Search for NSW* "New South Wales" "N. S. W." N.S.W* N.S.W.* "N.S. Wales" "N S Wales"
XM107_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 8 September 1880
Dear SirYou will be surprised not to have heard from me for so long a time but I have been prevented bymany things from writingand merely write now to say that it is not from wantof inclination. I have leftthe district from which I wrote last and am managinga station in this District(Balranald ) where I believe the blacks belong to the Barkinjee tribe but
I have not seen any of them. This is our busiestseason and we are suffering from drought which makes matters worse but when a better opportunity occurswhich i hope may be in a month or so, I hope to renew our correspondenceMeantime I send you my address and will be glad to forward any information I can.
From Dear sirYours faithfully A L P Cameron
XM105_ICDMS_lowres Letter to Howitt 13 June 1880
CanobleMossgiel June 13th 1880
Dear SirYours as the 7th is to hand.By this mail I return againthis form filled upon as neatlyas I can but there is considerabledifficultly as I find they callseveral of the relationshipsby the same name - For instancethey have 020 distinct wordssignifying Brother in law, son in lawfather in law etc, thus a man would call his brother's wifeWoopau (wife).
In reply to some of your questionsthe father gives the child a name without any ceremony, but when this child becomes a young man he attends a
meeting of the tribe, and goes through a ceremony, at which none but the men of the tribe already initiated, and those about to be initiated, are present; he his there re-christened and has a tooth knocked out. 2nd the ceremony is performed by the old men of the tribe; the girls being excluded, and should a girl by accident or there will sometimes the ceremony and if men [?] the penalty is death. The penalty if revealing this secret rites, I think is W be the same. To perform these rites a large oval space is cleared, to I think none but those mentioned, and those about to be initiated, are admitted. I could not get a full description of the ceremony, but I think the tooth is knocked out and a loud humming
noise is heard which is made with an instrument quite unlike your diagram [sketch/illustration on this line]. my illustration is to more like it. It is a piece of flat tree branch with serated [sic]edges, a hole through one end to which a string is attached, and this swung rapidly round, produces a humming noise. The uninitiated are not allowed even to see these instruments. 3 The name for medicine men or Wizard is "Watinard" and the office is Turrdeburry. 4th There are special news carriers or messengers, the young men performing the as a [?] . 5th the oldest and much [?] of the tribe is chief, insomuch that his advice and assistance is asked.
and attended but there is no suspense heard or [?] among them. 6 Written regard to punishment of offenses. If a man be murdered the murdered man's class relative by talking the life of the murderer as are of his class relatives. If the offence be against tribal custom, for instance if a man marry, or have improper relations with a women of forbidden class; the members of his class would kill him. 7th They believe in a future place, where they will live much as they do here; and they also believe in the [??] of a place where a big [?] of Beings exist thus Beings or spirits are not the spirits of deceased [?] They believe think the spirits of
XM106_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 4 July 1880
Cameron Mossgiel NSW July 4th 1880
A W Howitt Esq Sale Gipsland
Dear Sir Yours of the 11th July [crossed out] June isto hand some time sinceI regret that pressure of other business has pre-- vented my reply my former no's have [?] able to fill in and return your circular relationships, but will do so as soon as possible The Unghie tribe inhabitedthe tract of country lying,say, between the Maranoa and Warrego Rivers the
Queensland extendingSouthward to the BallonneRiver, embracing about10,000 square miles of countryI do not remember the English meaning for Unghibut it had nothing to doso far as I know with"yes" or "no" - in Unghie "yes" is"yo" and "no" "ardah"
2) Though present at a "Borali"I have since thought I was not permitted to see thesecret ceremony of initiation
3 but I know they used a wooden instrument to produce a humming noise, and that women or boys, were not allowed to see it.
4 The Unghie believed that the spirits of deceased friends hovered about the Earth and they also believed that charms against sickness werecommunicated in dreams but whether by spirits of relatives or not I cannot remember; they were great believers in sorcery.
Should I have an opportunity at anytime of seeing the young man whom [instructed?]at my last as havingsupplied informationand who in living somedistance from here, I will forward you as full an account ofthe Waradjery tribeas I can.
At present owing to
XM118_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 3 August 1882
SirYours of 22nd ult. is to hand as well as the M.S. for which accept my best thanks.I read the latter great interest and as youasked me to express my view freely I will do so.
My essay was finished before I receivedthe M.S. but it would not have altered anyviews I had formed because in most of whatyou say I concur. As you are aware I alwayslooked upon the sub divisions into four classesas an extension of a reformatory movementhaving for its object the prohibition of consan--guinous marriages and this I have mentioned in my paper. I scarcely think it canbe showed that the cause of prohibitions of intercourse between son in law and mother in law arises in the manner indicated in yourpaper. You commenced your argument by saying "I take first the more ancient system having onlytwo classes with uterine descent"; but yourargument is confined to this system as youdo not refer afterwards to any other system.
[written perpendicularly at top of page]Do you think thatthe legend concerningthe Bukumuru isconnected withthe totem systemI have an idea that certain groups saykindred havingtotem names believethat they are descendedfrom an ancestorwho at the generaltransformationwas changed into the animal wholse name theynow bear.
Even were all tribes divided into two classes only Idon't think the argument would hold good
In brief the argument is this.
1st Mother in Law and Son in Law are connectedby marriage and it would therefore bepolution[sic] for any intercourse to take place
2nd The class laws are unable to guard againstthis polution[sic] because the mother in law belongsto a class from which her son in law might take a wife
3rd It was therefore resolved to promulgate a social edict prohibiting intercourse of anykind between mother in law and son in law
Now if this were the reason should there notalso be a social edict against intercoursebetween father and daughter or betweenuncle and niece or any other pairs thatmight marry but for the relationship thatalready exists.
1st Father and daughter are related by bloodand it would therefore be polution [sic] for any intercourseto take place between them.
2nd The class laws are unable to guard against thispolution [sic] because a man's daughter belongs to aclass from which he may lawfully take a wife
3rd Not withstanding this it was not considerednecessary to promulgate a social edict against intercoursebetween them.
You say that you do not think the social pro-hibition a whit stronger that the class law that prohibits intermarriage of brother + sister: In this Iconcur. Further as you say that although this is the case " the inability in a man to marry a woman of the same class name as himself doesnot appear either when he is single or married, unless upon enquiry; the prohibition between a man and his wife's mother instantlystands out in bold relief when he obtains amother in law by his marriage." But I thinkthe prohibition between Father and daughter stands out quite as prominently if not more so.
The argument does not apply in any way to tribes divided with 4 classes because insuch cases the mother in law is not of a classfrom which her [mother - crossed out] son in law could take a wife. Again in tribes having agnatic descent according to your rules the prohibition should be between a man and his son's wife because she is then of a class from which he might take a wife.
It may be said that the prohibition cameinto existence before a agnatic descent was the lawof this tribe and before the tribe was subdivided into four classes, but if this were the case I think that the custom would have fallen
into disuetude when it became no longer necessary. We do not however find that the prohibition is any stronger or any weaker among tribes dividedinto four classes. I cannot say whether it is less so among tribes having agnatic descent as I have not come in contact with any, but as you say the prohibition is universal throughout AustraliaIt is fair to conclude that it is not.
I find it impossible to obtain any reason for it from the natives. Our very intelligentfellow with whom I was conversing on the subjectsaid "You will never find it out because we don'tknow it ourselves" and added that he believed thelaw was handed down to them from the Būkūmŭruwho first inhabited the earth and were afterwardstransformed into animals.
I think very little of Mr McLennan's style of criticism which appears to be based upon a misconception if not ignorance of the Australian class laws. I would be much obliged by your forwarding me any papers on the subject when you are done with them.
I will try to get you the word for manamong the Darling River tribe. The Darling tribe about Pooncarie and I think nearby to Wilcannia is called Barkingi Did you get Taplin's book safely. I return manuscript by this post and thanking you verymuch for your kind offer to aid me. My dear SirYours sincerely Cameron|A L P Cameron
XM121_ICDMS_lowres ALP Cameron to Howitt 14 August 1883
MuluruluAug 14th 1883
A W Howitt Esq
I am in receipt of your note of the 4th kindly offering to take the reconstruction of my paper in hand. I very gladly avail myself of the offer. I thoughtwhen sending if that much of the matterwas unsuitable for the anthropological Institute, although it might meet the case when a paper was required onthe aborigines generally. I have had such autumn time up here for many months that I have found it very difficult tobring my mind to bear on subjects one -earmarked with business, nor can I work much now as shearing commences today.
If however it is not too much to askit will be a great kindness to me to doas you say in connection with the essay and you should not trouble to send me drafts as I am sure any arrangement you may make will beperfectly satisfactory to me
I have read Mr Frasers essay but didnot care much for it; it appeared to me that a criticism, l [?] read on a certain work would apply to it. That it contained much that was newand much that was true but un-fortunately that which was true was not new and that which was new was not true. I have not been able to trace anything semitic in their origin. However any adverse criticism comes with a with a very bad grace from a defeatedcompetitor.
I think the table of contents [is have?]have arranged would be excellent. I may mention that in the names of some of the tribes there may be some mistakes because theirneighbours do not always call each other by the same name that a Tribe calls itself. I amDear Sir Yours Faithfully A L P Cameron
XM122_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 20 October 1883
My Dear Sir
I received the [essay?] on your notes[? ] last week. The work of taking to pieces reconstructing and rewriting must[have?] given you a lot of work for whichI need not say how much obliged: I cannotobtain any fresh information for the blacks all seem to have deserted this district and are gone I know not where. I have given what answers I could toyour notes in any matter that neededelucidation. I am perfectly satisfied with the paper on it now [?] ; You say that if I desired the portions relating to Mr Hardieseems as to usual [?] of [ ] tribes befrom Clunes could be added but of courseit is not necessary. I notice you haveomitted the parts relating to Infanticideand Cannibalism; would it not have been as well to let them appear? butyou know best what is most suitable
XM123_ICDMS_lowres A L P Cameron to Howitt 26 December 1903
My dear Mr Howitt
Yours of the 15th is to hand. My experienceis that among the Wonghibone tribe which I regard as a branch of the Wiradhurie a man would not kill or eat his totem. I cannot say what he would do under great pressure from hunger but the general law was that they would not eat it. As you know there were [instructions?] in many tribes with regard to what might be eaten at certain ages but I remember years ago being out with "two?" lads of the Unghi tribe in Western Queensland. We were some time without food where we killed a carpet snake which was interdicted to young men. At first they would not hear of eating it, but after seeing it cooked and being eaten by myself they partook of some after obtaining my promise that I would not tell anyone. So that possibly a man would eat his totem under similar circumstances.
I am glad to hear that you have brought your work so near completion and trust you will be able to get some information from the Aborigines Protection Board though am afraid that the Board is not a very reliable source inasmuch that they dont seem to travel [?] themselves much
with the [.........] side of the Aborigines question I remember writing you about the Unghi tribe located between the Maranoaand Warrego and that they called themselves Ipai, Kumbo etc and and also Oorjilla, Kuberu etc.You suggested they were probably on the border land dividing Ipai lot from the Oorjilla.Not long since I met a Mr H.S. Wills son of Horatio Wills who was murdered. He told me that 200 miles north of the Unghi the words Ipai Kumbo were unknown and theywere all Oorjilla Kuberu. We compared a lot of words and there was an extraordinary resemblance, a great many words being almost exactly the same.
Wish you a pleasant Xmas
Page 45 [..] some argument [...... ... ....] "dismiss?" this statement that totems [........] this field of [.........] selection. [...] a [....]. the [........... ....] mallee here marries [.....] kangaroo with a bandicoot & [.........] kangaroo or [........ ......] on [.... .......] and [............] as the two primary divisions as [........]. Then according to "Lang?" any [....] could marry any [......] or any [......] and of course "be?"
Ipai malley hen marries mattia Kangaroo, herdaughter is Kubbitha Kangaroo and the totem [??] does not permit him to marry her. How then can it be said that totems do not [?]. ...... ... ....] of matrimonial selection.ALPC
XM124_ICDMS_lowres Answers to questions relating to the Wonghi Tribe, Lachlan District, NSW
1st One tribe is divided into classes2nd The child does not belong either to mother's or father's class3rd It is customary for a man to have more than one wife4th I have not found that it was customary for the men to lend their wives to the unmarried men or to friendly visitors but I do not think they would have much objection to do so for a consideration in such cases I think it would be necessary that the class rules should be observed.5th The women was bound to be faithful to the husband, the penalty being whatever punishment the husband thought fit to administer. The same rule would not apply to the husband.
6th A parents consent was necessary before a girls marriage.7th It very rarely happens (I never knew a case) that a girl marries without her father's consent. I have never known a case of a girl eloping and am sure they would hardly ever occur.9th A woman was the property of her captor when she was not of a class forbidden to him. I don't think a blackfellow would persist in retaining a female captive of a forbidden class; indeed I feel sure he would not as he would incur the contempt of every member of his tribe but whether he would be killed or not I cannot say.8 Wives are almost always obtained by gift from the father, never so far as I can learn by exchange but often by capture.
The native name of the tribe to which the above questions refer is Wonghi (sometimes called Wonghibon) it has no English equivalent - that I can discover.The tribe is divided into four primary classes which governthe marriages and is sub-dividedinto various others such as Wajim - Crow, Murua - Kangaroo,Tulee - Iguanna. Curu - BandicootCurakai - Oppossim etc etcThe territory claimed by this tribe is or was not as large as some tribes I have known and is I think about 10,000 square miles and is situated to the north side of the Lachlan River commencingabout Whealbah, following
XM125_ICDMS_lowres Kinship circular completed by A L P Cameron
No 1 calls 2 [........] 4 "Miamui?" 5 "Napui?" 6 [Pen...] 8 [.....ui] Nopui 9 Waipui 11 Bo-I...-ithui 12 Ngutha ngathui 13 Mathui 15 Napanui 17 Wa-...ui 19 Ng-ipe-ui 25 Mi-I..-ui
No 2 calls
1 Wai..ui 3 .nee..kui 5 Indapui 7 Nopui 9 Na-tow-ui 13 Nathui 15 Naponui 26 Kokonui
No 3 calls
2 [......] 4 Iniamiu 13 Mathui 15 Naponui 19 Naipui 25 Mi-im-ui 26 Kokonui
No 4 calls
1 Wawui 3 ...itui 13 Inathui 15 Naponui
No 5 calls
1 Nopui 2 Indapui 4 Nopui 6 Wawui (if older) 9 Waipui 11 Bo-ike-ithui 12 Nalondui 8 Munu..ui (if older)
No. 6 calls
1 Ringapui 3 Nopui 5 Inunukui (if older) 7 Mamui (if older)
No 9 calls
1 Mamui 2 ..-..ui 4 Mamui 5 [......] 6 Kakui 8 Goonui
No 11 calls
1 Bo-ike-ithui 5 Bo-ike-ithui
No 12 calls 1 Ngatha nguthui 5 Naloondui
No 13 calls
1 Nathui 2 Nathui 4 Nathui 5 [Mi-..-ui]
No [..] calls
1 Naponui 2 Naponui 4 Naponui
No 17 calls
1 Mamui 9 Wawui (if older) 10 [.....kai] (if older) [.....] 19 Nupui 20 [....oonui]
No 18 calls
4 Wawui (if older) 10 [.....] (if older) 12 Nopui 19 Maloonui 20 Indapui 23 [.ahtui] if older 24 [...ui] if older
No 19 calls
1 Kakui 3 Goonui 5 Nu-nigui 7 Inamui 9 Niripui 10 Maloonui 13 Wahtui
9 Maloonui 10 Indapui 13 Me-im-ui
2 Goonui 19 [.....] if older 20 [Meenu...] if younger or [......]
19 Wawui if older or [.......] 20 [.....] if 20 is older or [..........]
No 25 1 Ininui 3 [.......]
1 Kokonui 2 Kokonui 3 Kokonui
No 1 calls
- [......] - Miamui 5 Nopui - Ningapui - - 16 Mingapui [.......] - Uthui uthui 13 Matui - Naponiu - Waipui - Inaipui - "Inaiponui?" - Meimui
No 2 calls
- Waiui - [Meand...] or [......] - Napui - Indapui - [......] - Matui - Naponui - Kokonui
No 3 calls
2 Tahtui or [........] - Mamui 13 Matui 15 Naponui - Waipui 25 Mumui 26 Kokonui
No 4 calls
1 Wawiui - Tahtiu 13 Manui 15 Naponui
No 5 calls
- Nopui - Indopui - Nopui - Waiui - [........] - Naloodui - [........]
No 6 calls
- Pingaipui - Nopui - [.......] or [.....] - Waiui or [......]
No 9 calls
- Mamui or mahmui - Ninwui - Mamui - Goonui - [.....] - Goonui
No 11 calls
- Boo...thui - do
No 12 calls
- Nuthui nuthai - Naloondui
No 13 calls
1 Mathui 2 Matui 4 Matui 5 Neimui
No 18 calls
1 Naponui 2 Naponui 4 Naponui
No 17 calls
- Mamui - [.aiwui] - Nimui - [...pui] - [........]
No [..] calls
- [..aiwui] - [........] 12 Nopui - Nopui - Indapui 23 Maloomui
No 19 calls
- Kakui - Goonui - [......] - Mamui - Noonpui - Maloonui 13 Watui
- Nopui - Indapui 13 [....tui]
2 Goonui - Waiwui or [.....] 23 Nopui
- Waiwui or [.....] - [........] or [.....]
1 Meemui 3 Munui
1 Kokonui 2 Kokonui 3 Kokonui
Harry Daramung han [sic] for Thundung a bird called Gliun (the Porp melanotis). When he was a small boy his father said to him "That is your Thundung, you will have it when I die". Do not killbit [sic]Big Charley's Thundung is twofold being both of the Congereels.The Burra which is the smaller one and the Noy-yang which is the larger one. He eats both of them.King Charley is also of these totems and could also eat of them.Tulaba's Thundug [sic] was the Jira (kangaruu) [sic].Big Joe's was the Thurung the Tiger snake.Billy Jumbuck's was the Thurung the tiger snake.Old Timothy (Bunjil barlajan) was ?
When Mr Bulmer was with Billy Jumbuck in the bush, the latter was walking along side of a tiger snake which was wriggling alongbeside of him. Mr Bulmer said "What is that?, Billy replied "That one belonga me", and was very angry because Mr Bulmer killedit.
Those cases of natives both men and women, who had tame anija [sic]show that they were their totema for instance Bunjil Bataluk,who had a tame Iguana, Old Lawson''s wife who had a tame native cat, of another who had a tame snake and so on.
His father when Larry was a small boy, say eight years of agepointing to a small birk [sic] which frequents the shores, "that is yourbudjan, do not hurt it. He has never injured one, nor would he eatit, and would be very sorry if any one did so in his presence. Thisbird is called the Blit-burring.
The Kurnai have no class or subclass names andtherefore no social organisation as I use that termbut they have unmistakable indications that they[had totems and therefore - crossed out] must have had all atsome former time.
Each individual had a thūndung or elderbrother, [not only in their sex totem Yürung or, - crossed out][Djütgun but also in some - crossed out] being some marsupial animal, or bird, reptile or fish. It is the [They however have no influence upon marriage - crossed out][which is regulated by kinship and local exogamy- crossed out][and survive as the merely as the elder brother and - crossed out][and also as in so far the -crossed out] protector that in[some cases such as Kangaroos + birds- crossed out] it gave[notice of - crossed out] danger, and [also -crossed out] has also invokedsongs in cases of [??]
They [thundung - crossed out] are also spoken of as jiakor flesh as in other tribes.
The [jiak - crossed out] totem was told by a man to his son whenabout eight or nine years of age and by a womanto her daughters. [For instance a man might - crossed out]point out his totem to his son and say["see there that is your thundung; yu must - crossed out][not kill it!" - crossed out]
As these names are perpetuated from fathersto sons, the daughter having also the same, descentis clearly in the male line, and they would benecessarily prepetuated in the locality to whicha man belonged. A good instance is thatof the Bunjil-baul who lived in RaymondIsland in Lake King and whose jiak was [the Gluin - crossed out] a bird the Gluin, whence their nameof Gluin-Kong, the Glui's beak.
[The Australia - crossed out][These Thundung- crossed out][The totem and its human brother are - crossed out][These toems and their human "younger brother"- crossed out][which are younger - crossed out][brother - which are sill in the relative of- crossed out][protected + protector - they the form here the - crossed out][two classes with which we now I feel certain they- crossed out][have at one time I feel [??] [??] at where- crossed out][they preceeded - crossed out]
(1) I am much indebted to the Revd John Bulmerfurther investigating the Kurnai Thundungconfirming my own endeavours, by obtaining a[which - crossed out] of [the - crossed out] old people which abundantly exhibitedof male descent.
[written in left side margin]If I am correct in believing that these "thundung"were at one time[consistent with the two primary - crossed out][?? class divisions - crossed out]part of a two class system thenwe have here an instanceof the peculiar[??] of these coast tribes.The totem which [??]to my view preceeded the class agnate[??]exist, whileit has beenreplaced by rhelocal [?agnate?]
In the extreme East of [the Kurnai country- crossed out] Gippsland wherethe [people claimed to be - crossed out] Krauatun-Kurai [sic] living onthe border of the Yuin tribes were claimed by them as beingakin to them. The [thundung of the - crossed out] form spokeof their thundung as being the same asthe budjan of the latter.
the totems (Bai-Kain) of theKongalu tribe descend frommother to child. The [usual - crossed out] proper question ininquiring for the totem of an individual of thistribe is "ye ngundi uno bai kain"?" that is "ofwhat flesh is your totem?
While linear the descent of the totem, as well asof the class and subclass is from mother to childthat of the father is used by the male child as itsBu-in, and [that - crossed out] is the name by which it is addressedby the young people. But this is not the [personal - crossed out]group totem - which is the Bai Kain.
Here we may perhaps recognise one of the stepswhich have led to the [transfer- crossed out] introductionof male descent.
The thundung gave warning of danger to its bunang younger brotherwho had some song perculiar to himself by which he[??] his elder brother when sick. Such was thesong of [one man - crossed out] the man figured in illustration here -whose Thundung is Yalmerai or shark. The songis as follows (1) Thurwaang ngarndok - clean yourteeth, ngurka bunda [the open sea, There - crossed out][last two words mean- crossed out] Ngurk is the back of anythingas ngurka-wurka - a ridge or hill - or awide space as in this case the wider or open sea.
The Revd John Bulmer, who kindly made furtherenquiries for me, said that the term "clean your" teethrefers to the Shark's teeth which were tied to theforehead of the patient when this song was sung.
In the game of Dilk [that is ball play - crossed out] the ballwas thrown to a person of the same "Jiak" or flesh, that[otherwise the - crossed out] was of the same totem.
[written in left side margin]GirrornbahQueenslandDec 28 1895
Toto-wara-wara was a great man in the muk-kurnai time and he always stops atYerick to take care of the Kurnai there. When Bundawāl was a boy old Morgan(Bunjil gwaran = thunder) and old Darby tookhim [??]. Being a stranger from another placehe had to speak their language (Nangai) and nothis own. But he could understand it because it was like his. He could only drink out of a bark bowl while one of the men stirred the waterwith a stick. This was to avoid the evil which would come in him otherwise he being a stranger to this country. He would have the Wia-wuk reallyis his lips and mouth would become [??] as also his teeth would come out. Wia-wuk really means "Bad-country" but it is applied to theeffects upon strangers who are not all protected by the [people Kurnai -crossed out] Brataualung who speak the Nangai languageTotawara-wara is known to all the blacks at Lake Tyers and the Snowy River.
Borun the PelicanBorun the Pelican took a canoe from LakeTyers and went outside to Yirak because all the people from the low country and the mountainswanted to go there to feast on jiak (meat-foodeg. fish and game). They had come to Borun andasked him to get a canoe and take them there.Then Borun did as they wished and took themall to an island in the great waring (sea)outside of the shore Yiruk but in sight of it. There theycamped for the night. In the morning he tookall the men across to the land first but said there was not enough room for [the- crossed out] a womanwhom he left behind. When he came back and took her into the canoe she broke the bottom out as they were going round the end of the island and said "There you broke the canoe with carrying so many people on it at once." The canoeleaked so much that he had to land to mend itand camped there for the night. In the morning whilehe was mending his canoe the woman cut herhair off and fastened it to a piece of wood by the fireas if she were asleep there. Then she went into the waring (sea) and swam to Yiruk where the others were. When Borun landed by himselfat Yiruk he had to fight with all the menfor having run off with the woman.
[written in left side margin]Mt Singapore