving broken some of the ceremonail rules, it was Bunbra who spoke lasthis directionsas to them were obyed.

In the olden times the Gweraeil-kurnai, or as I have almostliterally translated the term, the Headman took an active part togetherwith the other old men, in dealing with breaches of their moral code,for instance unlawful, that is incestuous marriages, which were punishedwith death.

In each clan of the Chepara tribe there was a Headman calledKulumba-mutta that is Greatman,, and in the Chepara clan itself the Kalumbra-mitta was superior to all the others.

The office of Headman descended to the son, if no son thento a daughters son, and failing this, the brother of the deceasedKulumbra-mitta received the authority. If a headman became incapacitated,or for some other reason did not fill his office satisfactorily, thenthe old men would set him aside and select some one of the obove mentionedin jis place. The medicineman Bagerum (p ) did not become Headman

These instances which extended over a considerable part of theEastern part of the continent,are taken either from my own observationof rom the staements of competent correspondents, and show that in these tribes (which I have taken as illustrations - crossed out) there were menrecognised as having a conrol over the tribes people, whose orders were obeyed, and who received designationswhich in some cases may be translated "elder" or "great one". These ins-tances justify the conclusion that similar Headman existed in other tribes(in the parts of Australia, and in fact their existence generally -crossed out) in south/eastern Australia. No doubt that in some tribes their power and authoritywere better established than in others, while in certain tribes there wasa tendency for the office of headman to be transmitted from father toson. (?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????)so if the latter were worthy.Simply as a question of terminology it is well to avoid the use of the__________________________________________________________________

(2) A.L.P. Cameron( ) John B. Bribble (These 3 names crossed out)(3) John B. Gribble

(1) J. B. Gribble

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ly his voice which decided questions discussed at the meetings of theinitiated men which were held. when during the ceremonies two of thenovices were brought before the old men, by their guardians, charged withhaving broken some of the ceremonail rules, it was Bunbra who spoke lasthis directionsas to them were obyed.

In the olden times the Gweraeil-kurnai, or as I have almostliterally translated the term, the Headman took an active part togetherwith the other old men, in dealing with breaches of their moral code,for instance unlawful, that is incestuous marriages, which were punishedwith death.

In each clan of the Chepara tribe there was a Headman calledKulumba-mutta that is Greatman,, and in the Chepara clan itself the Kalumbra-mutta was superior to all the others.

The office of Headman descended to the son, if no son thento a daughters son, and failing this, the brother of the deceasedKulumbra-mitta received the authority. If a headman became incapacitated,or for some other reason did not fill his office satisfactorily, thenthe old men would set him aside and select some one of the obove mentionedin jis place. The medicineman Bagerum (p ) did not become Headman

These instances which extended over a considerable part of theEastern part of the continent,are taken either from my own observationof rom the staements of competent correspondents, and show that in these tribes (which I have taken as illustrations - crossed out) there were menrecognised as having a conrol over the tribes people, whose orders were obeyed, and who received designationswhich in some cases may be translated "elder" or "great one". These ins-tances justify the conclusion that similar Headman existed in other tribes(in the parts of Australia, and in fact their existence generally -crossed out) in south/eastern Australia. No doubt that in some tribes their power and authoritywere better established than in others, while in certain tribes there wasa tendency for the office of headman to be transmitted from father toson. (?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????)so if the latter were worthy.Simply as a question of terminology it is well to avoid the use of the__________________________________________________________________

(2) A.L.P. Cameron( ) John B. Bribble (These 3 names crossed out)(3) John B. Gribble

(1) J. B. Gribble

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XM690_ICDMS_lowres

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[written in left side margin]Is this indicative of the evolution of subclasses?

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In the class system there are familiar and yet also strange [crossed out - peculiar] features. The two class system is there with related totems called by the Wotjōballuk "mir". My principal Wotjōballuk informant, an old man who had seen his tribal country occupied by the white man, said in speaking of the classes Gamutch and Krokitch, that when he went to the River Murray into the country of the Tati-tati tribe (1) he was told that being Krokitch he was also Kilpara and that Gamutch was the same as muk wara. The same statement as to the equivalence of the [crossed out - totems] classes was also made to me by a man and his wife of the Wembaio tribe as well as by others of the Wotjoballuk.

But the new features are very numerous secondary totems attached in groups to the totems of Krokitch and Gamutch respectively.

It seems as if the ordinary totems of the two class systems had advanced into the [?positions?] of sub-classes but the marriage law of the two class system still maintains. A Krokitch of whatever totems may take as a wife any Gamutch girl of any of the totems of that class, always [?] that there is no disability arising out of nearness of Kin.

A peculiarity [crossed out - of] in these totems which I have not found [?] is that some of them have a [crossed out - second ?] [synonym?]. For instance, Ngaui-na-gŭli has a second name Gartchuka which one of my informants a Ngaui man claimed as a second name of his 'mir', the fact that both Ngaui and Gartchuka were his "names". [crossed out - mir (totem)]. But he further said that Ngaui was especially his name and that Gartchuka "came a little behind it". On the other hand another informant who also claimed to be both Ngaui and Gartchuka, said that he was especially Garchuka and that Ngaui came a little after this other name. Wherein the difference lay I was quite unable to ascertain, but it seemed to me that Ngaui and Garchuka are in fact very slightly divergent branches of the same totem. This [suggestioned?] is I think strengthened by the burial direction which is the same as for both Ngaui & Gartchuka [crossed out- a removal made by each informant is to] [crossed out - these secondary totems. Krokitch that is] Gamutch-babjanjŭl has also a second name, which however is more a name than a totem. Its members are called "[Darau-yau-ŭn-ngau-ŭng]" or " we are warming ourselves", a name it is said given to them because

Left margin notes]Certain as[?] [?]p 61[underlined]

(1) see Cameronspaper -

Is this indicative of the evolution of sub classes?

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Mr [??] Cameron kindly made enquiries for me in the tribe about Mortlake in the Western District and found that it had the following "classes", [Crossed out - Krokage = white cockatoo with red] crest [Crossed out - Kubitcha = Black cockatoo] Krokage = white cockatoo with red crest

[Left margin note] Is this Krokaj?[Karperap?] =Pelican[Krokaje and Karperap are bracketted together]

Kŭbititre = Black cockatooKatŭk = Whip snake

[Kŭbititre and Katŭk are bracketted together]

he said that Kaiperap is "supplementary to Krokaje and Katuk to Kubititre & Krokaje may marry either Kŭbititre or Katŭk and Kŭbititre may marry either Krokaje or Karperap and the children belong to the mothers class." These are clearly four of the "classes given by Mr Dawson, and it is evident that the "[Kunrokutch?]" [?] have "krokaje" and also that "Krokaje" is a dialectic form of [crossed out - the] Kroki of the Buandik and [Krokilth?] of the Wotjoballuk which Kappatch is [Kubitche?] or Gamutch.

The boundaries given by Mr Dawson of the [crossed out - tribal] country occupied by [crossed out - his] the tribes he describes extends northwards to Mt William and Ararat and therefore joins to the country of [crossed out - the Wotjoballuk or ?] one of the sub divisions of the Wotjoballuk.

[Crossed out - While] The whole "nation" [??] by the community if class and totems may be said to have extended from the boundary of the Narrinjeri tribe which was at Lacepede Bay in the west coastwards to somewhere about Colac in the East and in the north as far as Maryborough: But taking the [??] [??] to denigrate themselves as "men" then [he?] [find? or found?] it broken up. "Wotjo" extended over the north west, "Mara" over the South East while Kuli [Crossed out - n of Kulin] or Guli was in the Eastern parts, and denote not only a variation in language but as to Kuli a kindred with a [orderly?] extended Nation of tribes which compound the country to their Eastward of [the?] Wotjovballuk Nation

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[crossed out - to] as far as the Ovens River above Wangaratta, the source of the Goulburn/Goulburn River, and Yarra/Yarra River Rivers and the Western Port district to the boundary of Gippsland.

[Left margin note] This Nation may be [further?] spoken of as the Kuli in Kulin for the word communityused for "man"[underlined]

But little has been recorded as to the classes and totems of these tribes and it has only been possible for me to obtain information from the survivors of those of the constituent tribes, namely the Woeworung of the River Yarra/Yarra Riverwatershed, the Thagŭn worŭng of the ---- and the Galgal Bullluk of the Avoca River.

A list is given of [crossed out - these] tribes with their loations and other particulars at p - . I now subjoin the class system [crossed out - as] of the Woeworung and Thagun worung which appears also to have been that of the Bunworung and other neighbours of the two former. As to the other tribes of this nation all that I can say is that they had [word crossed out -?] the classes Bunjil and Waang/Waa and that no totems were known by my informants other than the ones given below.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Column 1 title] Classes - [Column 2 title] Totem[underlined]Bunjil Eaglehawk - Thara = [??] Hawk Waang/Waa crow - None [underlined]

According to Mr Cameron the Mortlake tribe in the Western district know that their class Krokaje was the equivalent of the class Bunjil and that Kubitch was the equivalent of the class Waang. Similarly one of the [Gaigal?] Bulluk told me that in his tribe he was Waang and therefore also [crossed out - ??] [crossed out - the] was Gamutch in the next adjoining tribe to the west and that Bunjil was the same as Krokitch.

This the approximate western booundary of the "Kulin" Nation is fixed. In the north it extended to within a certain

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XM761_ICDMS_lowres

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hw0387 Cameron to A. W. Howitt 1884 January 29

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They sometimes burned theirdead [for -crossed out] with their limbsbound and after somemonths or perhaps years theywere dug up, the bones collectedand carefully kept by nearrelatives for a time andafterwards deposited in treesThe mother and mothersbrothers gives the childin marriage. The grandmother (wife's mother) names the child.

In the Bulūke para of whichI notes last week, the wordfor "my" is ng'ek tongue TallaiMy hand = wonek Mouth urro" head = Warkek nose gah" Eye = muring'ek arm tatyakthigh = Karrip Foot = Tchinna

I am dear SirYours FaithfullyA.L.P. Cameron

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tip70-10-41-10 Cameron Queensland Aborigines

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generally on the Barwon and Namoi RiversIn the north of Queenslandthe same rules exist, thoughof course [?man?] differentnames. They take butlittle notice of the Heavens,as I recollect one nightpointing out an eclipse ofthe [crossed out - sun] moon which excitedno surprise whatever, andthey simply attributed thephenomenon to the fact thata cloud of unusual densitywas passing across the moons disc.They seem to have anindefinite idea of a here afterand believe in the existenceof a spirit of some kindand have a very great objectionto mention the name ofany of their tribe who haslately died.ALP Cameron

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hw0161 Bennett to Howitt 27/05/1880

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most happy to assist to the best ofmy ability. I think a good plan would be for you to send me a listof words (English) and I will fillin the native words or such as I canremember, I will do my level best.

Yours very sincerelyK. H. Bennett

Did you hear from Cameron?

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hw0162 Bennett to Howitt 12/08/1880

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Our mutual friendMr Cameron has quittedConoble and I do notknow his present addressI have an idea that you and I are or ratherwere schoolmates. If Iam correct we bothattended Budd's schoolsome 30 years ago. Somewhere near where the Parliament house now stands. I remember the name ofHowitt there distinctlyand if I do not mistake he was a son of Dr HowittIf it should turn out thatwe are schoolfellows it will

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hw0258 Cameron to Howitt 20/08/1884

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had heard of the Ipai classes +he said "I bin hearem that fellow" I think it most likelyhe had heard of them fromthe black police.

With regard to the classes KrugillaKarbaroo and Kurgira= Krukillathey certainly do look as if theyhad been transposed. I haven't my note book in town but I am pretty certain I made nomistake in writing them out.If you write to my brotherChas J Cameron Penola Downs WintonI am sure he would answer any question in his power but hedoesn't understand much about theblacks. Mr McGilvray EddingtonCloncurry might also assist butI am not personally acquaintedwith him beyond staying a night

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required about David..

I enjoyed my Queensland trip very much indeed, sawsome very fine pastoralcountry and the sceneryalong the northern coastis really magnificent

Remember me kindlyto Mrs Howitt and yourfamily.

I am dear Siryours faithfullyALP Cameron

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hw0260 Charles Cameron to Howitt 12/12/1884

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so that after that I am afraid I willnot be able to get you much informaitonabout blacks for we will have none(ours having bolted, and I wouldnt bebothered with any others as they are[?dear?] at nothing)

If you reply at once to this andgive me a list of the questions youwant answered, your letter will reachme before I leave here and I will beonly too happy to get you all the information in my power.Yours faithfullyCharles J Cameron

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hw0305 Letter from Cameron to Howitt 14/July/1884

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but not all have two teethknocked out. I had a verypleasant trip up and sincereturning wrote an accountfor the local paper here - theWarrnambool Standard underthe heading of our Queensland Letter.I noticed that the paper wastaken at your Mechanics Instituteso you can see it if you care to.

Have you heard any thingmoe of the paper for the Anthropological Institute?

Remember me kindly to the members of your familyI am dear SirYour FaithfullyALP Cameron

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hw0409 Cameron to Howitt 7/11/1884

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while "waa" is the equivalent of Kubitche. King David'swife was born at Lake Bolac and he marriedher near Ballarat. She had been previously marriedand had a son. Davidlooks upon this boy as hisson and calls him KrokageI forgot whether I told youthat in the Warnambool districtthe men look upon the bat[as ngung nunc- crossed out] (n'gung n'gunitch)as sacred to them and the women claim the smallnightjar (Eratiyera)I think this is all I have towrite of just nowI amYours SincerelyALP Cameron

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Cameron

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Krokitch + Bunjil

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