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XM106_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 4 July 1880

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Cameron Mossgiel NSW July 4th 1880

A W Howitt Esq Sale Gipsland

Dear Sir Yours of the 11th July [crossed out] June isto hand some time sinceI regret that pressure of other business has pre-- vented my reply my former no's have [?] able to fill in and return your circular relationships, but will do so as soon as possible The Unghie tribe inhabitedthe tract of country lying,say, between the Maranoa and Warrego Rivers the

Last edit over 1 year ago by ALourie

XM123_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 26 December 1903

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could by that means marry his own daughter.Among this Wonghibone a man may marry with a [matia]] or a Kubbitha but the totem control with another prevents his marrying his daughter or his niece.

Ipai malley hen marries mattia Kangaroo, herdaughter is Kubbitha Kangaroo and the totem [??] does not permit him to marry her. How then can it be said that totems do not [?]. ...... ... ....] of matrimonial selection.ALPC

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The office of Headman was in a sense hereditary, because the son wouldinherit the position of his father if he possessed any oratorical orother ability eminent; but if not then the son of the deceased's brotherwould hold the position or failing him the nearest relation, having thesame class name (I). But this was with the consent of the community.Each social division elected its own Headman.

The Headman called his people together for any matter requiringthem to assemble, for instance holding the Burbung ceremonies,. At suchmeetings of the [whole - crossed out] tribe, matters relating to the interests of the wholetribe are discussed, and the course of action, as to murders, abductionof women, adultery or war is decided upon. The medicine men commonly hasposition of Headman. (I). D + B [??]

[Thus - crossed out] So far as I have been able to ascertain there was not any(c) recognised Headman, as such, in the Wakelbura tribe, but the strongest and best fighting men were listened to in a debate, and the aged men held aslittle authority. (B)

On the other hand it is said that in the Dalebura tribe the government [seems to have been - crossed out] appeared to be in the hands of Headmen, who were called Bubiberi.But beyond this I have not been able to learn anything, even from my correspondent who had exceptionally favorable opportunites of becoming acquaintedwith his "faithful Daliburas"

[(I) - crossed out][(2) (1) J Gibson- crossed out](3) (4) (2) Jocelyn Brooke(5)(3) Muirhead(4) Christison

(a) In the Unghi tribe according to Mr ALP Cameron thereare no chiefs. Such a thing is unknown to them, althougha black of more than average courage may be looked uponwith greater resepct than the rest. They are a communitywhere all are equal + their law is communism;whatever one gets is shared with the others [and then - crossed out]But it is communism regulated by established rulesand restrictions.ALP Cameron

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At the Jeraeil ceremonies he was the leader, and it was main-ly his voice which decided questions discussed at the meetings of theinitiated men which were held. when during the ceremonies two of thenovices were brought before the old men, by their guardians, charged withhaving broken some of the ceremonail rules, it was Bunbra who spoke lasthis directionsas to them were obyed.

In the olden times the Gweraeil-kurnai, or as I have almostliterally translated the term, the Headman took an active part togetherwith the other old men, in dealing with breaches of their moral code,for instance unlawful, that is incestuous marriages, which were punishedwith death.

In each clan of the Chepara tribe there was a Headman calledKulumba-mutta that is Greatman,, and in the Chepara clan itself the Kalumbra-mitta was superior to all the others.

The office of Headman descended to the son, if no son thento a daughters son, and failing this, the brother of the deceasedKulumbra-mitta received the authority. If a headman became incapacitated,or for some other reason did not fill his office satisfactorily, thenthe old men would set him aside and select some one of the obove mentionedin jis place. The medicineman Bagerum (p ) did not become Headman

These instances which extended over a considerable part of theEastern part of the continent,are taken either from my own observationof rom the staements of competent correspondents, and show that in these tribes (which I have taken as illustrations - crossed out) there were menrecognised as having a conrol over the tribes people, whose orders were obeyed, and who received designationswhich in some cases may be translated "elder" or "great one". These ins-tances justify the conclusion that similar Headman existed in other tribes(in the parts of Australia, and in fact their existence generally -crossed out) in south/eastern Australia. No doubt that in some tribes their power and authoritywere better established than in others, while in certain tribes there wasa tendency for the office of headman to be transmitted from father toson. (?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????)so if the latter were worthy.Simply as a question of terminology it is well to avoid the use of the__________________________________________________________________

(2) A.L.P. Cameron( ) John B. Bribble (These 3 names crossed out)(3) John B. Gribble

(1) J. B. Gribble

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ly his voice which decided questions discussed at the meetings of theinitiated men which were held. when during the ceremonies two of thenovices were brought before the old men, by their guardians, charged withhaving broken some of the ceremonail rules, it was Bunbra who spoke lasthis directionsas to them were obyed.

In the olden times the Gweraeil-kurnai, or as I have almostliterally translated the term, the Headman took an active part togetherwith the other old men, in dealing with breaches of their moral code,for instance unlawful, that is incestuous marriages, which were punishedwith death.

In each clan of the Chepara tribe there was a Headman calledKulumba-mutta that is Greatman,, and in the Chepara clan itself the Kalumbra-mutta was superior to all the others.

The office of Headman descended to the son, if no son thento a daughters son, and failing this, the brother of the deceasedKulumbra-mitta received the authority. If a headman became incapacitated,or for some other reason did not fill his office satisfactorily, thenthe old men would set him aside and select some one of the obove mentionedin jis place. The medicineman Bagerum (p ) did not become Headman

These instances which extended over a considerable part of theEastern part of the continent,are taken either from my own observationof rom the staements of competent correspondents, and show that in these tribes (which I have taken as illustrations - crossed out) there were menrecognised as having a conrol over the tribes people, whose orders were obeyed, and who received designationswhich in some cases may be translated "elder" or "great one". These ins-tances justify the conclusion that similar Headman existed in other tribes(in the parts of Australia, and in fact their existence generally -crossed out) in south/eastern Australia. No doubt that in some tribes their power and authoritywere better established than in others, while in certain tribes there wasa tendency for the office of headman to be transmitted from father toson. (?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????)so if the latter were worthy.Simply as a question of terminology it is well to avoid the use of the__________________________________________________________________

(2) A.L.P. Cameron( ) John B. Bribble (These 3 names crossed out)(3) John B. Gribble

(1) J. B. Gribble

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[written in left side margin]Is this indicative of the evolution of subclasses?

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In the class system there are familiar and yet also strange [crossed out - peculiar] features. The two class system is there with related totems called by the Wotjōballuk "mir". My principal Wotjōballuk informant, an old man who had seen his tribal country occupied by the white man, said in speaking of the classes Gamutch and Krokitch, that when he went to the River Murray into the country of the Tati-tati tribe (1) he was told that being Krokitch he was also Kilpara and that Gamutch was the same as muk wara. The same statement as to the equivalence of the [crossed out - totems] classes was also made to me by a man and his wife of the Wembaio tribe as well as by others of the Wotjoballuk.

But the new features are very numerous secondary totems attached in groups to the totems of Krokitch and Gamutch respectively.

It seems as if the ordinary totems of the two class systems had advanced into the [?positions?] of sub-classes but the marriage law of the two class system still maintains. A Krokitch of whatever totems may take as a wife any Gamutch girl of any of the totems of that class, always [?] that there is no disability arising out of nearness of Kin.

A peculiarity [crossed out - of] in these totems which I have not found [?] is that some of them have a [crossed out - second ?] [synonym?]. For instance, Ngaui-na-gŭli has a second name Gartchuka which one of my informants a Ngaui man claimed as a second name of his 'mir', the fact that both Ngaui and Gartchuka were his "names". [crossed out - mir (totem)]. But he further said that Ngaui was especially his name and that Gartchuka "came a little behind it". On the other hand another informant who also claimed to be both Ngaui and Gartchuka, said that he was especially Garchuka and that Ngaui came a little after this other name. Wherein the difference lay I was quite unable to ascertain, but it seemed to me that Ngaui and Garchuka are in fact very slightly divergent branches of the same totem. This [suggestioned?] is I think strengthened by the burial direction which is the same as for both Ngaui & Gartchuka [crossed out- a removal made by each informant is to] [crossed out - these secondary totems. Krokitch that is] Gamutch-babjanjŭl has also a second name, which however is more a name than a totem. Its members are called "[Darau-yau-ŭn-ngau-ŭng]" or " we are warming ourselves", a name it is said given to them because

Left margin notes]Certain as[?] [?]p 61[underlined]

(1) see Cameronspaper -

Is this indicative of the evolution of sub classes?

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Mr [??] Cameron kindly made enquiries for me in the tribe about Mortlake in the Western District and found that it had the following "classes", [Crossed out - Krokage = white cockatoo with red] crest [Crossed out - Kubitcha = Black cockatoo]

[Left margin note] Is this Krokaj?

Krokage = white cockatoo with red crest[Karperap?] = Pelican

[Krokaje and Karperap are bracketted together]

Kŭbititre = Black cockatooKatŭk = Whip snake

[Kŭbititre and Katŭk are bracketted together]

He said that Karperap is "supplementary to Krokaje and Katuk to Kubititre & Krokaje may marry either Kŭbititre or Katŭk and Kŭbititre may marry either Krokaje or Karperap and the children belong to the mothers class." These are clearly four of the "classes given by Mr Dawson, and it is evident that the "[Kunrokutch?]" we have "Krokaje" and also that "Krokaje" is a dialectic form of [crossed out - the] Kroki of the Buandik and Krokitch of the Wotjoballuk which Kappatch is [Kubitche?] or Gamutch.

The boundaries given by Mr Dawson of the [crossed out - tribal] country occupied by [crossed out - his] the tribes he describes extend northwards to Mt William and Ararat and therefore joins to the country of [crossed out - the Wotjoballuk or ?] one of the sub divisions of the Wotjoballuk.

[Crossed out - While] The whole "nation" [indicated?] by the community if class and totems may be said to have extended from the boundary of the Narrinyeri tribe which was at Lacepede Bay in the west coastwards to somewhere about Colac in the East and in the north as far as Maryborough: But taking the word used to designate themselves as "men" then we find it broken up. "Wotjo" extended over the north west, "Mara" over the South East while Kuli [Crossed out - n of Kulin] or Guli was in the Eastern parts, and denote not only a variation in language but as to Kuli a kindred with a [orderly?] extended Nation of tribes which occupied the country to their Eastward of the Wotjovballuk Nation

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[crossed out - to] as far as the Ovens River above Wangaratta, the source of the Goulburn/Goulburn River, and Yarra/Yarra River Rivers and the Western Port district to the boundary of Gippsland.

[Left margin note] This Nation may be [further?] spoken of as the Kuli in Kulin for the word commonlyused for "man"?

But little has been recorded as to the classes and totems of these tribes and it has only been possible for me to obtain information from the survivors of those of the constituent tribes, namely the Woeworung of the River Yarra/Yarra Riverwatershed, the Thagŭn worŭng of the --------- and the Galgal Bullluk of the Avoca River.

A list is given of [crossed out - these] tribes with their loations and other particulars at p - . I now subjoin the class system [crossed out - as] of the Woeworung and Thagun worung which appears also to have been that of the Bunworung and other neighbours of the two former. As to the other tribes of this nation all that I can say is that they had [word crossed out -?] the classes Bunjil and Waang/Waa and that no totems were known by my informants other than the ones given below.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Column 1 title] Classes - [Column 2 title] Totem[underlined]Bunjil Eaglehawk - Thara = [Quiet?] Hawk Waang/Waa crow - None [underlined]

According to Mr Cameron the Mortlake tribe in the Western district know that their class [Krokaje? or Krokage?] was the equivalent of the class Bunjil and that Kubitch was the equivalent of the class Waang. Similarly one of the [Gaigal?] Bulluk told me that in his tribe he was Waang and therefore also [crossed out - ??] [crossed out - the] was Gamutch in the next adjoining tribe to the west and that Bunjil was the same as Krokitch.

This the approximate western boundary of the "Kulin" Nation is fixed. In the north it extended to within a certain

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hw0387 Cameron to A. W. Howitt 1884 January 29

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They sometimes burned theirdead [for -crossed out] with their limbsbound and after somemonths or perhaps years theywere dug up, the bones collectedand carefully kept by nearrelatives for a time andafterwards deposited in treesThe mother and mothersbrothers gives the childin marriage. The grandmother (wife's mother) names the child.

In the Bulūke para of whichI notes last week, the wordfor "my" is ng'ek tongue TallaiMy hand = wonek Mouth urro" head = Warkek nose gah" Eye = muring'ek arm tatyakthigh = Karrip Foot = Tchinna

I am dear SirYours FaithfullyA.L.P. Cameron

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hw0162 Bennett to Howitt 12/08/1880

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Our mutual friendMr Cameron has quittedConoble and I do notknow his present addressI have an idea that you and I are or ratherwere schoolmates. If Iam correct we bothattended Budd's schoolsome 30 years ago. Somewhere near where the Parliament house now stands. I remember the name ofHowitt there distinctlyand if I do not mistake he was a son of Dr HowittIf it should turn out thatwe are schoolfellows it will

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hw0258 Cameron to Howitt 20/08/1884

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had heard of the Ipai classes +he said "I bin hearem that fellow" I think it most likelyhe had heard of them fromthe black police.

With regard to the classes KrugillaKarbaroo and Kurgira= Krukillathey certainly do look as if theyhad been transposed. I haven't my note book in town but I am pretty certain I made nomistake in writing them out.If you write to my brotherChas J Cameron Penola Downs WintonI am sure he would answer any question in his power but hedoesn't understand much about theblacks. Mr McGilvray EddingtonCloncurry might also assist butI am not personally acquaintedwith him beyond staying a night

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hw0260 Charles Cameron to Howitt 12/12/1884

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so that after that I am afraid I willnot be able to get you much informaitonabout blacks for we will have none(ours having bolted, and I wouldnt bebothered with any others as they are[?dear?] at nothing)

If you reply at once to this andgive me a list of the questions youwant answered, your letter will reachme before I leave here and I will beonly too happy to get you all the information in my power.Yours faithfullyCharles J Cameron

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hw0421 Notes by Howitt on the Wotjobaluk

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[3 - crossed out] 5Another instance is that of Donald Cameron who although a Jupagalk wournditch of theAvoca? River? has the same class and totemas those of the Wotjoballŭk.

M. Gumatch F.F. KrokitchgurkM. KrokitchM.F.g.fatherg. motherFatherMotherDonaldWifeSonDaughterWartwut {tikomai / merndaiGartchukupura - allopDurimiuruk - nguri bkerukGartchuckapurk-J all upGartchukaA . - Jallup(mussell)Jallan - Gonewarajalau - gonewaraJalaujurk - gunawarajuk

Note: In the above - one man claims two pseudo totems - both snakes of Wartwŭt - thisBobby said was sometimes the case.

[written in left side margin]But his father?was Wotjoballukalthough he livedfor a time with Jupalgalkwhere his son also was brought upas a boy.

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The initiation ceremonies of the Wotjo appear to have been peculiar.Bobby said that they had none such as those he had seen at the Murray and which he has described.He said that when a boy was old enough two of his ngeirep (sister's husband= wife's brother) caught himand kept him for a time until he [was made - crossed out] they had made him with [sic] a man. Donald Cameron gave thisillustration. "I am a gartchūka. When my elder brother was 9 years old a Wūrant man caughthim one day in the camp and took him to his own camp. No one objected because it was thecustom. He dressed him carefully with a possum skin belt and having a number of strandshanging down in front and behind (the male kilt - brandyep). He had nothing else on excepta row of kangaroo teeth round his [neck - crossed out] forehead and a reed necklace. He rubbed him overwith grease and red [?ochre?]. He tied Kangaroo sinew round the upper part of his arms. Such boys arecalled ganitch (= tied) That man kept my brother in his camp for two or three months. He waited onhim and did every thing for him. When he went out hunting he carried the boy seated across hisshoulder. My brother was not allowed to do anything for himself. The man who thus look after a boyis the gūritch (=wife's brother). I do not know what else was done to him as D went away.The boy sleeps all that time rolled up in the rug of his gūritch thus: [sketch]The boy is not allowed to eat the male of any animal eg possumSee also food rules at p.-

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hw0414 Notes on Mukjarawaint with a map

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Mūkjarawaint Tribe

Old TurnerKing Major Donald CameronCharlotte

[Genealogy]

Gart-chŭka-gurkYirani Gartchukagurk - Gartchŭka WifeJohnny Gartchŭka George Wūrant

I obtained the following information from Johnny Connolly, a half-caste native of the Mukjarawaint tribe. He was brought up by his maternal grandfather’s brother until the age of [blank]. He subsequently was at the Lake Condah Mission. He speaks English thoroughly and with intelligence. I have recorded his information in the firstperson as many of his experioences werevery characteristic and I have endeavoured to follow as near as possible the words heused and as I noted them down atthe time.

"The Mūkjarawaint lived in the country between Ararat, Carrs Plainson the Buchaussan [?], Horsham andBrrehork [?] and extedned back into the Grampains. Each man and each woman living in that country wasMukjarawaint. The name is alsothat of a place now called Mūkpilli.I am unable to say what the meaning ofMūkjarawaint is - I only knowthat Mūk means "short".

I am a half caste my mother was never married to a blackfellow. She lived with a digger who found Pleasant Creek. My mothers [sisters husband - crossed out] brother was a Gartchuka andhe was also my maam (father) - my mothers sisterwas my baap (mother)

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[this page has a blue cross through it and a note at the bottom " Transfer to [Watjo balluk?] tribe]

Donald Cameron said: - I am a Gartchŭka

When my older brother was 9 years old a [Wūrant?] man caught him one day in the camp and took him to his own camp. No one objected, because it was the custom. He dressed him carefully with a possum skin belt and having a lot of strands hanging down in front and behind. He had nothing else on except a row of kangaroo teeth tied round his forehead, and a reed necklace. He rubbed him over with grease and [?]. He tied the upper pwas done as it art of his arms round with Kangaroo sinew. such boys are called [ganeitch?] = tied from, these sinews. My brother was kept by the man in his camp for two or three [months?]. The man waited on him and took him out hunting with him and used to carry him about on his back. The boy is not allowed to do any thing for himself. The man who thus looks after a boy and makes him a "young man" is called [gūreitch?] = wifes brother. I do not know what else was done as I then went away.

[Bracketed][yūreitch?] Gartchŭka ----------------- [Wurant?] \------------------------wife -----------[Wurant gurk?]

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hw0182 Howitt to Cameron 29/11/1899

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Spring StreetMelbourne29.11.99

A. L. P. Cameron EsqMurrumbong NSWMy dear SirI observed your address in "Nature"the other day and avail myself of theknowledge to again write to you. I have duringthe last twelve months been working almostconstantly at my long projected work on theAustralian Aborigines and anyone willunderstand, points crop up from time totime for which I require further information.Such a case is the marriage laws of the four classes, or as I now term themthe four sub-classes. I have been trying

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hw0183 Howitt to Cameron 26/12/1899

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Finch St. East MalvernMelbourne [19 12 99 - crossed out]26/12/99

A L P Cameron EsqrMurrumbury NSW

My dear SirYour letter of 13 inst has muchgratified me and as you are so goodas to undertake further enquiries andas you expect the blacks to return soonI write at once to explain my diagrammore fully.

(1) The diagram for the Wiradjuri givesthe theoretical marriages and descents.[Thus - crossed out] The Dieri diagram gives actual marriagesand descents. I repeat the diagramsin order to explain.

[diagram]Dieri Wiradjuri4M materi M Kararu 5 (4) Ipai Kubbi (5)3F Kararu F Materi 6 (3) Kubbitha Ipatha (6)

2 F Kararu Kami F Materi 7 (2) Matha Butha (7)

M Kararu Noa F Materi 8 (1) Kubbi Ipatha (8)

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hw0184 Howitt Notes on the Wiradjuri

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1In another part of the Wiradjuri country; namelynear Mosgiel, north of the Lachlan Riverthe [class system primary - crossed out] class system [to complete][with - crossed out] was the rwo primary classes, and the subclassesare those of the [no] Kamilaroi [The system - crossed out][so far as I have received it from my valued correspondent it is known to me is as follows: - crossed out][Mr ALP Cameron- crossed out] This tribe divided the wholeuniverse between the two primary classes, [mukulu - crossed out][= Ipai- Kumbo and Budthurung= Muri - crossed out][Ki - crossed out] Mukulu and Budthurung

The former enmbraced everything in the universe connectedwith "dry" and the latter everything connected with wet;thus the Mallee (1) and all trees that grow far away fromwater were Mukulu as also were birds [in the drier dirt - crossed out] and animals which did not frequent waterwhile [there - crossed out] where habitat was in the vicinity of water wereButhurung.

[The Ipai totems were yūnghi (Mallee hen), gūnarr - crossed out][(pady melon - [sic], willi (opossum - crossed out]The following table shows Wiradjuri classes,subclasses and totems.

Wiradjuri class system[table]Classes Subclasses totems Yunghai - Mallee hen 1Ipai (a) Gubarr - Padymelon 3Willi - Opossum 2A Mukūlo (Relating to dry) Yunghi - Mallee hen 1Kumbu (b) Uroine - Emu 4Willi - opossum 2Murri - Red Kangaroo IBudthūrung - Brown Duck IIMurri (c) Thurunghi - Snake IVgūrūng - Bandicoot IIIB Budthurung(Relating to wet) Murri - Red Kangaroo IBudthurung Brown Duck IIKubbi (d) Dithulin - Iguana Vgūrūng - Bandicoot III

[It seems - crossed out] The marriages and descents [are shown- crossed out][in the subjoined table - crossed out] in this branch of the Wiradjuri are quite abnormal, [but fall in with several similar - crossed out] and are as follows :- (give table)[marriages in the Wonhibon Wonghibon tribe, whose - crossed out][country was - where boundaries - crossed out]

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hw0177 Notes on Wembaio

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Wembaio 5Blood revengeWhen a man of one clan, say of Tapio had killeda man of another clan say of Wentworth - thedead man's friens would arrange a party and goand kill him - perhaps in the night. I do not think they would send a messenger to call himto come forward to fight.I do not know how tribal offences were dealt with.When a man died while his friendswere absent, all the men there when theyreturned stood out and held their heads down in order to receive eachof them a blow with a waddy.

Funerals I remember a case where (at Fletchers)where some young men went to attenda funeral, one of them was killed by a blow in that manner on the head.He was buried at once.

To become a Mekigar it wasnecessary for a man to eat the bone ofa dead man. One Mekigar couldinitiate another.

Initiation When a youth was made a Thalara noteeth were knocked out from Mildura downwards.But the Kulkyne tribe had their teeth knocked out. When the boy came back from the bushbeing a Thalara and allowed to take a wife,a girl was selected by the old men and given to him for the time. Jus primae noctisAs he was supposed notto know anything about sexual intercourse all the menpresent old and young had connections with her andhe last. She scolded him for allowing her to be takenby the others. [child = Katŭlya

Various [ages- crossed out] namesaccordign to agea boy 9-10 = Wilyango - 10-15 = Wilyango Kūrnŭndo15 to being made young man he was = Kūrno = excrementWhen a man Thalara

[written in left side margin]I think they knockedout the toothALPC

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hw0197 Draft Howitt to Cameron

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A L P Cameron Mossgiel NSW 9/4/00

I am much obliged for the trouble which you have taken. Thetable of marriages which you have given me goes back muchfurther than I should have imagined possible for blackto carry the memories of the ancestors. However as youhave been so successful you may now be able withoutmuch trouble to fill in the following table which willgive me the information which I am so much in wantof namely "is it lawful for a man to marry thedaughter of his mother's brother, or of his mother's sister".This taking the last name as nearest to thepresent time and therefore most likely to bewithin the knowledge of the living Wonghi people

[Robert Ipai - Harry Murri Bandicoot - crossed out]

(3) Maria Kubbitha Bandicoot here 3 and 4 father of (2) (4)own (or tribal) brotherand sister

(1) Harry Murri Bandicoot husband + wife Annie Bootha Mallee Hen (2)

I am now working out the totemic marraiges + descents and will writesoon and tell you what I make out.

[You ask about Bunjil + Waang. I have made one the - crossed out]

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hw0195 Cameron to Howitt 11/06/1902

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will be seen that the combined totems of Ipai could marry 5 Mathas and 4 Kubbithawhile Kumbo could marry 5 Kubbithas and4 Mathas and so on.

From my own observation in theMossgiel district far and away moreIpais were married to Mathas thanto Kubbithas though the table wouldseem to show that the proportionshould only be as 5 to 4.

However, I suppose the names donot so much matter if you get at the principle regulating marriage.

I was out in the Darling Riverdistrict this time last year and procured a portion of a window's capand saw one complete they weremade of a gypsum kneaded into a pasteand fitted to the head of a woman whohad lost her husband. The cap was worn a few months then buried in or near her husband's grave.I amYours SincerelyALP Cameron

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hw0194 Cameron to Howitt 29/05/1902

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hw0192 Cameron to Howitt 20/06/1900

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"The science of man" a Sydney journal

I think of going to Sydney in this course of a week and will not beat home for some weeks but onmy return will ascertain for certainif the marriage noted would be allowed.With kind regardsI RemainYours faithfullyALP Cameron

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hw0189 Cameron to Howitt 23/11/1882

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to talk to the mother" another saidthat it was no use endeavouring to find out the season, that it hadbeen a custom handed down throughmany generations and that eventhe oldest Blacks had no knowledgeof how it came into existence.

Did I ever send you the address of my Thomson River correspondent?It is John Afflick Corrella Thomson RiverQueensland: Afflick however obtainedthe information from a man on the Stationwhose name he did not give and he (MrAfflick) does not take much interest inthe subject himself. I wrote to himagain for other information butas yet have not had a reply

For more than twelve monthsI have been trying to induce theblacks in this locality to hold a Borabut without success and now I fear I will have no chance as I am leaving this district about thethe [sic] 1st December. The climate doesnot agree with Mrs Cameron + Iam therefore resigning the management

Last edit 7 months ago by ALourie

hw0386 Notes on Wotjoballaluk

3

3

Donald CameronThe Jūpa-galk-wournditchmyrtle tree man

The boundaries of this tribe or subtribe were commencingfrom Martins Plains round by Horsham - by Dimboolato Warracknabeal - then follow the river across toLake Koorong - then by the scrub/mallee) toWirrŭmbŭttŭp then to Balbulngarebŭlthen to Korarie these are all swamp,to the N. W. of the Richardson River - thenceto Martins plains.

Through all this country [which - crossed out] there were the followingpeople scattered about:-Krukit ?Gamŭtch ? - cannot give any translations - are only like names - the feminine form isgamŭtgŭrkGartchuka W. cockatoo Krukitgŭrk +cWūrant Bk cockatooMoiwillan - deaf adderDown at the Mallee there were alsoWŭrpil = Eaglehawk. Out beyond theWimmera towards the Tattiara there werewaa = crow people

My father was Krukit - my mother wasGamŭtgŭrk and I am Krukit from myfather. Children always like their fathersname and I used to play at ball onthe same side as my father.

My own people were called Jūpagalkwournditchfrom the place where they lived.[In the old - crossed out]

The old people used to arrange the marriages.Sometimes the parents found the daughter growingup and looked out for a husband for her.No one could marry a person of their own name,but must marry one of the other names.

[written in left side margin]Probably the courseof the Yarriambick Ckwhat ends in LakeCoorong

Men's [siste - crossed out] brother was ngŭnungŭint = batwoman sister was yŭrtŭtgŭrk = night jar

But see the Wotjoballaiŭk

connected afterwardssee Wotjoballuk

Last edit 6 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-34-12 Howitt to Fison 29 July 1880

5

5

When old King [?] was present the mourners thought they sawthe body move when put in the case - in this case a [?grave] putdirect on the bank of the [?] River - they all "fell back fromthe hole and the [?dead] man went up - he said - "What do you dothat for - we make you quite comfortable - why didn't you stopquick?" Then the hole was filled up with stones & soil.

I have sent out a circular on the subject of ghosts [?] [?]which replies are now coming in confirmatory of oldKing Williams statements as to the ghost leaving the bodyin sleep, the burial is to prevent the returtn of the dead, or thecarrying round of the dead to his old haunts, and alsothe offering of food to the [?manner] of the deceased! This willbe a most important piece of evidence. The worst of it isthat the evidence comes in but slowly - If I could only [?]myself into the [?] field I could garner in to somepurpose. However as I cannot I must do the next best - namely stir up my fifty two correspondents and addto their number. Our correspondent Mr A.L.P. Cameron isworking with a will - he has a decided turn for theseenquiries and has taken inhand a group of tribesabout the junction of the Murrumbidgie & Murray andacross to the Lachlan. I have got him well posted upand in my last letter from him he says "my informant'sa very intelligent old fellow has promised to try and get me[add-crossed out] admitted to a Dora they are going to hold and if I succeed I shall try to get initiated - even at the risk of losinga tooth." No other progress much to record except that I havegreatly excited the curiosity of the Black Queensland trackersstationed at [?Derrallen], by my questiobns. My police constablecorrespondent says in last letter " they are much pleasedand say how can a white fellow know all this. "I maybe able

Last edit 3 months ago by HelenB
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