Howitt and Fison Papers

OverviewStatisticsSubjects

Search for Eyre*

XM235_ICDMS_lowres Typed notes

1

1

Mr Lang remarks at page 55 of his Secret of the Totem ,"If Pirra--uru were primitive, it might be looked for among these southernand eastern tribes ....But in these primitive South-east tribes pirra-uru is no more found than subincision, nor is it found among theArunta and the northern tribes."

I do not understand what Mr Lang means when he speaks of "primi--tive tribes", but assume that he refers to the tribesof South East Australia who have advanced from group marriage toindividual marriage, and among whom, certainly, pirrauru is not found.

But I think than I can show good reasons for the belief thatall the tribes of South East Australia did at one time practise it.

In the accompanying tables are the marital, parental, filial and fraternal terms of relationship, used by the tribes of which the Dieriis the type. I also give those used by some of the tribes of SouthEast Australia ,where there is only individual marriage, and these I thinkwill serve as examples of the others.

To assist the reader in following the comparison which I shallmake between the terms of relationship of the tribes herein referredto, I give a few leading facts as to each tribe.

The Dieri inhabit that part of the delta of the Cooper whichextends from the east side of Lake Eyre, and mainly south of that riverfor some hundred and fifty miles. It has a two class system with totemsgroup marriage and descent in the female line.

The Kurnandaburi inhabited country on the Barcoo river aboutone hundred miles from the eastern boundary of South Australia, andhad group-marriage , the equivalent of the Dieri tippa-malku , and descent in the female line,

The Wathi-Wathi were on the Murray river and belonged to anaggregate of several nations whose north western tribes are theneighbours of the Dieri and Yantruwunta. These nations have a two-class system with totems, individual marriage and descent in thefemale line.

The northern Kamilaroi are part of a nation which is organisedin two classes, four sub-classes and totems, individual marriageand descent in the female line.

The Kuinmurbura tribe occupied country near Broad Sound in Queensland. It had two classes, four sub-classes and totems, indi-

[written in left margin]condense + retype

Last edit 21 days ago by ALourie
2

2

[top of page seems to have been cut off]But I think that I can show good [rest of line missing]all the tribes of South East Australia did at one time practise it.

In the accompanying tables are the marital, parental, filial andfraternal terms of relationship, used by the tribes of which the Dieriis the type. I also give the those used by some of the tribes of SouthEast Australia, where there is only individual marriage, and these I thinkwill serve as examples of the others.

To assist the reader in following the comparison which I shallmake between the terms of relationship of the tribes herein referredto, I give a few leading facts as to each tribe.

The Dieri inhabit that part of the delta of the Cooper whichextends from the east side of Lake Eyre, and mainly south of that riverfor some hundred and fifty miles. It has a two class system with totemsgroup marriage and descent in the female line.

The Kurnandaburi inhabited country on the Barcoo River aboutone hundred miles from the eastern boundary of South Australia, andhad group-marriage, the equivalent of the Dieri tippa-malku , and descent in the female line,

The Wathi Wathi were on the Murray river and belonged to anaggregate of several nations whose north western tribes are theneighbours of the Dieri and Yantruwunta. These nations hava a two-class system with totems ,individual marriage and descent in thefemale line.

The northern Kamilaroi are part of a nation which is organizedin two classes, four sub-classes and totems, individual marriageand descent in the female line.

The Kuinmurbura tribe occupied country near Broad Sound inQueensland. It had two classes, four sub-classes and totems, indi--vidual marriage and descent in the female line.

The Wurunjeri were one of several tribes in southern central Victoria,with two classes and one totem. It was also organized on localitywith descent in the male line.

The Kaiabara tribe was at the Bunya-Bunya mountains in Queens-land and represented a large number of tribes, extending from thecoast inland for some hundred miles square. The organization was intwo classes divided into four subclasses with totems. There wasindividual marriage with male descent.

TheArunta are the immediate neighbours of the north of theUrabunna, and have four subclasses in the southern and eight in thenorthern part of the tribe. There are totems which do not regulatemarriage and descent in the male line.

The Binbinga tribe has eight sub-classes, with individualmarriage and descent in the male line.

The Narrinyeri tribe are situated on the coast at the mouthof the Murray river .The tribe has no class names, but has exogamoustotems and is organised in local clans. There is individual marriagewith descent in the male line.

[written in left margin at top of page]condense + retype

Last edit 3 days ago by ALourie

XM505_ICDMS_lowres

2

2

23

and descent in the female line.The Wurunjeri was one of several tribesin south central Victoria, which had a two classorganization with one totem. It was also organizedon locality, and had individual marriage anddescent in the male line.The Kaiabara tribe was at the Bunya BunyaMountains in Queensland and represented alarge aggregate of tribes extending from the coastfor somemiles. The organization was intwo classes, segmented into four subclasses, withtotems. There was individual marriageand descent in the male line.The Arunta tribe is the immediate northernneighbor of the Urabunna who are on the northernside of Lake Eyre while the Dieri are at the East.The Arunta are organized in four subclasseswith totems which do not [...late?] marriage and descent inthe male line.The [Binbura?] tribe is again in [eight?] subclassesand has [eight?] subclasses with individual marriageand male descent.Although there are four classes in the southernpart of the Arunta tribe there are eight in the northern as in all the tribes which occupy thecountry [......] of the [Burbuya?]The Narrinyeri are situated on the coastat the mouth of the Murray River.This tribe has no class names but has[........] totems and is organised in localclass. There is individual marriage and descentin the male line.

Last edit 29 days ago by ALourie

XM521_ICDMS_lowres

1

1

[Upside down at top of page]- 205 - 9 Sunday - White Sunday - 160

As a comparison with the [Legend- crossed out] beliefs in the Mura-mura[of the Lake Eyre tribe - crossed out]. I know of no better example than thoseof the [Kurnai - crossed out] Kulin and Kurnai tribes of Victoria.A numbers legends [sic] have been published of different authors takenfrom their folk lore (1) [and of the - crossed out] of which I note [version which - crossed out]have all different versions (1)[I collected myself and which have been from - crossed out] from Woeworung + Kurnai narrators collected originally myselfAs the Kurnai were an offshoot from the Kulin stock, theexplanation which I am able to suggest as to the legends of the

[Upside down]- 806 - 8 Saturday - 169

former may be applied to the analagous legends of the latter.

[I have - crossed out] legends (which they W - crossed out) (I have not been able to learn of - crossed out) (the ceremonies ? suppose to be - crossed out) (few - crossed out), I am [? inhav?] if any beliefs or legends relating to theceremonies of the Kulin, and the reasoning for the those ceremonies (some cross out) did not have the land in some characterof the Bora or the Kurugal. But with the Kurnia there wasan legend [sic] relating to the [Jeraul? Ieraul?] As (to the number - crossed out ) legends recording(the - crossed out) wanderings they also are few, than relating to the [?]-countryare mere rumours, but the most of them (relate with the actions - crossed out) the actors are (anoth - crossed out) beings who combine the human andthe animal element.

A few instances will illustrate their several classes.much of which I have quoted [?for from?] the [work?] [of?] the daughter in the [?Averthun?]

Upside down - 207 - 7 Friday - 158

and legends of some [?Sutin?] tribes (!) - (The other nidne ou? on? - crossed out) areThe [Woti?] [?ball use ?] legend - surviveing [sic]

The Kurnai legend relating like (and- crossed out) [Jeraul Ieraul?] ceremony is the

( ofmy - crossed out) quote here

From left margin insert here

[worry ?] legend is that the return [?] was [?] [?]at the Yarra River a [?] [reaction?] was causing the [?] breeze.and [?] [?] [?]. Nothing in that direction [?] [?] [?]huband was so when she [?] [?]. There he remained until[?] [?] [?] [?], as [?] [?] came to Corner Inletwhere he made his [home?] in the mountains of Wilsons promitory, [?] overthe welfare of the people who between [him?] [?] the country he had found (2)

Another Kurnai relates where [?] days of theKurnai predecessors. Bunjil Borun are first Kurnai married across[?] to the north but [?] he reached the sea at the Inlet.[where?] [?] [?] is. in her carried his canoe [?] which was[the?] wife TUK. Bunjil Borun is one Pelican & TUK the musk duck.

Upside down 206 - 6 Saturday - 157

In left margin1. Themes [cannot read the rest?]

A legend of the Wotjo tribes gives am account of the wanderings of the two Brambramgals [who were the - crossed out] in search of their sisters son Doän(the flying squirrel) who had been killed and eaten by Wembulin (tarantula); and after further meeting with various adventures at many [??] places when they[??], until the younger of the brothers died. [The elder brother + their mother sought for him - crossed out] men are also [?] and [?] tree aih her for man of [?] [marriage?] it because a lone and called [?] else [?][?] [?] wive cannot read rest of line

Last edit 3 days ago by ALourie

XM689_ICDMS_lowres

3

3

In the Dieri tribe, as in all thoseof the Lake Eyre (Basin) (crossed out)the oldest man of a totem is its (xxxxxxx) Pinaru or head, in each horde there is also a Pinaru, who might happen to be alsothe head of the totem. But it does not (necessarily) (crossed out) follow that thehead of a totem or of a [?] division had necessarily much, orindeed any influence outside his totem or division. I remembersuch an instance at Lake Hope where the Pinaru was by reason of his great age, the head of theEaglehawk totem, but he had otherwiselittle personal influence, for he was not a fighting man, or medicine man.The pinarus are collectively the headmen of the tibe, andof them someone was superior to the others. At the time when Iknew the tribe, in the year 1861-2 The principal headman was oneJalina Piramurana, the head of the Kunaura totem, and he wasrecognised as the headman of the wholeDieri tribe.When going northwards from my Depot at Coopers Creek, onthe occasoion of my second (xxxxxxx) expedition I obtained the servi-ces of a young Yantruwunta man who knew the country as far north asSturts stony desert. He belonged to the small tribal group in [?]country

Last edit 10 days ago by ALourie
6

6

in mariage, of separating men from their wives when theycould not agreeamd making fresh matrimonial arrangements.

He periodically visited the varioushordes of the Dieri, fromwhich he also periodically received presents. Tribes even ata distanceof a hundred miles sent him presents, which werre passed on from tribe totribe for him.

He was one of their great Kunkis or medicine men, but wouldonly practice his art on persons of note, such as heads of totems, orhis personal friends.

He was the son of a previous Headman who was living duringMr Gasons residence in the Dieri country and who, although too infirm to join in the ceremonies, gave advice to the old men. He boasted thathe had the command of the tribe, before his son acquired it. He wasbelieved to proof to magic such as "striking withthe bone".

Jalina Piramurana had succeded to and indeed eclipsed hisfather. He was the head of the Kunaura Murdu, and boasted of being the"tree of life"' the "family" of life", for this seed forms at times theprincipal source of vegetable food of these tribes. He was also spokenof as the Illanyura-Murdu (I), that is of the plant itself.

I observed that there were such Pinarus in the tribes tothe north and north east of the Dieri, such as the Yaurorka, and Yantruwunta.

When in the Yaurorka country, south of Sturts Stony DesertI camped for a night near one of the small groups of that tribe. A partyof the old men, the pinarus of theplace came to see me, and asked meto go with them tosee the "Pina-pinaru", the Great - great one, whocould not come to see me. I went with them andfound sittingin one of thehuts, the oldest blackfellow I ever saw. the other Pinarus were mostlygreay haired and bald, but he was so old as to bealmost childish", and was covered with a grizly (?) of hair from head to foot. The respect withhe was treated by theother old men was as marked in them as was therespect withthey were treated by the younger men.Such Headmen as these appear to be foundin all the tribesof the Lake Eyre Basin, amd probably also in all the tribes whichhave the two Dieri class names.

Last edit 10 days ago by ALourie

XM690_ICDMS_lowres

4

4

4or became extinct in the Kurnai tribe the local groups, Hordes if descent remains in the female or clans if it has been [?] of and [crossed out - became attached] the male line, the exogamous law has attached itself to the local that is geographical groups which therefore regulate marriage. It is as if an English Village had determined that its children should marry beyond its bounds, possibly with the children of some one in some adjacent village while its daughters went to the village whence thier brothers took their wives.

The illustration of these statements I shall take several instances mainly those of [crossed - the case of] the Dieri and the Kurnai [crossed out - as instances] for the reason [crossed out - already stated] that they are respectively highly typical of the most archais and the most recent forms of local & social organization of the Australian tribes known to me.

The local organization [underlined]

The Dieri tribe inhabits the country of the Barcoo delta in the west and to the west side of Lake Eyre in Central Australia. It is one of a number of tribes which have the same organization, with allied languages and [crossed out - the same] ceremonies, customs and beliefs are the same lines. These tribes to some extent althoroughly submitting, if I may be permitted to so phrase it, to the English imperium, still have their own lives and follow so far as is possible the tribal customs. That which I shall have [?] of them will however be as I knew them thrity seven years ago in their wild state before their country had been occupied for pastoral purposes. The tribal territory was occupied by five principal local divisions (1) [Poordo Pirmauie?] or Lake Hope [crossed out - the ?] Lake (2) Kūramina or Blanchewater (3) Kopperamana(4) [Kilalepanina?] and [Kathithaudra?] at the junction of the Baroo Rd with Lake Eyre.

Last edit 24 days ago by ALourie
6

6

A arrow at p6

Yorke Peninsula in South Australia between the Spencer's Spencers Gulf & the Vincents Gulfs Vincent's Gulf was once occupied by a tribe which called chief Adja-dūra meaning

[?] with many of the coast tribes its organization differed considerably [crossed out - in] from that of the [crossed out - two class] tribes of which the Dieri is the type and [crossed out - which] where two classes Materi and Kararu extended southwards from Lake Eyre following the [crossed out - hill] [crossed out - country to] Flinders Range to the head of Spencers Gulf and thence following the western shore of the Gulf of the Vincent. to Port Lincoln (1). The adjadūra had four classes which [(1) quote]in fact were major totems [crossed out - Kari] each with a group of [?] totems and each major totem inhabited one of the four [word crossed out] districts into which Yorke Peninsula was initially divided. The only restriction upon marriage depended upon nearness of Kinship [according?] to their (classification) system. Nor was there any restriction based upon locality as was the case with the Kurnai who [prevent?] mentioned. This remarkable exceptionto the almost universal primitive tribes of [?] tribes was insisted upon firmly by the old men any whom were two who [two words crossed out] were probably [word crossed out] looked over 70 years of age in 18 - ? and who it was spoke of times being before the advent of white people in their country. [three words crossed out] The exceptional development of the class system was also connected with the descent of the totem names in the male line. [Six words crossed out] It seems to be the case as explained in # - that the social organization of coast tribes has been in very many instances peculiar and much frequent [tending?] totems [?] [?] ultimate result namely the breaking down of the class system, [2 words crossed out] and of group marriage, the establishment of individual marriage and male descent and when the [Crossed out totem] class or totems have survived the localization of these in [crossed out - themarrriage in which they ? ?] separate [?]. The [subject?] tribe [crossed out - briefly] [?] shows the [crossed out - class] [?] organization of this tribe

[Table with 3 columns][Column headings] Classes; Totems; DistrictsColumn Class: Kari = Emu; Column 2 Totems: [Miduaga?] = Swallow, Lark - Waldaru; Polára = mullet; Waltha = [?] turtles; Mŭrtū = Magpie Kŭdli; [wiuta?] = mopoke [doj?]Column 3 Districts: Kŭrnara; the northern part of the Peninsular south of Wallaroo, Kadina & [?]

Column 1 Classes: Waui = Red Kangaroo Column 2 Totems: All the totems - togetherwith the major totem are coastal

Column 1 Classes: [Wiltu?] = Eaglehawk:Column 2 Totems: Wortu = wombats; [Wueda?] = wallaby; [Nantri?] = Kangaroo; [Mūlta?] = Seal; Gūa = crowColumn 3 Districts: Wari; Western half of coastal part of peninsular

Column 1 Classes: [Wilithiethu?] = sharkColumn 2 Totems: [Snai?] = wild goose; [Willi?] = Pelican; [Kangbŭra?] = Butter fish; [Manditu?] = Stingray; [Walaltu?] = WhitingColumn 3 Districts: Dilpa The extreme southern part of the peninsular

Last edit 3 days ago by ALourie
26

26

17

[written in left side margin]Would it not be well to explain here how influential men might persuade the tribe that it was a divine command?

the [separation?] of the original tribal community came about but they are good evidence of the belief of the aborigines that this universal basis of the social organization was brought about of intuition and that it was the [sanction?] [crossed out - was guarded] of a supernatural command.* Thus such an initial explanation should be formed in teo tribes so far distant from each other maybe accepted as an indication of [crossed out - these] widespread beliefs in the supernatural origin of [crossed out - the] a [crossed out - same] practice which is universal all over Australia. [crossed out - in all Australian tribes]

In order to bring into sight and under observation the clan divisions, with their subdivisions and totems, and to consider [crossed out - then] not only these in their bearing upon [crossed out - the] abrupt [secret?] but also the process of oral development which they are evidence of, it will be necessary to tabulate a number of cases [?] from such a number of localities in Australia as will enable the reader to use a fairly representative practice of the whole.

The first [crossed out - tribe to be] was [?] tribe taken is not of these Lake Eyre tribes as represented by the Dieri.

[Table title] Class system of the Dieri tribe [all underlined][one column in left margin plus two columns]Column 1] By Mr Sebert [underlined] [Row 1] [all names bracketed together] Kararuoroma - carpet snakeKanacka - crow'Puralko - [?] [?]Karker - red [ochre?]Tidnamara - Frog?RurawiaKanangara[Maiaruo?]KanungaTapairu[Orkubirabira?][Melki tijil pario?]KalaoiriPiramokoaPrintaKarabena

[Column 2 Class division classes[Row 1] illateri

[Column 3] Totem called by the Dieri Murdu[Row 1]Padi-calu - Kŭritiyeri - a [?] ant. Junanaru - native cat Matura - cormorant. Marparu - ?Karaura - Eaglehawk - Kūrapura (bone fish) -Markara - mullet - Warūguti = Emu Pūnta - mouse, Kūtaba - dog,, maiaru - rat, Pitcheri - Duboisia hopwoodiiKudni - lizard - Wilyaru - a small bird, palyaru the long nosed rat.

Last edit 4 months ago by Christine
27

27

18

[Two words crossed out] This system of which the Dieri [crossed out - is represented by the]classes and totems + are an example extends over an immense area and only surrounding Lake Eyre butalso extending up the Barcoo River probably at least as far as ? [crossed out - Mt ?ilt] in the N. west of Lake Eyre to [no name recorded] where as [?] Spencer tells us (2) it is replaced by the four class system of the - [no name recorded] tribes. A from p 18A To the southward it extended down the Flinders Ranges [crossed out - and back] to near Port Augusta and has been recorded at Port Lincoln (3). [crossed out - overall these ext] Then the clan names Materi and Kararu cover an area -[no area given] miles - [no area given] miles. In table Appendix A are given the [identitie?] and variation in the totems of each class name for a number of tribes.

To the South East the Kararu and Materi do not extend beyond the range of the [Yantru wunta?] tribe whose limits [?] may be simply definded by the Grey/Grey Range and Barrier Ranges.

To the Eastward of the limit there is a similar great area occupied by allied tribes having a two clan organization, the classes being Muthwara and Kilpara with assorted totems.

This area [crossed out - carved by] may be defned as extendiing to the Warrego River to some distance East of the River Darling and for some distance both above and below the Junction of the Darling/Darling River & Murray/Murray River (4).

The class and totem system of these tribes are illustrated by the following [crossed out - taken from] which [?] in the Wily (1) a tribe occupying the counry about the Grey Range, Kingsgaite (2) occupying the country N & S of Cadell Ranges Būlali (5) (3) Boolati occupying the Barrier Range country, and (4) TongarauKa (6) occupyingte country about Momba, Tarella, Wonominta & [Yandarlo?] including the Dunbury Range.

[Left margin notes]+ Were it not that the word totem has been so long established in the English language and that it has a meaning wuite apropriate to the Australian facts, I [ful?]temped to introduce the Dieri word "murdu" as correct.

(2) quote this work(3)sent to [Mehelmi?](4) See as to local organization of these tribes p 14.(5) From Būlali - a hill(6) Tongarauka = Hillside or "under a hill"

[Table][Column 1] Class divisionsMūKwara[Column 2] TotemsBilyara - EaglehawkTirlta - KangarooBūrKūma - BandicootKultapa - DuckKarni - Frilled lizardYaranga - opossumKurli - dog

[Column 1] Class divisionsKilpara[Column 2] TotemsKulthi - EmuTūrū - carpet snakenamba - bonefishBauanyal - PadymelonWongarū - wallaby

Last edit 4 months ago by Christine
28

28

18A

The country of the Dieri tribe ends about Blanchewater [crossed out - where] where the Flinders Range of mountains and [crossed out - in the Freeling heights] [?] abruptly in the Freeling Heights. In these mountains were a series of tribes commencing with the [Murdilari?] or "Red people" in mountain areas, following the Kūyani --------- the country of the the latter ending [crossed out - west ? from Port Augusta] at Mt Eyre all these tribes were of the same great [st? ?ulients?]. had spread over the Lake eyre Basin having apparently migrated from [crossed out - the] N Eastern Australia following the course of the Barcoo natives and [?] those of the [?mantion?] also. At any rate I have traced the same organization and and class system on the Upper Barcoo at Mt Howitt in the [Rūnan dalrui?] tribe and the great ceremonies of the Dieri connected with the "mura mura" beliefs extend up to Birdsville and thus connect the tribes of the Everard/Everard River & Diamantina/Diamantina River with these as far south as the Dieri and [Murdula?] at the least.

The class system with the names Materi and Kararu not only extended from the Dieri to the most [crossed out - to Spencer Gul the surrounding ? extent of the tribes] [crossed out - But they also were in the [?] [Riveolin?] tribe.]tribes situated between [Piri?] and the Head of the Bight all of which had the classes Materi and Kararu in some dialectic form as for instance Mŭteri and kararu of the Witūrū and Hileri tribes at the head of the Bight. These class names cease for this [crossed out - any rate they did not extend beyond the boundaries] of the Mēning tribe settles about Eucla which [crossed out - must be ?] [crossed out - to be] is [?] of the West Australian State.

The class name Materi and Kararu as I have said extended down the western side of Spencers Gulf.

On the Eastern side: Yorke Peninsula separates Spencers Gulf from the Gulf of St Vincent. Here I may now [?] a long series of coast tribes which are remarkable as having in many [crossed out - ways] respects an organization which departs [crossed out - in] more or less strongly from the types which are found within the Australian continent.

The first of such tribes is that which occupied [?] and whose remnant state [?] therein.

[Left margin note]The [Augala?] tribe was [?] the Kūyani of Port Ausgusta. Thence in the extensive tract of whose bounds are approximately fixed by Pot Lincoln Head of the Australian Bight, Lake Gauwner & and the Gawler were two tribes whose common boundaries the coast at [Point Brom?]. The one east of the point Wilūrū and [the?] the west of the point the Hillerie tribe.

Last edit 3 days ago by ALourie

XM695_ICDMS_lowres

2

2

2

[now in progress by my valued correspondent the Revd Otto Sie- crossed out][bert the in to the Dieri customs- crossed out] show that Kopperamana on the Cooper[Cooper is - crossed out] One of the old Trade centres is, where the surrounding tribes met periodocally [sic], to confer and to barter their res-pective manufactures. The name Kopperamana is a mutilation of [is -crossed out]the true name Kappara-mara, from Kapara meaning "hand" and mara meaning "root" (1) [as also the haier [sic] of the head - crossed out]. The meaning of the name really is, that as the fingers all come together in the "root" of the hand, so [did - crossed out] do the native tribes come together at Kapara-mara to confer together, and especially to [there - crossed out] exchainge [sic]their respective articles of commerce. Kapara-mara is therefore [seems to have been a - crossed out] one of the trade centres for the tribes [which inter- crossed out][married with the -crossed out] those [akin - crossed out] allied to the Dieri.

The following is briefly the procedure at one of the tribal meetings at Kaparamarawhich are still presently held and a detailed account of which will be given [in the memoir on the Dieri tribe which as I have said - crossed out] at a future time in the paper work which I am now am preparing with the cooperation of Mr Siebert- crossed out] preparing in conjunction with Mr Siebert as to the Dieri and their tribes of the Lake Eyre Basin.

There are four different occations [sic] on which this barter is carried on. One which I have noted is when a blood feud is settled & barter ofgoods (p -)and ( ※ next page). -

(I) At the assemblies where the practice called Yutyuto(1) occurs, [and this is the most common. It- crossed out] when a party has come in from a long distance, for the purpose of barter. The strangers are represented by a local man who is called the Yutyuto, from the string (yut) which is tied round his neck, and which, [in the first instance - crossed out] as a first action, he burns in a fire [which is lighted- crossed out] lighted between the two parties (2). His party stand in a long row one behind the other, and the most didtant/distant one produces secretly one of the articles which he has for barter. He passes to the next one in front of him, who again passes it on, always between the legs of the man in front, so that it shall not be seen until it is in the hands of the [front man- crossed out] leader. [who - crossed out] This is the Yutyuto, who lays it down before the other party. These produce in the sa same manner the article which they propose to exchange for it,

[written in left side margin](1) Mara also means the hair of the head - in its position to the head as the fingers are to theirhand.

(1) See page -Dieri saw the Kundrito be of Kunke abilityJ.A.I. 188 - page -

where this man is spoken of as Yutchin(2)

Last edit 24 days ago by ALourie
5

5

Murring tribesIn the extreme south of New South Wales there was a large [number - crossed out] aggregate of tribes (Murring tribes) who attended the same Iniation [sic] cere-monies, [coming - crossed out] from an area which may be defined by the Shoal-haven River, Braidwood, the southern part of Maneroo, and Twofold Bay. At the termination of these ceremonies, where the novices had gone into [probation -crossed out] by themselves during their turn of probation (2) and when the people were about to separate, there was held a kind of market at wich/which [people laid out - crossed out] those articles were laid out, which they had brought with them for [the purpose of - crossed out] exchange. It was held on some clear space near the camp, and A man would say "I have brought such and such things" and some other man would bargain for them. A complete set of arti articles was, one ngulia or belt of opossum fur string, four burrian or mens kilts, one gumbrun or bone nosepeg, and a co complete set of corroborre ornaments. it was the rule that a complete set went together. Weapons might be given in exchange and a complete set of these was, [two hands that is - crossed out] ten fighting boomerangs, being the straight going ones, )warangun), the same number of grasstree spears (gumma), one of each kind of shield, namely the bembata used for stopping spears, and the millidu used for club fighting. One club, (gūgerŭng) or bundi, and one spear thrower, (woomera).

The women also engaged in this trade, exchanging opossum rugs, bags, digging sticks (tuali) &ct.

Not only wre [sic] these things bartered, but presents were made to friends, and to the head men by the other men. The women gave things also to the wives of the headmen. A headman who was held in great consi-deration might have as many things given to him, as he could well carry away.

Not only were articles which the people made themselves bartered, but but also things which had some special value, and had been brought perhaps from a distant tribe. Such as insta instance was told me by my informants, in speaking of these things. At one of their meetings, many years ago an ancient shield was bartered for, which had been brought originally from the upper waters of the Murrumbidgee River. It was greatly valued because as my informant said "it had won many fights".

There are the few instances which I find among my notes and they open up a line of enquiry which is well worth following out where the native tribe are still in their more primitive conditions. In Victoria, in a great part of NSW ie the older settled district of Queensland & in S.A. South ofLake Eyre it is at present probably quite too late to

[Note in left side margin](2) see Ceremonies ofInitiationAWHJAI 1884

Last edit 3 days ago by ALourie
6

6

four burrian or men's kilts, one gumbrun or bone nosepeg, and a co [sic]complete set of corroborree ornaments. It was the rule that a complete set went together. Weapons might be given in exchange and a completee set of these was, [two hands that is - crossed out] ten fighting boomerangs, being the straight going ones, (warangun), the same number of grasstree spears (gumma), one of each kind of shield, namely the bembata used for stopping spears, and the millidu used for club fighting. One club, gūgerŭng) or (bundi), and one spear thrower, (woomera).

The women also engaged in this trade, exchanging opossum rugs, bags, digging sticks (tuali) &ct.

Not only wre [sic] these things bartered, but presents were made to friends, and to the head men by the other men. The women gave things also to the wives of the headmen. A headman who [had - crossed out] was held in great consi-deration might have as many things given to him, as he could well carry away.

Not only were [things - crossed out] articles which the people made themselves bartered, but but [sic] also things which had some special value,

[Next text handwritten][Left hand side] YuinAt these barter- meetings people give presents to their Gommeras. Some of them had big loads of things to carry away:- the women also would give presents to [his wife - crossed out] theGommera's wife such as yamsticks, bags and such like.

At one of these markets I remember seeing a shield brought, a shield that had won many battles. It [was - crossed out][sent - crossed out] came from the Murrumbidgee and it was exchanged awayand went on its travels. Ienben

Lake Eyre it is at present probably quiteobtain much bearing on this question. But where it is possible to do so enquiries will I am convinced be repaid by most interesting information of great [Ethn- crossed out] Anthropologicalvalue

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

XM692_ICDMS_lowres

9

9

6

great one" who could not come to see me. I went, and found sitting in one of the huts, the oldest blackfellow I ever saw. The other Pirarus were mostly grey haired and bald but he was so old as to be almost childish and was covered with a [?] feel/fell of hair from head to foot. The respect with which he was treated by the other old men was as marked in them as was the respect with which they were treated by the younger men.

They told me that he was unable to walk about and that when they travelled he was carried by some of the younger men.

Such Headmen as those of the Dieri were certainly to be found in all the tribes of the Lake Eyre Basin, the Barcoo, and extending

[Seems text has been cut and pasted here]

[In circle] Insert under at A

In the [Adjadura?] tribe the office of Headman was hereditary from father to son. The Head man [insert: a man of probably 60 years of age] who was still living in [Crossed out ' In the Kurnai tribe'] 1887, and therefore dated back to the [settlement?] of South Australia inherited his his authority from his father, and his son [?] the time [?] already some authority in the tribe. [Rest of line crossed out] [word crossed out] Other men of near the same age were all unanimous in confirming their [?] and to the Headmanship.

[Seems text has been cut and pasted here]

tribes such as the Dieri, but in this respect their power was perhaps no more marked and their office distinctly hereditary.

Each totem class (1) that is each localised totem had its Headman called [Rupulli?]. The office was not hereditary but the [Rupulli?] was chosen by the old men, yet here as in other such tribes there seems to have been a tendency to choose the brother or the son of the dead Headman as the successor.

[Left hand margin note to explain "Each totem class"](1) I use the term totem class advisedly?] in this case because with the naming [eri?] the totems have become [localised?] as was the case with many of the [western?] tribes.(see p. -)

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie
10

10

6

[Page a revised version of preceeding page 6]

great one" who could not come to see me. I went, and found sitting in one of the huts, the oldest blackfellow I ever saw. The other Pirarus were mostly grey haired and bald but he was so old as to be almost childish and was covered with a [?] feel/fell of hair from head to foot. The respect with which he was treated by the other old men was as marked in them as was the respect with which they were treated by the younger men.

Such Headmen as those of the Dieri were certainly to be found in all the tribes of the Lake Eyre Basin, the Barcoo, and extending down the Flinders Ranges to Spencer Gulf and [?],

[2 lines crossed out - ' I have now also in the two class tribe opf the Darling River and the River Murray']A [arrow to insert here]

Alluding to to the account given to me by the Rev. Geo. Taplin and [?] [?] [?]find and extended by his son the [?] Mr Taplin, the Head men of the [Narruyeri?] coast tribe were analagous in characteristics to those of the inland tribes such as the Dieri, but in this respect their power was [such?] [so?] more marked and their office distinctly hereditary.

Each totem class (1) that is each localised totem and its headman called Rupulli. The office was not hereditary but the Rupulli was chosen by the old men, yet here as in other such tribes there seems to have been a tendency to choose the brother or the son of the dead headman as the successor.

[Note left hand margin is the same as the previous page]

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

XM226_ICDMS_lowres Howitt to Andrew Lang 1 September 1902

2

2

12

two exogamous intermarrying moieties of the community, I find when Ireview the social organization of the tribes of the Eastern half ofAustralia, that they arrange themselves into two series as regards thatorganization. That is to say, the tribes of the Lake Eyre Basin are allone end of each series, having two class divisions and groups of to-tems,group marriage and descent in the female line. Thence two series of tribes can be seen, each series shewing a well marked character ofsocial development, one series ends with tribes such as those ofG land who have [but - crossed out] lost their class divisions and totems and have theline of descent changed to the male line. But the exogamous rule haspassed over to the local divisions of the tribe so that marriage isonly allowed between persons of certian localities. Between these twoextremities of the series there are tribes with two class divisionsand with totems of an anomalous character, but with female descent,tribes with two class divisions and totems and with male descent,then tribes without class division but with totems which have retain-ed the exogamous and intermarrying character of those of Lake Eyre;and also exogmaous and intermarrying localities.

The other series commences as I have said with that normal twoclass sytems and groups of totem of the Lake Eyre tribes, then thereare tribes with the same normal two class divisions, but each one hasbeen segmented into two sub-classes with female descent; then thereare tribes with the same normal two class-divisions, and totem but with maledescent; finally there are tribes (in central-northern and northernAustralia) in which the four sub-classes are again segmented - beingthen eight sub-classes with male descent.

[written in left margin]A Arunta

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie
3

3

13

What I see in this evidence is that the rate at which the so-cial development of these tribes has gone on, has been very unequal, sothat while some have remined in the most primitive condition of allof them others have advanced severally to the stages I have noted.

The next point to note is that while in the Lake Eyre tribes,which according to my view have altered least, there is group marriagestrongly in evidence, in the tribes at the end of the series (e.g.G ) there is a strong form of individual marriage, with only avery rare reversion to group marriage. apparently to avert some threat-ened evil, e.g. where the Aur A (Nungan's fire) .

As regards the other line of social developments the pro-hibition of marriage within the class continued as long as the classexisted; when it ceased to be the prohibition passed over to thelocality.

But there have been and are other prohibitions as to mar-riage which are important in this connection. First I must note thatpractically the class divisions prevent the marriage of brothers and

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie
4

4

14

sisters. Then comes the rule (in the Urabunna at Lake Eyre) thatthe proper wife for a man is the daughter of his mother's elder brother'sdaughter, or his father's elder sister's daughter, which is the samething. In the Dieri tribe on the opposite side of Lake Eyre, the prop-er wife for a man is the daughter of his mother's, mother's, beother's [sic],daughter - daughter or of his mother's, father's, sister's daughter's daughter, which is the same thing. You will observe that the Urabun-na marriage is not allowed, but it is allowed to the children in thein the generation who are thus born "noa" to each other.In tracing out this principle in other tribes I find that in all thereis the same idea, namely to prevent marriage between those who as theysay are "too near in flesh" - or "of the same flesh". For instance inone tribe the children of a brother on the one side and of his sister on the other are prohibited, for the above reason, from marriage as faras descent can be traced. in another tribe it is only permitted if theparties come from distant localities. In other tribes the rule liesbetween the Urabunna practice and absolute prohibition to their des-cendants.

Now the process of development of the eight sub-class system, outof the four sub-class system isin process of completion in a tribe de-scribed by Spencer and Gillen, by specific new names being given to thenew segments. All the changes in the classes, their segmentation toeight sub-classes, and their gradual extinction in the otherand the transferrence of the exogamous rule to localities, have beencarried out since the first bissection of the original community firstestablished exogamy.

Quite So

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

tip70-10-5-1 Fison to Frazer 29/8/01

2

2

2were the ancestors of the Dieri. But the fact remainsthat the Mura mura were veritable black fellows, differingno whit from the other blacks, excepting in that they had greater magical powers. Andrew Lang will get no comfort outof Howitt. Miss M. E. B. Howitt also has written a mostinteresting paper on "Legends of some Lake Eyre Tribes", + thisalso Howitt went over with me to my great delight. Isuggested that it should be sent to you for your perusalbefore it goes to the Folk-lore Society for whom it is intended,+ to whom you would forward it. This is to be done, + youwill be delighted with it. It deals with the Mura muraamong other things, + completely settles the question as tothe Good Spirit - at least as far as these tribes areconcerned.Howitt's book would have been ready for the printer ere now if he had not allowed himself to be persuadedby the Government to continue in office for "a littletime", which little time has lengthened itself, + wouldcontinue so to do indefinitely if he would let it. But hehas put his foot down at last, + swears by the Nine Gods that he won't go on longer that to the end of the year. He has allhis materials ready, some of the chapters already done +others nearly complete. The book will be about the size of Spencer + Gillen's which Macmillan published.Spencer has been sending to David Syme, proprietor ofthe Age + Leader - the wealthy man who gave £1000 for the presentexpedition - occasional [crossed out - papers] articles + illustrations whichare intensely interesting. A sudden thought came into my head the other day, + I called upon the great David - oneof the crabbedest mortals on earth - to ask him to send youcopies of his papers containing Spencer's articles. His digestions washappily in good order just then, + he jumped at my suggestion, +

Last edit 20 days ago by ALourie

hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages

139

139

10belonga me" - and is very angrythat [?if?] it was killed. It was his [?Kunding?].

It is conduct of this that then[?all?] [we - crossed out] totems, [They lost - crossed out] othersremain of a form class system.[The particular of - crossed out] they are in somecases tabued - in other [??][?cut?] - [?aplenty?] [?these?] of the Krautu KurnaiThat if should he inherited from a manby his son + daughter after his deathis a remarkable [?illustration?] in thepractice in tribes will [?family?] [?dust or duel?].Moreover it appears that if [??]became localized, [or that - crossed out] not being[??] the Kurnai, [??] [??] the[??] but food in [??] the [??]For instance the [?Yalmuni?] peoplelived on the Seashore in the[??] [??] Eyre and Eckes, [??] theconger eels [??] [??] River.

Last edit 24 days ago by ALourie

hw0183 Howitt to Cameron 26/12/1899

2

2

I have found this to be the case in a tribe in Queenslandwhich has [thre-crossed out] four subclasses + the same [??]as the Kamilaroi. The question must also arise incidentally whichthe brother murri of (2) [(Murri) - crossed out]might may the [??] here called (7) Butha and or whether they, being the children of abrother on one side + a sister in the other would be-as among the Dieri forbidden to each other.

[I found this to be the case - crossed out] In similar tribes,[while in another often - crossed out] such as the Ngarabana at Lake Eyre itis these very ones who marry - that is takingthe Dieri diagram as thus illustrated -it is the brother of (2) who marries (7) - and the brother of (7)who marries (2). The Dieri + the Ngarabanaare on opposite sides of Lake Eyre.

The Ngarabana, Dieri, + (theoretically)Wiradjuri marriage rules - form a clearsequence of developments. What I want [to show- crossed out][now is] now is to verify the theoretical featuresof the Wiradjuri. If you can do this for meyou will help to complete my chapter on "marriage"I have found a diagram of the actual relatives of a man + hiswife to show me the facts of [??] are.

Last edit 28 days ago by ALourie

hw0321 Gason to Howitt 12/2/1881

22

22

1questionIs the Diereyie divided intosubtribes.From their own statement andfrom my own observation among sixyears living amongst them in their wildstate during which time I devotedall my spare time in acquiring theirtoungue and patiently awaiting mytime to be initiated into theirsecret ceremonies. Together withthe opportunity of continually visitingthe neighbouring tribes on the eastern coast of Lake Eyre, theEverard River, the lower partof the Diamantina + Herbert RiversIn all the tribes in the abovelocalties ("arrminie tribe""Ongkongooroo tribe" Wongurrap-una tribe" Urrapuna Tribe"also the Yandrawontha tribecooyanie tribe Yarrawaurka

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

hw0329 Samuel Gason to Howitt 20 December 1882

2

2

2(Lake Eyre) where the Cooper enters into the Lake. The above are the only places of of importance, where they mention with any pride, as being born at the different places but there is no [underlined] recognised [underlined] Head of these different places [all underlined] except the oldest men being honoured, by calling them the Father, of each respective place

They are all Dieyeirie [all underlined] but born at different spots and all recognise one Head [all underlined] "Pirraminuna Jalina" and show obediance to him alone no ceremony, no grand festival, or circumscision [sic], or important matter tending to the governance or welfare of the Tribe, is carr-ied out without the express perm- [4 words underlined]ission of Jalina. The above mentioned places are regularly

Last edit 10 days ago by ALourie
7

7

7.

question I put to them on this matter, "the man who would shun his wife, without any great [underlined]cause, he is looked upon as a man of no [underlined] principle, and not agood man of the Tribe - untrust-worthy -

"Re Murdoo"

The head man of a Murdoo, has no authority over the heads of other Murdoo, except his own, wether [sic] at Blanchwater, Lake Hope, or Lake Eyre - but they respect each other.

There is no cere-mony or Custom, where only a sert-ain [sic] Murdoo attends, in a Savage race with a limited population like our aboridgines [sic] of australia I dont think it would be politic,or would generate

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

hw0332 Gason to Howitt 16/06/1884

1

1

BeltanaJune 16th 1884

A.W. Howitt EsqrSale Gippsland

Sir,I am in receipt of your letterr of the 20th May and herewith enclose answers to your inquiries.

I am not surprised as at the same class names, being on the west side of the Lake Eyre as on the east of the Lake - (Dieyerie) as I really think that the Lake is only of recent form-ation and that would necess-arly [sic] explain itself.

The Dieyerie being as I have explained, the largest Tribe in the northern [underlined]District of South Australia. In former years I have

Last edit 20 days ago by ALourie

XM207 James to Howitt 3/10/1881

4

4

Replies to questions in first list(attached) Re: Blanchewater (S.A.)blacks:-1. Deyerie2. Yes, but I am not acquainted with theproper sub divisions, names were from locality.3. I do not know for certain, but I think from about the foot of the ranges on the N. and N.W. end of the mountains beginning at Prospect Hill, thence via MtsFreeling, Gardiner & distance westerly to Lake Harry and the Clayton, down that to Lake Eyre and by its E. shore N. to the Warburton and thence easterly till about north of Innaminca and thence southerly to Mulligan and back, via Hamilton Creek to Prospect Hill (skirting the rangesProspect Hill is at Jacob's Station, Petamora 4. Yes, each class has a name, but I never learnt any. I know that the

Last edit 25 days ago by ALourie

XM293 Reuther to Howitt 30/01/1904

1

1

Rev. J.G. ReutherKillalpaninna

30/1/04

Dear Sir,

I am much indebted to you for your interestingletter of the 30th December and [little?] information which youhave been so good as to give me. I am however notsure whether I fully understand your meaning. [You say that In the first place I may mention that - crossed out] I have[a long written list the word Dieri so ?? long that I do - crossed out][not take ?? ?? is, moreover it - crossed out] gives [what I - crossed out] the[name as - crossed out](1) You say "It is not forbidden to the Diari to kill or eattheir respective mardu. Yet it is [per - crossed out] not permittedin part in certain tribes on the Queensland Boundary". You then explainthe relation of pintara, the obligaton to take care that theflesh of the respect murdu be not wasted or the boneremain unburied +c.

Or these remarks refer to the Diari or the tribeson the Queensland boundary? If the latter will you kindlygive me the names of the tribes referred to.

(2) Please to give me [literally?] the translation of Palkinja Kamandingelbi - ngankana and of

I regret that Mr Siebert's address is not known as thereare two matters upon which I wished to consult him, -Will you kindly permit me to submit them to you asI [am- crossed out] wish to refer them in my book, which is nowgone to the printer.

(3) The Arunta according to Spencer + Gillenbelieve that a child is the reincarnation of one of theirancestors of the Alchurinya time. [No doubt - crossed out] Probably you haveread their work and know [??] referred to.

Can you tell me whether the Diari belief is [have the - crossed out]same belief. I do not mean merely the [Diari of the - crossed out][??] of the Diari now living but also of those of the last generation.

(4) Mr Gason told me that only certain of the Diariare made Kulpi & that to them all the important[?men?] of the tribe was entrusted. Can you inform mewhether (say, think year ago - to what time was ? ? sep?)that was the case. In the other tribe of the Lake Eyredistrict who practise subincision (Kulpi or delpo) every maleappears to be subject to that rite.

I regret to appear troublesome but the above questions are important for my book and that you willpardon my giving you much trouble.

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

XM311 Siebert to Howitt 27/Jul/1898

2

2

Die einfach __unterstrichenen Murdus den einze1nen Gegenden besonders eigen z.B. ngarandula ganz besonders im Siiden u. Siidosten vertreten. I. Allgemein Verbreitet: 1. Woma (Carpet Snake) 2. Karku (Red Ochre) 3. Warogati (Emu) 4. Padi (Grub?) 5. Kanalka (Crow) 6. Karanora (Eagle Hawk) 7. Malura (Cormorant) 8. Kuraura (Kai?) 9. Markara (Native Carp) 10. Kintala (Dog) II. 1m Siiden und Siidosten: Hergott Springs, Beltana, Lake Frome, Flinders Ranges etc. 11. Ngarandula (Laubfrosch) 12. Maika (a Tree) 13. Kapiri (Iguana) 14. Bukatu (Expedition red ochre) 15. Malbaru (Art Kranich -scharz mit weissen Flecken) 16. Willuru (Curlew) 17. Kani (Jew Lizard) 18. Jikawra (?) (Dasgur?) 19. T;ukuru (Kangaroo) 20. Tjinvilitja (Swallow mit rotem Schnabel) 21.Kapita (Native rabbit) 22. Pildra (Possum) III. 1m Westen und Nordwesten: Ost1. v. Lake Eyre, Finke, McDonald Ranges etc. 23. Mudlakupa (Bream) 24. Kirrhapara (Eel) 25. Kokula (Beutelratte) 26. Kanunga (Bush Wallaby)27. Kanangara (Seed ofMangura) 28. Kaladiri (Kr6te) 29. Tidnamara (Frog) [Pildra, Kani, Kapiri] IV. 1m Norden: Diamantina, Warburton, Kallakupa, etc. 30. Jana (Eine Zwiebelart -Knolle ErbsengroB) 31. Maiaru (Rat) 32. Wonduru (Big Snake) 33. Punta (Spitzmaus) 34. Pit jeri (Native Tobacco) 35. Kuntjiri (Seed ofan Acacia) [Kanangara V. 1m Nordosten u. Osten: All the Cooper and Thomson, Lake Gregory, L. Hope, Perigundi etc. etc. 36. Katatara (Shell parott) 37. Tokupirapira (Pan (?) Beetle) 38. Milkitjelpara (Pflanze so wie ich sehe zur Familie der Sternkr ..(?) Terandria geh6rig) 39. Puralku (Native Companion) 40. Mitindi (small thin snake) 41. Tabaira (Erdschwalbe) 42. Paljara (kleine Beutelratte) 43. Watari (Kangaroo-rat) 44. Waparu (Fledermaus Art, fliegende Maiaru) 45. Manpi (Owl) 46. Tjimbalunga (Austral. Rotkelchen) 47. Tjilbarku (Reiher) 48. Ngarumba (Box Wood) 49. Piramoku (Native Cat) 50. Wolanguru (Green Parott) 51. Nguraanpa (Grasart) 52. Judlanti (Native Fig) 52. [sic] Karabana (Art Maus)

58. Paru (Pilchard) 59. Ngaratji (Bandikoth) 60. Dapidapi (Holzwespe) Die letzten 3 wurden mir wohl als murdus bezeichnet, doch ist es mir leider noch nicht gelungen es genau zu ermitteln. N achtraglich erfuhr ich noch etliche Murdus zu III. (Finke) 61. Pirinti (groBe Eidechse, bis 3 FuB lang) 62. Marumaru (Wasserkafer?) 63. Mirka (Ameise)

Last edit 10 months ago by J Gibson

tip70-10-33-10 Howitt to Fison 5/9/1874

2

2

Mr Curr also asks if we have seen whatEyre, Grey +c have written about "Cobbaand Cobbitha". This has suggestedthat the works of all the Australian voyagers by land and sea should beexamined. But I dare say you have done so.

I now proceed to note some thingsin your letter1. I believe the natives have many convertibleterms as for instance (Brabrolung)myan=wife=rookut2. new words are often substitutedfor instance (Brabrolung) a man named"Yarn" (water) died - for some time afterhis friends called "water" "nobler"- for it is not proper or lawful to namethe dead. If he had been a great manthe word "yarn" would probably have died out.3. The most intelligent of the Brabrolung nativescannot explain such terms as "NgaribilQua-abun" - their meaning I am afraidhas been lost in the change of languageas for instance the term "Dan bun

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie
Records 1 – 30 of 31