Howitt and Fison Papers


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The following account of one of the ordeals in expiation wasgiven to me by Berak who was present at it. It was so far as I am able tofix the time somewhere about the year 1840 and the locality was theMerri Creek near Melbourne.

It arose out of the belief by the WesternPort tribeBunwurung, that a man from Echuca on the Murray River had found apiece of opossum bone from (?) remembered that he which one of their tribe had been eating and then thrown away. Taking this bone up between two pieces of wood, aman had put the piece of opossum bone into its hollow and tieing it tothe end of his spear thrower set this up in the ground and roasted itbefore the fire. He and others then sang the name of the Bunwurung man

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for a long time over it, until the spear thrower fell down into the fireand the majic complete. Some one brought this news down to the Bunwurungans some time after the man died. His friends did not say any-thing, but waited till a young man of the Echuca tribe came down to theWestern Port district and they then killed him. News of this passed fromone to the other till it reached his tribe, who sent down a mess-age to the Bunwurung saying that they would have to meet them at a place nearMelbourne. This was arranged and the old men said to the men who had killedthe Echuca man, "Now don't you run away, you must go and stand out andwe will see that they do notuse you unfairly." This messagehad been given by the Meymet (1), to the Nira-balluk (2), who sent it on bythe Wurrunjeri to the Bunwurung. It was sent in the interim,so as to give plenty of time for the meeting, which took place on theMelbourne side of Merri Creek. The people present were the Meymet,whose headman had not come down with them, The Bunwurung, with theirHeadman Benbu, the Mount Macedon men with their Headman Ningulabul, the Werribeepeople, with the Headman of the Bunwurung (of the coast Benbow) (crossed out), finally,there were the Wurunjeri with their Headman Bili-bileri.

All these people except the Meymet and the Bunwurung, were onlookers, and each lot camped on the side of the meeting groundnearest to their own country, and all the camps as was usual looked to-wards the morning sun.

When the meeting took place the women left in the campsand the men went a little way off. The Bunwurung manstood out in front of his people armed with a shield. Facinghim were the kindred of the dead Meymet man, some nine or ten in number,who threw so many spears and boomerangs at him that you could not countthem. At last a (?) spear went through his side. Just then a Headman

(1) the Woeworung called the natives by the Murray River about the junctionof the Goulburn Campaspe (??) Meymet, as they called the Gippsland nativesBerbira, thus distinguishing both from the Kulin tribes who were their friends.(2) The Nira-balluk were the tribe about Kilmore. Nira = a deep gully, balik =people, and of (?) and probably adjoining the (?) tribe at Echuca.

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The Kurnai Tribes (continued)Row 1Column 1 - Clans(4) Bra-taua-lŭng claimed all their country from the Latrobe River to near Cape Lip Trap (where it joined the country of the Būnworung tribe of the Western Port district & also from the Southern watershed of the Latrobe River to the sea coast.

Column 2 - Lesser divsions(o) Kŭt-wŭt - the [Tynes?] River flowing into the Corner Inlet.(p) Yau-ŭng - Warrigal Creek South Gippsland(q) Orelin - Merrim [aus? oreid?] South gippsland

Row 1 Column 3 Wives from(o) - m(p) - n(q) - p.i.tRow 1Column 4 Wives to(o) m(p) - n.q(q) p

Row 2Column 1 - Clans(5) Jatŭn-galŭng from Jat - Southaln = Sea. All the country west of the Krauatun Kurnai (1) and east of the Bratana [or Bralana?] Kurnai (4) and lying between the Gippsland Lakes, excepting Flannagan Island which belonged to the Bit-Brita division of the Kraualungalung clan.-

Row 2Column 2 - Lesser divsions(r) Yūnttrŭr - adjoining and east of (q)(s) Ngara wŭt [Ngara wŭt?], the south side of Lake Victoria(t) Bina-jera - the long strip of sandy and swampy country lying between the Gippsland Lakes & the sea (Baulbaul) as far as the Entrance to the Lakes -

Row 2Column 3 - Wives from(r) - m(s) - e.m.q.t(t) - d.e.f.g

Row 2Column 4 - Wives to(r) - m(s) - e.m.t(t) - d.g

This information might have been made far more complete so far as relates to the lesser divisions, that is the smaller groups of Kurnai which formes any one of the lesser divisions of the clans.

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their occurrence in other more backward standing tribesover a vast extent of Central Australia, but also from the numerous references to certain animals as the "sons of Bunjil" which play a great part in the myths of this tribe (1).

[Left margin note - (1) quote old tales from new lands &c-]

The Woeworung was on of a large related group, or "nation" tribes which occupied the greater part of Central Victoria - from the Sea [crossed out - to] nearly to the banks of the River Murray. [Crossed out - The Woeworung tribe was divided into certain] [crossed out - clans as follows: - the people] The Woeworung language was spoken over the Yarra River watershed, and as far South inland as [crossed out - Dandenong] Cranbourne - western Werribee River and northwards to Mt Macedon: But these people did [?] form all one tribe being divided locally as follows:- giving the names of the Headman [crossed out - who] at the time of settlement of Victoria.


[Title] Wŭrunjeri (Wŭru = white gum tree)[Column 1](3) The Real Wurunjeri [underlined] The Upper Yarra [crossed out - from]including Yarra Flats - Northern slope of Dandenong Mtns.Southern [?]

[Column 2](a) [Kurnage-belung?] [underlined]Yarra River from Yarra Flat down - the Plenty River (b) Bebejan [underlined] Saltwater River up to Mt Macedon [willibilleri?] [underlined]

[Column 3]Boiberit [underlined]Part of Sunbury and Werribee.Bŭng-erim

All the [Werunijeri?] spoke the Woeworung language excepting the Berberits who spoke a dialect called [thŭri-wurung?] - But all were of the Waaug clans (crow).

The clan law which which required them as waaug crows to obtain wives from people who were Bunjil (Eaglehawk), the [separation?] of the two clan names severally into localities [crossed out - also] [?] about a law which was local in its application.

Thus [crossed out - taking] the men of that subdivision of the [crossed out - tribes] Werungeri [crossed out - also] [crossed out - of the Woeworung for speaking people] who lived in the Yarra about where Kew and the eastern the suburbs now are, [crossed out - the] were being crow[underlined] obliged to take wives from the Ngarūk Willŭm living about Dandenong who although also speaking Woeworūng were Eaglehawk [underlined], from the Gūnŭng [crossed out - willum] Ballŭk who were Eaglehawk lived near Mt Macedon but spoke Būnwurung Campaspe, from the Būthera balluk who were Eaglehawk lived near Seymour on the Goulburn River [crossed out - and spoke ?] from the Waring (cave) illŭm ballŭk who were Eaglehawk and lived on the Yea River, from the BalŭungKara Muttŭng who were

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[crossed out - to] as far as the Ovens River above Wangaratta, the source of the Goulburn/Goulburn River, and Yarra/Yarra River Rivers and the Western Port district to the boundary of Gippsland.

[Left margin note] This Nation may be [further?] spoken of as the Kuli in Kulin for the word communityused for "man"[underlined]

But little has been recorded as to the classes and totems of these tribes and it has only been possible for me to obtain information from the survivors of those of the [?] tribe, namely the Woeworung of the River [Yarra?] watershed, the Thagŭn worŭng of the ---- and the Galgal Bullluk of the Avon River.

A list is given of [crossed out - these] tribes with their loations and other particulars at p - . I now subjoin the class system [crossed out - as] of the Woeworung and Thagun worung which appears also to have been that of the Bunworung and other neighbours of the two former. As to the other tribes of this nation all [??] I can say is that they had [word crossed out -?] the classes Bunjil and Waang/Waa and that no totems were known by my informants other than the ones given below.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Column 1 title] Classes - [Column 2 title] Totem[underlined]Bunjil Eaglehawk - Thara = [??] Hawk Waang/Waa crow - None [underlined]

According to Mr Cameron the Mortlake tribe in the Western district know that their class Krokaje was the equivalent of the class Bunjil and that Kubith was the equivalent of the class Waang. Similarly one of the Gaigal Bulluk told me that in his tribe he was Waang and therefore also [crossed out - ??] [crossed out - the] was Gamutch in the next adjoining tribe to the west and that Bunjil was the same as Krokitch.

This the approximate western booundary of the "Kulin" Nation is fixed. In the north it extended to within a certain

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Beyond them occupying the whole of Gippsland with the exception of the dense jungles and [??] mountains of Croajingalinglying back from the coast, were the five clans of the Kurnai[whom which - crossed out] whose local organization I have already describedat pp. 78. This tribe had no class system and no totems such as those which I have described. But there issome evidence which justifies the belief that at one time they had the classes + totems of the Kulin tribes.’

The Kurnai dialects are [strongly allied to the - crossed out] from the same stock as the Būnworung + Woeworung languages. The legends [of both the K ?? - crossed out] of [these - crossed out] the Kurnai and Woeworung both speak of the same supernatural anthropomorph Loän who migrated from the Woeworungcountry into south Gippsland. Bunjil the great supernatural Being of the Kūlin tribes whom they called “Mamenjalō’ or "our father"reappears in the Kurnai legend as ["Mungan ngar" - crossed out] “our father”(Mŭnjan ngaar). But the class name Bunjil has disappeared and is only recognizable as a name which attaches to men ofa certain age as a personal [?depictor?] accompanied by some special name, and what might be freely [??], such as Bunjil Gworun – 'Mr" Thunder referring to the deep voice of this man so named, or Bunjil Barlajan "Mr" platypus" referring to this man’s skill in killing that monotreme animal. The totem names maybe recognized in the names of beasts, birds, fishes +c which men inherited by the sons from their fathers as Wambat, Sea Salmon, Sandpiper, +c.

As there were no classes or totems there could not be any law of marriage regulated by them, but the restrictions which in other tribes attached to marriage, [were - crossed out] arose among the Kurnai out oflocality. Thus the men of each locality was restricted in [its - crossed out] their choice of wives to certain other localities as I have [?indicated?] in the table on p 6A. The local restriction [was - crossed out] acted in the same

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husband nangūrūng husbands broth. nangūrūng husband sist husband Dangan or dedjetBrothers wife birmbangF. brother wife ūmŭrkwife - birmbang or ūmŭrkwife sister birmbangwife sister husband Kairep (friend)F Sist husband nangūrūng F Brothers wife YumŭrkM wifes brother goreitch M sister's Husband [Fourwords crossed out]

M wae- M wee F wei_______ __________F Bunjil F Bunjil M Bunjil


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Notes on the aborigines of Yarra tribe

Kūlin - Westernport Kūlin down toTarwin - both sideBū nū rūng.go to Geelong - Bacchus Marsh - Mt MacedonKilmore, Benalla, WangarattaBuffalo River __________________William's tribe BunyipAll [?Westernport?] - Mount MacedonKilmore, Heidelberg.Plenty River, Kangaroo Ground.1 about Kew - Ūrŭndjeri willŭm2 [Westernport - crossed out] Cranbourne - Būlūk-willŭm3 Dandenong - Ngairāk-willŭm[Cannot read word]4. Mordiallok - Būnwūrŭng

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(12) Native name of Capt. Turnbull? [line drawn to] Ningūlabūlor nūng-qua-la-vol?meaning?which were the boundaries of theKūrnŭng willum tribe? of which hewas the head man. were they woewurŭng?native name of Benbow De Vilierssee (19)meaning of Yalūkūt-wilum(13) What was the tribe calledat [coast or at St Kilda - the Yalūkūt-wilum - were they Būnoorong?[yes sea ante-about and???]

(14) Were the gal-gal-ballukparrt of the Jajauwurung?

(15) what was the native nameof their ngŭrŭngaetaKing Bobbby?Native name of Malcom of theKri-balluk - in [???]

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(16) Do they know the Bangerang or Daujerang?half Kulin - Bunjil and Waang

(17) Have & [???][???] for Echucado if [???]

(18) Who was Bilibilery's fatherwho was of being [????]

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Woëwurung(1) Marriage arranged by the two fathers oftenwhen girl was quite small but the actualmarriage was not until the old men haddecided that the time had arrived.(2) a sister of the man had to be given in exchangefor the girl given for his wife

(3) Those who might lawfully marry were Be-arnto each other

(4) at the great meetings the old men arranged which of the young women wasold enough to be sent to the places wheretheir future husband lived - who took them?

(5) Does he remember Eliza - her father of [?Darling?] [?River?] tribe who waspromised to Billy Hamilton of Goulburn tribe- an also Gellibrand (Ber-uke = Kangaroo Rat)of Melbourne tribe? Does he rememberfight between Gellibrand + Hamilton at Sandy Ckwhen Būnwurung, Woewurung + 3 other tribes werepresent - + when Gellibrand beat Hamilton?(Billy remembers all this)

(6) Does he know Binbeal - the Rainbow?Yes Binbeal one of Bunjil's young men

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(11) (7) Does he remember the old man of the Moogolumbeek tribe - when alot (7)of tribes were in the Govt. Paddock + allof them listened to what the old man said.Who was he? Kala Kalas Knocking orThumpingwith the fist or heel

(8) ask about exchnge of sisters

(9) draw up pedigree of William also of hisfahter's sister +c

(10) were marriages made up at all the greatmeetings? "Wangkūn?"

(11) Bilibeari - SisterCaptain Turnbull - SisterJack brother by - BebijernWilliamDavid

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Sequence of Berak re: Eliza(1) Does he remeber the fight between BillyHamielin (Sonehunlut) and fillebriant (melbourne tribe) at SandyCreek when the Woeworung and Bunworungand 3 other tribes were then [?????][????] what was it all about?

(2) Does he know Binbeal the Rainbowaunties wife?

(3) Does he remember the very old man+ Moogolūmbeek tribe - who waswith many Kulin in the firstPaddock? All the people listened to him+ a tribe beyond Benalla - but not as far as theMurray Rvr. - Yes.

(4) Betrothal. who by?Did girls brother or cousinexchange her?

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various ways - but cant give [??]

(5) draw up William's pedigreealso verify this;

[Diagram of geneaology]

Captain Turnbull - Bilibileri - sister sisterJack Weatherly - Bebejern - sonwife?William - son and daughterDavid


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hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages



The Kurnai tribe

The [??] [??] [??] [??] 3 1 - Bukan 1 - Set fight 1. 52 A The Kurnai language 2 - of birds 2.73.80 82.83.89 names of trees Loän 3 [??] [??] [??]3Jerail 4.18/19 - 39. 87. 97. [88-crossed out] Elopement - 5.27.45 [??] N.S.E.W +c 7 Rainmaker 41 Marks on Possum rugs +c 45. - Legends 46.Food rules Jerail 9./11-24.28.48 77.79.81 Messengers 14/16.18.51 Biraark - Omens 3 Aurora 14.15.58. Thunder 14.15 Sky 14.15.24 69Moon + stars Head men Wild tribes 17. The old blacks 28.47[??] ball as message 17. Mrarts 19.50.69 [??] 21.25 Burial 47.59.89Legends Brewin + the moon 22.63 Yambo 25.69 [??] Supernatural Beings 50[??] [??] Magic Doctors +c Nungy nungit - 30/32.33. [?Varura?] +c 48.51.53A 70.73.[58.63 - crossed out] 54.67 97.Imported corroboree 55. Katūngal 56. Dress ornaments weapons 57.59. Visitors[?crow?] 59.63.72 Clasns+c 64.-65- Kurnai ancestors 66. Widows 71.-Legends 74.75 76. Muk Kurnai 74A - Drawings of [?Bulerwieng?] + Tūtnŭrring. 91.names of [?bats?], plant. [?water?] +c 73[Kulu - crossed out] Kurnai ancestors p. 22

Batman + Port Philip blacks - 57.Wimmera - magic. the bone 67.Būnwurūng in 1841 not more than 500 - p 90 - Rain maker 90.Kūlin Gesture Language - 91

Tūta-warra-wara division of [Malaua?] - p 90

[written in left side margin][?Kup?] - boraE. [?Rignans?]p 75

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90Western Port Tribe

Mr Connor J.P. says that when he cameinto Western Port district in 1841 the blacks didnot number 500 all told.

Rain makersHe remembers during a very wet time thatan old man endeavored to produce fineweather and to send the rain away by"muttering words to himself as he sate by hisfire and at the same time throwingany ashes from the edge of the fire againstthe direction from which the rain was coming."

Bundanāl says At [th- crossed out] Yanakie and the left hand side of Andersons Inlet+ up the Tarwin therein - then in the Tūlā-warra-warradivision of the Brataūalang clan, on the opposite side ofAndersons inlet there was then ofthe Bunorung tribe,Old Darby was at Foster and was also in the head man of the Kut-wut-divisionthe Bunjil gworun of Port Albert, Alberton, Taraville - Yarram.The Tūlā-warra-warra spoke a "little nūlet".-see p. 48 - when the Yanakie people are called Nanjet.

The Port Albert, Taraville people used to goacross to Wilsons promontory at times for mutton Birds.

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hw0391 Notes by Howitt on Kulin from Barak



The Kulin TribeInformant Berūk (white grub in gum tree)otherwise King William of the Yarra tribe.

Mr Cameron learns fromKing David thatKubitche = WaaKroki = Bunjil

[Margin Note:] Avoka – or Boka Dick

The men of this tribe are all called Kūlin in distinction from those of alien tribes who are regarded as wild men and named as follows: -Gippsland blacks beyond Tarwin River = Bér-bira or Méy-metBeyond Geelong = B Warrije = Far off - Bek = countryat Echuca = Méy-metThe bounds of the country occupied by the Kulin were these: from the Tarwin River in Westernport round the spurs of the Australian alps to beyond the Broken River; and extending westward to beyond Geelong – to Mt Macedon, Kilmore Murchison and probably Wangaratta. ——[Margin note:]1 – W2 – W3 – B5 – W6 - BEach tribe has its particular locality which they consider a sort of inheritance - Buckley p. ?7]The Jajowurong tribe adjoining the Kūlin on the North west was regarded as friendly; The Mey met […] Ber-bira were not so regarded.The Kulin tribe was divided into Hordes of which the following […] the principal; of […][Marginal text:ballŭk = a number of peopleūrŭn = white gumjerrirŭk = mourning birdngarŭk = stonesKūrūng jang = red ground[?]Neera = a deep gullyalso the Nir-ballŭkfrom Nir = cavespoke Thagun wūrŭng fromThagun = No - lived on watershed of Campaspe down to [...] ]Hordes Class Wives to Wives from1. ūrŭndjeri ballŭk Kew waa wöe Būlūk willŭmCranbourne waa wöe woey wūrŭng language3. Ngárŭk willŭmDandenong būnjil wöe woey wūrŭng language4. Būnwūrŭng Mordiallok būnjil wöe boon-wūrŭng5. Kūrūng jang ballŭkWerribee waa woey wūrŭng6. gūnŭng willŭm ballŭk

Mt Macedon būnjil wöe woey wūrŭng7. Nira ballŭkKilmore Waa thagūng wūrŭng8. Būthera ballŭk Seymour būnjil thagūng wurung9. Yowŭng illŭm ballŭkAlexander waa thagūng wurung10. Waaring illŭm ballŭkMuddy Ck būnjil thagūng wurung11. Yeerŭn illŭm ballŭkBenalla būnjil thagūng wurung12. Būn mūrŭng ballŭk

Cape Schank Waa boon-wūrŭng12 13. Ballŭng Kara-mittŭng-būlaWangaratta būnjil (does not know) 13 14. Wŭdthowrŭng ballŭkGeelong bunjil Wadtha-wurung14 15. Ngūralŭng būlaMurchison Same Būnjil Ngur-ai- illŭm Ngūrai ilŭm wrūrung

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50Initiation Western port

William Bairuk says that in [??] water?the Initiation is very easy and short. It is called Tállangŭn. The boy is taken at some single mans camp andthence to another where part of the growing beard whiskers and moustache are pulled out but not all. Ringtail possum bands are placed roundhis arms – a net máragalŭn raddled istied round his forehead and a reed necklace placed round his neck. He is invested with a branjep (front + rear one) – and has a [lon - crossed out] bone (ilijéri) (dijeri) in his nose. This being done he is a young man and is gradually made free of forbidden food by having the various animals +c given to him in small cooked pieces. ________________________________________________________________The Marine beck (Bad Country)

When a new comer is to be made free of the Marine Beck – say at Tarwin (Blacks). The old man plucks most of the newcomer’s beard out. Runs a streak of raddle over his head and down his back and down his front to the Branjep. A wide white streak is drawn like a pair of braces from the back to front on each side. He is then taken to a certain place where he is fed with Eels which are caught with a Jag spear and roasted for him.

He must also learn the Būnwūrŭng language which is spoken there and which is the language of Lohan who lives at Wilson’s promontory and who made this custom.

The Waang & Bunjil sticks

In the time before whites came when some wang (waa) & Bunjil people were camped around the same fire each one had his own stick to stir it with or to cook the food. He must not touch the stick of any other man - specially one of the opposite name under the chance of his fingers swelling. If so he would have to go to the [M old man - crossed out] Wira rap who would draw the piece of wood out.

[written in left side margin]

in Nulictlanguage of Gippslandjinibin

When at dawn the newcomer {hears sees (say) a laughing Jackass making a noise at him he must turn towards him and spit (or splutter) loudly at him - to [indicate - crossed out] drive off thebad influences for the birds when they do this are saying “what did you come here for?”

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67The Ūurŭnjeri should be written Wūrŭnwhich is the River white gum = E. Viminalis.The Warin or Waring is the sea which extends all round from Geelong.The boundary between the Wŭdthau’rungWūdthauworung and the Woëworung was at the Werribee-yallŭk (river)The former went inland as far as the Anakies and further west to the Leigh River and their great meetings with the tribe from about Ballarat were held at Mt Emu (per Johnny Philips).

The Boon’orung Boonworung extended from the Saltwater River along the coast Eastward.

William Berak remembers [the - crosssed out] some of the Kulinfrom the Buffalo River coming to a great meeting near Melbourne. They were the Mogullum bitch tribe, and their Head man was called Kallakallap, who had great influence and was listened to.

He also some [sic] of the Theddora-mittung from beyond the country of the Mogullum-bitch, also came to a great meeting held before but at which Kallakalap was. They came as friends the Kulin of the Dandenong mountains (look these up).

Note This being the case the Kulin of the Dandenong mountains could only have come to know the Theddora-mittung by meeting them in the summer haunts in the mountains eg [at - crossed out] in the country between the head of the Yarra & the head of the Buffalo River, unless they met at some great meeting say in the country of the tribes about Mansfield.

The Redgum is called Bial by the Woeworung.Banksia integrifola – Kurnai (Brabra) BírrenWoëworung = Wūrait

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[newspaper article]Argus28/4/06Suburban Native NamesOrigin of “Prahran,” &c.Writing from Merchiston-Hall, Geelong, Mr. G. F. Belcher says: -“In going through some old papers not long since I came across a letter from an old friend, Mr George Langhorne, dealing with native names. Mr Langhorne was sent to Port Phillip by the Sydney Governor (Sir Richard Bourke) to establish an aboriginal protectorate, the chief object being to look after the moral training of native boys.

“Soon after my arrival in Melbourne (early in 1839) I became acquainted with Mr Langhorne, who arrived in 1836. His camp was situate on the Yarra, near “Punt Hill.’ Many an evening I spent with him in his tent, which was surrounded by the mia-mias of the natives. As a rule, the natives never cared to remain long in any locality, and so Mr Langhorne moved about fromtime to time, changing his camp to suit the wishes of his proteges. Mr Langhorne held a great influence over the natives, and often was the means of preventing tribal fights.”

The letter from Mr Langhorne is dated Botany, October, 1889. It runs thus: - “With regard to the origin of the word ‘Prahran’ – now, I believe, a large town or city – on a mizzley, rainy day of late autumn in 1837 Robert Hoddle (surveyor-general) strolled into my hut, at the Government sta-tion at Pur-ra-ran, for so I named it - a com-pound of two aboriginal words, meaning land partially surrounded by water. This was the aboriginal station assigned to me by the Governor (Sir Richard Bourke), for the purpose of forming a nucleus establish-ment for the care and Christian training of the aborigines of Port Phillip.

“ ‘Busy? said my visitor.“ ‘Yes; always busy.’“ ‘Lovely spot, this.’

“It was a lovely spot, at the bend of the river, opposite to what we call the 'Go-vernment-house Paddock,’ on a rising ground, forming a fine, grassy slope to the river, well cropped by sheep that had been a short while camped there after landing from Van Diemen’s Land. In the rear was a large and picturesque swamp, which thenatives told me was named after me. To the southward was a rising ground, from which we could see Hobson’s Bay, about two miles distant.

“ ‘I have called on you,’ said Hoddle, ‘to get some native names for the districts or parishes around in county Bourke.’

“ ‘I am glad to hear it,’ I replied.

Hoddle went on, ‘Now, first, what do you call this place, ‘Purrarhan,’ and ‘Jika Jika’ after?’

“ ‘After the chief, Wanorong, who claims the district as his country. And you may call one parish “Kulbundora,” others “Ker-bukena,” “Yall Yall.” Tullamarena,""Tallanghata." "Tarook" (the names of several fine boys, who were with me in camp).’

Kulbundora was the eldest son of Jika-Jika, the chief. Old Tukulneen was the former chief, but was superseded owing to his advanced age. ‘Tarook’ I named after the black crow, which abounded that time in the district.’

“A day or two after my interview with Hoddle, the boy Kulbundora, a fine lad of 14, who was acquiring English rapidly, walked into my hut, and, seating himself close to me, commenced to exhibit proof of his progress in the language by singing ‘what shall we do with the drunken sailor early in the morning?’ He mimicked the drunken man as he sang the refrain. The song he had learned at a brickmakers’ canteen. When I visited Melbourne in 1851 (I have not been there since), passing down Collins-street I was startled by a voice from the opposite side calling out my (native) name, Tukul-reen, when a tall black ran over to me. ‘Ah, Yall Yall, is that you?’ I inquired after the lads mentioned above, and received the sor-rowful answer to each inquiry, ‘To-Ke-Ko lang’ (all dead and gone), only 12 years after I resigned the care of them. I presume now that very few of the Wawarongs of Mel-bourne, the Watowrongs of Geelong, the Borawongs of Westernport remain. They numbered in 1837 about 1,000 or 1,200; within 50 miles of Melbourne none re-main.”

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

hw0429 Questions for William Berak



Woiworung[??] Būnwūrŭnghalf [??] country - also St Kildaas far as Mordialluk. [?Some of very?]Bad country from Dandenong to MordiallukBad country began at Bushy Creek.French Island - [?Eggs?] [??]- young men + women=load canoe - [??] with [??]Lohans [??] [??] your [??]wamŭng = Wilsons PromontorySwan [??] - French Islandmarine-thŭng Lohan [??] thŭng= [?garuk?]manep = Blackfellow [??][??] [??] upper Yarraas as [??]at [?Heidelberg?] [??]includes all [??] [??]at [?Racecourse?] Kŭmage - Wūrūndjeri

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie


Head [??]Kŭrna - [??] [??] [?Long place?] [??]1 Bill billary - [unable to read the rest of this line]2 Bebejan [unable to read rest of line]3 Boi-berrit - Sunbury(language) thŭn willum - Bŭng-erm the Head man

[??]boon [??] [??]thagŭngwadtha - or WadthowrŭngNjūrai illŭm

[written along right side margin]woey-wūrrūng - Kūllin

Last edit 24 days ago by ALourie

XM261 Notes on Morrill



3James Morill

SunMoonThe sun is (nigm) they think is made of fire x xThe moon (wer boon bura) they say is a human beinglike themselves and comes down on the earthand they sometimes meet it in some of theirfishing excursions. They say one tribe throws it upand it gradually rises and then comes downagain when another [??] catch it to save itfrom hurting itself. They accordingly thinkthere is a new sun + moon every day + night p20

Falling starCometsThey think the falling stars indicate the directionof danger and that comets are the ghosts orspirits of some of their tribe who have beenkilled at a distance from them, workingtheir way back again and that they comedown from the clouds on the coast xxthat when there is an eclipse some of their tribehide it with a sheet of bark to frighten the restp 21

x a total eclipse x x and old man told me his sonhad hid it (the sun) to frighten another of his tribe

Deluge FloodThey told me their forefathers witnesses a greatflood and nearly all were drowned out therewho got in a very high mountain (Bibberingda)which is inland of the north bay of Cape Clevelandwere saved p. 21

Numerals1= wiggin (2) Borlray (3) Goodjoo (4) Mineworl(5) Murgai For any numbers beyond thesethey put up their ten fingers together; beyond thatagain the fingers of another person + so on forthree or four persons, till they come to a moonthey measure time, moons + hot and dry seasons p 21

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie
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