Howitt and Fison Papers


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+ the Warajeri tribe was located

[crossed out - It was divided into four principal Hordes as follows] The local organization was as follows: (1) the [Naraudra?] - the prickly lizard (2) Kūtamŭndra - the river turtle(3) mŭing-būlla - Two bark canoes.

At each of these local divsions (Hordes) there was a Headman or "master" (Bidja-Bidja). -

As in other cases these Hordes were subdivided into numerous lesser groups each each with its own hunting grounds.

The Wirajuri tribe was adjoined in the west by the Eta-Eta tribe, commencing at Hay, on the north west of the[Ba-gun-Ge?] (Barkinji?). On the north by the Wong-i-bon tribe (1) on the north east by the Ngŭna-wal. In the south east by the Bura-bura-ba which adjoins the Eta-Eta tribe

[Left margin note] (1) For particulars see Mr [?] paper

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The Kamilaroi [crossed out - tribe] speaking tribes occupied a tract of New South Wales which may be defined as being nearly the whole of the Pastoral district of Liverpool Plains, north of the Gwydir River up to the Queensland boundary. [crossed out - and] On the Darling River, from Walgett to Bourke it is [Kamalaroi/Kamilaroi] & Wolleroi mixed. In the Castlereagh district it is Kamilaroi and [Warradjeri?] mixed.

But in all this great tract of country the organization, the customs & beliefs of the tribes is practically the same.

The subtribes occupied each its own taurai or food ground for instance (1) Singleton to Muswell Brook (2) Muswell Brook to Murrurundi (3) Murrurundi to [Queriundi?] [Quirindi](4) [Querindi] to Gunnedah (5) Gunnedah to Bogabri (6) Bogabri to Narrabri (7) Narrabri to Pilliga (5) Pilliga to Walgett and there was also a subtribe at [Barraba]].

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie


Kamilaroi [underlined]

One of the best known Nations [crossed out - was] [term?] [is?] [for?] is that of this Kamilaroi speaking tribes who occupied a considerable extent of northern New South Wales/NSW up to the boundary of Queensland. The following details will serve to define approximately the boundaries of their country (1)

[Left margin note}(1) from Mr [Warby?] of Maitland New South Wales/NSW and who for 50 years lived in the Kamilaroi country.

Up the Hunter River from Singleton up to Murrurundi; thence it follows the Dividing Range to the foot of the mountain above Tamworth thence to Manilla, Barraba, Cobbedah, Bingera/Bingara and down the Gwydir/Gwydir River,[crossed out - Rivers and] Barwon Rivers to Walgett; thence by a line a little [below?] of Baradine and Coonabarrabran to the Dividing Range near the sources of the [Talbrager?] Creek and the Goulburn River - in short nearby the Pastoral District of Liverpool Plains.

North of the Gwydir up to the Queensland frontier [crossed out - and] on the Darling/Darling River from Walgett to Bourke it is Kamilaroi and Wotheroi mixed. In the Castlereagh/Castlereagh River it is Kamilaroi and Wiradjuri mixed.

The Kamilaroi nation was comprised of tribes each occupying a definite tract of country which it claimed

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as its "taurai" or food ground. Thus [crossed out - these] they occupied the following tracts (1) Singleton to Muswell [brush?]. (2) Muswell [Brush?] to Murrurundi, (3) Murrurundi to Quirindi, (4) Quirindi to Gunnedah, (5) Gunnedah to Bogabri, (6) Bogabri to Narrabri, (7) Narrabri to Pilliga, (8) Pilliga to Walgett; there being one subtribe at Barraba and or in over the rest of the Kamilaroi country.

The boundaries of the tribes and subtribes were well defined and none must pass beyond them in search of food.

Last edit about 1 month ago by Christine

XM27_ICDMS_lowres R F Beardsmore to Howitt 18 September 1907



No.Office ofBoard for Protection of AboriginesSydney, 18th September, 1907

Dear Sir,In reply to your note of the 6th, I begto inform you that the following are the names of theManagers of the stations mentioned, vis:-Brewarrina - Mr H. H. HockeyBrungle - [ditto] J. M. HubbardCumeroogunga - [ditto] G. H. HarrisWalhallow, Liverpool Plains [ditto] Bruce Ferguson

There is only one station in the locality mentioned by you, viz. Walhallow, via QuirindiI have referred your query regarding the Full-bloods on Cumeroogunga to Mr Harris, for reply.Yours faithfully,R H Beardsmore

A. W. Howitt, Esq.,Clovelly,Metung, Vic

[written in left margin]Letter16.9.07

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie
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