Howitt and Fison Papers

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+ the Warajeri tribe was located

[crossed out - It was divided into four principal Hordes as follows] The local organization was as follows: (1) the [Naraudra?] - the prickly lizard (2) Kūtamŭndra - the river turtle(3) mŭing-būlla - Two bark canoes.

At each of these local divsions (Hordes) there was a Headman or "master" (Bidja-Bidja). -

As in other cases these Hordes were subdivided into numerous lesser groups each each with its own hunting grounds.

The Wirajuri tribe was adjoined in the west by the Eta-Eta tribe, commencing at Hay, on the north west of the[Ba-gun-Ge?] (Barkinji?). On the north by the Wong-i-bon tribe (1) on the north east by the Ngŭna-wal. In the south east by the Bura-bura-ba which adjoins the Eta-Eta tribe

[Left margin note] (1) For particulars see Mr [?] paper

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The Kamilaroi [crossed out - tribe] speaking tribes occupied a tract of New South Wales which may be defined as being nearly the whole of the Pastoral district of Liverpool Plains, north of the Gwydir River up to the Queensland boundary. [crossed out - and] On the Darling River, from Walgett to Bourke it is [Kamalaroi/Kamilaroi] & Wolleroi mixed. In the Castlereagh district it is Kamilaroi and [Warradjeri?] mixed.

But in all this great tract of country the organization, the customs & beliefs of the tribes is practically the same.

The subtribes occupied each its own taurai or food ground for instance (1) Singleton to Muswell Brook (2) Muswell Brook to Murrurundi (3) Murrurundi to [Queriundi?] [Quirindi](4) [Querindi] to Gunnedah (5) Gunnedah to Bogabri (6) Bogabri to Narrabri (7) Narrabri to Pilliga (5) Pilliga to Walgett and there was also a subtribe at [Barraba]].

Last edit 2 months ago by ALourie
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18D{Look up the tribes from Port Carpenter down to Adelaide}

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The Narrinyeri tribe lived around [crossed out - the great land?] [crossed out - great] Lake Alexandrina & Lake Albert which form the termination of the River Murray and which open into the Sea by the Murray mouth, the boundaries of their country [?] from Cape Jervis to Mannum and thence by by a line some distance back from the coast round to Lacipede Bay . At p. I have given the local organization of the tribe into 18 clans ([?]) each with a definite tract of country and [ford?] ground. I now [crossed out - purpose] speak of the totems which are attached to each local clan.

[Left margin note](1) Mr Taplin called these "tribes" - [?] order to bring this information [into?] live with this work [crossed out - I have [?] depend of them as clansof the Narrinyeri tribe.

[Table of 2 columns]

[Title] Narrinyeri clans and totems. (2)[Columns] Clan - Totems(1) Rasninyeri - Wirrŭlde [crossed out - or Tangeri] = Wattle gum(2) Janganarin - Manguritpuri = Pelican(3) Kōndalinyeri - Kandali = whale(4) Lungundaōrn - [Taidityeki ? or Taieltyeri?] = Tern(5) Turarorn - Turi = Coot(6) Pankinyeri - Kŭnguldi = butterfish(7) Kanmeraiorn - Kanmeri = Mullet (8) Kaikala binyeri - Ngulgarinyeri = Bullant, Pingai = Water weed(9) Mungulin yeri - Wanye = chocolate sheldrake(10) Rengulinyeri - Turi-it-pazni = Dark coloured dingo(11) Karatinyeri - Turi-it-parni = Light coloured dingo(12) Piltinyeri - maninki = leach, [Pomeri?] = catfish, Kēdkali = IguanaYalkinyeri - ditto - ditto - Tiyanwi = IguanaWŭloke - ditto - ditto - Warangŭmbi = Iguana(13) Korowali - Waiye = Whip snake(14) Pŭngūratpūla - Peldi = Musk duck(15) Welinyeri - Nakari = Black duck, Ngumundi = Black snake red belly(16) Lathin yeri or Kalabunyeri - Kŭngari = Black Swan, Ngaraki - seal, Kikinŭmi = Black snake grey belly(17) WŭnyaKŭlki - Nakari = Black duck(18) ngrangatari or Gŭrang wari - Waukaw[crossed out ayai]iyi [Waukawiyi] = Kangaroo rat

[Left margin note}(2) Native tribes of South Australia [J D Hood?] added c 1899The Nariū yeri p 2.(quote Taplin's original answer) ----also from communication by Taplins [?].

Last edit 17 days ago by Christine

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[table of words - three columns across page]

[English] - Wirai - Kamil Fire - win - wi water - Kullin - Kungan Sun - Yer-re - Billai Moon - gew-ung - 1 - wun-be - mal 2 - Bulla - Bullari 3 - Bulla-im-bai - Gulba 4 - Bulla-Bulla - Bullar Bullar 5 - Wunbajil-murra - 10 or many - gurai-bang -

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[3 columns, as per previous page, although only the middle column is labelled Wirai, although the words in it are English]

[] - Wirai - [] ngudji-murra - my hand - ngea-murra inno murra - [?thy or they?] hand - nida murra gulaban-murra - his hand - ngarrage-murra

Last edit almost 2 years ago by ALourie
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Leaūr-gūra-balluknow the mountainwhere Parkers stationwas. name Qūrojang[Have then language?]No wang there only Bunjil.At Daylesford all the Range when wambatare all gal-gal ['Kalk-kalk' crossed out] Bullūg- all wang.

Leaūrgura falling [?]speak ['3 language' crossed out] Woiworungout with a sharp [??][??] Jajoworong half[??]5.6.6.8. list [??](9) all the mothers and women

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the Bullawangs may betribal [crossed out 'fathers and uncles or older brothers'] uncles (Datak)But in following the Krauan& Bullawangs the old women& old men ask wheredid your grandfather(paternal come from) -

Thursday evening about sundown the Tūtanaring wereplaced on the groundthe Krauan behind them and Old Mary [?] represented all the mothers. Jonny Fidgett waited with the boys as master of the ceremonies. Old William & Dick walked about. The men all went away to chat[?]and after a time – William gave the signal to be ready.

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie
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They got over by coming in the big canoe attended by a boy in a small one who towed back the other and so [??] Jirŭng = bough – Huh!

[Chart of burbung locations] [Illustration of the sun] 6pm

(1) scene – Tedeling (1) (men) yeh! wah-yeh [?] offering [crossed out] (2) (women) ya! qua -yeh!

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(3) bulling [bullawang?] chorus[?] (4) yūī yui-nga! [margin note: long drum] raising up boys by Bullawang leave them on there. The men hold up sticks with bough at end - (5) then the same done with a bullawang on each - Each Bullawang faces his own country - (6) laying down boys He! (guttural) – Nye! Leaves sprinkled over them. Lie on face side by side arm crossed on breast. Cover all over with rags

Last edit over 1 year ago by KateM

XM259_ICDMS_lowres A. Meston to Howitt 23 April 1893

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will you come with me to "Brisbane"gneen nah bullaloo gnalleen yango "Maginchin" ?you + I will corrobboreegnaleen yowargo gnareeyooyou + I will go to Sydney tomorrow to fight the "Sydney" mengnalee yanggo "Chidney" byee mamayoo barroo toomboo"we killed a kangaroo with a spearGnalee deeng bowan toolimbo

"Coobenpil dialect - " Coonool - Cobalehoo" tribewhere are you going = wanyan inta yaranya ?when come back = wanchee bagga weereppee?we will go to another country = geeran boobieran yielba quatya !what are you laughing at? = minya inta gindahnya?I love you = ynatya guinoo cowan !He is my sweetheart = gnareeba milkirrie !

These 4 dialects, "Nhulla", "Coobenpil", "Gnoogee", + "Noonjee" areknown now only to myself & one other "white nyall" & they have sofar not been recorded. They will appear in my coming work onthe "Race of Murri". In the dialect spokenby the "Wooka"tribe (Lake Nash) there is a curious use of the terminal "ow"

man - gnawdabow yes - yooamorowgin - warrgrabow angry - girriedeeowboy - kimabow sleep - lahbilowgirl - conabow go away - bungarie yenow

+c +c +c

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

XM187_ICDMS_lowres Hagenauer to Howitt 15 February 1880

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never tied up but turned a little upwards andcovered with some arm cloth on fur skins. "Nothing else was done in the matter."

the question numbered 3 about the swinging bullat the operation of making boys or youths into menwas unknown among those blacks who are here,so that I could get no reliable information onthe subject.

With very kind regardsYours faithfullyF.A. Hagenauer

Last edit 11 months ago by ALourie

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reed groundWerribee - Kūrūng jang5 ballŭk(mob)

Mt Macedon - gūnŭng willŭm6 ballŭk

Kilmore neera - ballŭk7 neera = deep gully[Kilmore and Seymour bracketted together]Seymour - Būthera ballŭk8 Alexandra - yowŭng illungMansfield balluk 9Head of Muddy Creek - Warring-illum10 ballŭkBig swampBelow Benalla - [Yarrun - crossed out] Yeerŭm illŭm11 ballŭkCape Schank - Būn mūrŭng12 ballŭkcannot [??] them much good friends

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Wangaratta - Ballŭng Kara13 mittang[crossed out - ballŭk]būlla14. Wŭdthewrung ballŭkGeelong[1 from Geelong - to Geelong + Seymour - crossed out]1 to 14 - 3.8.11.12.4.8.7.10.5. from Bacchus Marsh Grey BallŭkThallin Willŭn-at Bullingerook6. from same as five7. from of Bacchus Marsh & fromDandenong8. from [Ngouranglŭng būllaat MurchisonNgouranglŭng būlla fromEchucha are called[Baingerang]

Last edit 4 months ago by ALourie

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(20) was Bilibileri the "maternal uncle" ofBerak - if not what relation.

[diagram of relationships]

Father[??]Bilibilberiwife - sister BunjilTurnbullSister[Jack Heathcilff??] - BebijernBerakWhat does Bilibileri mean

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(21) re stone QuarryWilliam says in one placethat Captain Turnbull looked after it and was [?] called Nūgūlabŭl - at and your place he says [?] the country where it was belonged to Bilibileri. His brother and the son of his sister were co-occupiers with [?] - Bebejeru (Beraks father) was also in the partnership. Bilibileri usually lived at the quarry - when he went away. his sisters son went to mind it. when neighbouring tribes wanted [?] they sent messengers to Billibileri [?]

[line across page]21AThe fatherof Bilibileri's "nephew" was next in authority to Capt. Turnbull. The east half of Mt [?] belonged to the [Uruuyeri?] - the west half belonged to the Kŭrnung willŭm who extended to Daylesford & Bullarook.

Were the Kŭrnŭng willum - [Woewoy?] or Ja ja woyang? - How could Captain Turnbull have a share in the Quarry?

See (12) (19)

Last edit 23 days ago by Christine

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Jiringal language - by Bega Charley.

man - Paiūlwoman - ngūligahead - KábarnHair - YárraEye - MábraNose - IgilTongue - Thállūnhand - Káuing-ainThumb - NgákūFoot - Djin-aSun - Naū-aMoon - Tháu-a-raFire - KáubiWater - NgókaMy - ngai-allūThey - IndigalHis - wūrtūone - mit-ing-ellitwo - būlla-kūrlathree - pállūm ūrfour - nūriafive - Karoin-galsix - Karoingal- mittangal

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie

hw0152 Jiringal language at Bega from Bega Charley

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Jiringal language at Bega - per Bega Charley

(j) Jiringal language at BegaBega Charley

Man- PaiūlWoman - ngūligaHead - KábanHair - yárraEye - málbranose - I'gilTongue - ThállūnHand - Káruing-ainThumb - NgákūFoot - Djin-aSun - Nau-aMoon - Thau-a-raFire - KaubiWater - NgokaMy - NgáialluThem - indigalHis - wurtuOne - mittungellitwo - bullakurlathree - pallum urfour - nuriafive - Karroingalsix - Karrinngal-mittingalseven

Last edit 3 months ago by ALourie

hw0404 Notes on Kurnai 150 pages

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The earth

The sky

Human Spirit GhostsWulim a man is the Būlla bong,When he dies [the - crossed out] a man is called Birrak-bang and the Būllabung goes away. He is met by Tharamūlŭn. There are Būllabong also about the bush which can kill game, make fires and make camps.

TharamūlŭnTharamūlŭn once lived on the earth when he taught the first Mŭrringwhat to do. He gave them their ceremonies(Kūrnigal = Būnan) he told them what ford might be eaten [and - crossed out]. When hedied and was put into the groundhis Būllabong went up aloft to theKūlŭmbi. Women know of his existence butonly speak of him as ["the man" - or as - crossed out]"father" (pabang). It is only when a young man has his tooth knocked out that the name of Tharamūlŭn is told to him. Tharamūlŭncan see people and is very angry when they do things they ought not to do. As when people eat food forbidden to them.

WizardsThe [old men - crossed out] Jera-mŭlŭng(Biraark) get their power and their Joeas from Tharamulun,and a Jeramŭlŭng can [tell his - crossed out] show his Joeas and teach another man.

Last edit 11 months ago by ALourie
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31Kurnai

Painting Fights dancesIn attending a "set-fight" (nŭnge-nŭnger) eg that of [Lamby] theaggrieved are painted with murtu all over then redfaces and bodies white the aggressors are paintedwith naial: Also when a party went out torevenge a death by killing some one the members werepainted with murtu. See the fight at [??]For corroborees both red and white paint is usedin marks on the face + body arbitrarily put onat the fancy of the wearer.

JeraeilAt the Jeraeil the youths were painted with[?Nuial?] on the face.The Mullamullung wore a white stripe acorssthe face.

BullawrengThe Bullawreng was painted round eacheye with murtu in resemblance to the Black DuckIt was after the Black Duck that the Bullawrengwas named having reference to its two eyes.Bulla - (mree) - wrengTwo eyes duck

The Black Duck and the Robin wereboth "Policemen" to look after the boys. Bothof them were Bullawreng - but this namewas not spoken before boys or [women - crossed out] girls

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie

hw0421 Notes by Howitt on the Wotjobaluk

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1The Wot- jo-ballŭk - tribeThis tribe inhabited a part of country lying between the Wimmera and Richardson Rivers.The tribal name is taken from Wotjo = man and ballŭk = people. It is also called Gūli bullaiak. (Guli = man).The boundaries are as follows : - starting from about a mile north of Dimboola on the eastern bank of the Wimmera River following that river to Lake Hindmarsh thence by the river to Lake Albacutya, thence by the river to its termination at the Pine Plains Lake.Thence eastward to Lake Coorong; thence by the Warracknabeal creek to Warracknabeal;thence west to the starting point.

The Wotjo ballŭk are divided into a number of local divisions of which the followingare the principal:

1. The Gromillŭk - Lake Hindmarsh2. The Yakkil - ballŭk - Lake Albacutya3. The Kreitch ballŭk - Dimboola4. The Weitch wŭndaiŭk - Warracknabeal5. The Yárik-killŭk - Lake CoorongA man of one of these places eg Gromillŭk would be called Gromillŭk or Gromillŭk Wotjo in describing himand so on with the others. The totem names which I shall now speak of are scattered all over the country in the different Local groups.

Note: the people who lived at Lake Hindmarsh were Kromillŭk - Dimboola and Horshamwere Jūraballŭk, Jŭngping were Yaram [balluk - crossed out] biŭk, at Longerong were Jó-in ballŭk, at Murtoa + Warranoke were Waitchwŭndaioke,and at Waracknabeal were Yarambiŭk, at Ledcourt [were - crosesd out] and Mŭkpilly were Wotojoballaiuk.Old Bob says that Johnny Connolly is of Ledcourt and is a Watagoli- one of the Wotjoballaiuk . That his mother was a black woman but that his father made him a halfcaste.

[written in left side margin]Wenjen = lie on itsMarong = pinetreeGitch = has beensee the legend of thepine tree that reached to the sky p.

The Doen bauraket (doen = planes) lived to the westThe Balŭk mernén (mernen = sandhills / [??] it"sand hill fellows"to the northwards: the [Wen-crossed out] Wengen marongitch to theEast and the Jūroballŭk to the south Jūro = plain

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie
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The word gūlewil=savage, angry, enraged: forgūlia= rage, anger; gūli woichŭp (woichŭp = belly)is also an equivalent. Donald explained that when a man is in a great rage he feels [a cur- crossed out] it at the gut - oftenstomach - hence the word. This word gūliwil is thus applied. Question Ngūa nge dēlk - gal?that one is good quiet dayAnswer gūliwilsavage

gūli-yan - I am enraged (or vexed)gūli-yarra thou art enragedguli-ya - he is enragedguli yangal - we (two) are enragedguli-yangngo - we (all) are enragedguli-yauwŭl - you (two) are enragedguli-yat-gálik - you (three) are enragedguli-yat-gálik-bagalik - you (four) are enragedguli-yau-wóijauwot - you (all) are enraged

gulia-būllan - those two are [vexed - crossed out] enragedgulia-gallik - those three are enragedgulia gallik ba gallik those four are enragedgulia - wūdji woitch - those (many) are vexed

walogék - Iwalogen - thouwalogūk - hewalogelŭk - we twowalogen da galŭk ba galuk we fourwalo būlla wórendŭk - we (all)

Last edit 8 months ago by ALourie

hw0437 W.T. Dawson and H.W. Pettit Gippsland place names and vocal

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3.Borrumunderung – Mossiface FlatDaruda-Yaruda, gerungun – creek near Swan Reach a drinking place for kangaroosBarrn or Bourne – Old hut near logBulli-Bulla-yaru – Morass SawmillWoo-cook – Hill on Tambo, Swan ReachWeng – Swan Reach houseBill-walk – Little Morass at Swan ReachNurkinerng – on the TamboBooy-yun – Swan ReachGran – Saltwater CreekMair-bor-bing – Corner Lakes at Swan ReachDoo-you-mun – Rock Lakes at Swan ReachBoologgun – Waterhole near Swan ReachCoong-na-duc – Low flat bank opposite Swan ReachNulluga-crow-under – Lagoon near old huts Swan ReachNeddungmon – Morass Swan ReachBilluel – Log across creek above Swan ReachBenggacaale-doruda – Small morass, Swan ReachBurrun – end Johnson’s fence in large paddockNoondee – just outside paddockToo-culla-doo-yun – creek running into Saltwater Creek.Yellon - corner in paddockCoongadooloot - near Sheep station Tambo BluffTourn-ye-ric - part of bank at Tambo BluffTed-gulk - part of bank at Tambo BluffBorrh - a large rock at Tambo BluffNalong - Head of Little RiverCampoba-mungee - Hill back of Day's farmWorungalla - Bindi Range, near Sheep Bridge on Tambo, 4m.from TongioBitwal - Tongio HillTinnara - Mt Bindi Range head of Junction CreekBeeber-beeber - High isolated hill much exposed to S. W. windsNummi-alga - Bald Hill CreekTarra - Lock up Cree, Tongio EastNaalong - Hill on left between Reedy Flat and NumblamungieMogoin - Gap CreekBurrak-book - part of Mount JohnstoneBone-Berrie/

Last edit about 2 months ago by ALourie

hw0391 Notes by Howitt on Kulin from Barak

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30The Songs

Turnbull was buried near Bacchus Marsh at Tŭllŭrwill, in the Kŭrŭng-jerŭng balluck, of the Werribigalluck R. Not his country not far off – His country was Gisborne and the hill near Gisborne - Bullanyaruck.Yarŭk killed him I think from Echuca. He died about the time the Brighton Railway was made and the Railway to Geelong. His mūrŭp came to his [brothe - crossed out] younger brother - Wenberri and sang this song in him when he slept:NgeTui gar ngal a ngibnba nallūgaLet us go there bone alldí u [gillan - crossed out] dirún-ding nga Dŭllŭr =Dullur willurtall shining white ([on that -crossed out] this?) (country)= willuit [wá-wein dŭn - crossed out]wa neindŭngthe rushing noise of[nŭng - crossed out] Bŭnjil main menngaláBunjil father of [we two - crossed out] oursyaw-a- būllūklevelyēnnin thŭllŭrmeik ngasinging in my chest thiswūrngállūk gueik [lugeik - crossed out]in my inside

This almost makes me cry. Wenberri used to sing this song.

[written at top of page]Insert at [??] about Capt Turnbull

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie
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39“I am glad to see you and I will give you all you want and make you satisfied, but you must behave quietlyand not hurt me nor one another”.If however people came up without giving notice there would be a greatrow and a fight. Sometimes men came by stealth to steal stone__________________________________________Billebillary's sister (Waang) was married to a man of the Kūrnŭngillŭm tribe; this man was Būnjil. He was next in Authority to Captain Turnbull. It was his son who helped Billibillary to take care of stone quarry. [Mt Macedon was in - crossed out] The East half of Mt Macedonbelonged to the Ūrŭnjeri; the West half belonged to the Kūrnŭng willŭm [tr- crossed out] tribe which extended up to near Daylesford – and as far as Būllanank. Mt Blackwood belonged to the Wirrarap “Malcolm” (see as to him elsewhere) who was of the Kri – ballŭk. The Ūrūnjeri got wives from the Kūrnŭng willŭm and the Kri – ballŭk – and gave them women in turn. ————Turnbull fatherTurnbull WBBili W ― sister W ― BiliSon B

[written in left side margin]wives from+ to

Winberi- (Waa Mart)Berak

Last edit about 1 month ago by ALourie
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7 64

Moon was very vexed at thisThe moon goes into ngamat and walks round by the sea like the sun. The new moon is supposed to have got full of water [sketch]

Did not think any thing about falling stars.

When they saw the Aurora they were alarmed lest the Tharan-galk (Heaven) should come down. ____________________________The Kūlin were very careful of old people and children.When a man became so old that he could not travel his son carried him from camp to camp – or his brothers or sisters sons or his brother in law wifes brother or his daughter's husband. Similarly an old woman was carried by her daughter, a brother or sister's daughter or her son's wife.

The Kūlin spoke of Būnjil as Mamingata = one father”. This William says was done before any white men in Victoria except Buckley who was with the Geelong blacks.

Mamingék = my fatherMaming - ngénne = thy [ditto]Maming–u-Káthūp = his [ditto] [Our fathe - crossed out]Manung ngáta = our father Maming ngŭlla = our father (dual number)Maming thŭnna = their father. Plural numbermamale ngūtta your father (plural number)mamena bribŭnda their father (dual number)Maminga – memena Bulla [būlŭnda - crossed out] = your father (dual number)

[written in left side margin]see noteextract re[??] Phillipat Port Philip Heads

Last edit 12 days ago by ALourie

hw0144 McRae to Howitt 24/07/1882

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Two - BreinboThree - Bullawakalfour - Breinbo BrienboFive - Breinbo Brienbo Wakalbotentwenty - no numbers above fivemany - Munda Berarkmine - Weburra bathine - Beinbahis - Nookwambamy hand - Burra ba muttra

As I have not received the pamphlet referred in your last I shall esteem it a favour if (having another one to spare)you will kindly forward me one.

I remain, Dear Sir,Yours very trulyDonald McRae.

A.W. Howitt EsqSaleVictoria

Rpd 01/7/82(1) what is meant by [?stal?](2) from where(3) for whom bought(4) is there a local restriction on marriage

I send another pamphletKinship circul - will send manuscript [??]Arrange return it.

Last edit 12 days ago by ALourie

hw0184 Howitt Notes on the Wiradjuri

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The Local Organization of the Wiraijerai tribe has threeprincipal divisions (if not more) these are:1. Narrandra (Prickly Lizard) - The place Narrandra2. Kūtamŭndra (Turtle) - [ditto] [ditto] Cootamundra3. Mŭr-ing bŭlla (Two Bark canoes) - [ditto] [ditto] Murraburraat each of these local divisions there is a Headman or "master" called Bidja-bidja.

Last edit 5 months ago by ALourie
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